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|Cultural origins||Late 1990s, 2000s; Europe, North America|
A mashup (also mesh, mash up, mash-up, blend, bootleg) is a creative work, usually in a form of a song, created by blending two or more pre-recorded songs, usually by overlaying the vocal track of one song seamlessly over the instrumental track of another. To the extent that such works are "transformative" of original content, in the United States they may find protection from copyright claims under the "fair use" doctrine of copyright law.
In United States copyright law, transformation is a possible justification that use of a copyrighted work may qualify as fair use, i.e., that a certain use of a work does not infringe its holder's copyright due to the public interest in the usage. Transformation is an important issue in deciding whether a use meets the first factor of the fair-use test, and is generally critical for determining whether a use is in fact fair, although no one factor is dispositive.
Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder. Fair use is one of the limitations to copyright intended to balance the interests of copyright holders with the public interest in the wider distribution and use of creative works by allowing as a defense to copyright infringement claims certain limited uses that might otherwise be considered infringement.
The 1990 John Zorn album Naked City features a version of Ornette Coleman's "Lonely Woman" set over the bassline of Roy Orbison's "Pretty Woman". [ example's importance? ]
John Zorn is an American composer, arranger, record producer, saxophonist, and multi-instrumentalist with hundreds of album credits as performer, composer, and producer across a variety of genres including jazz, rock, hardcore, classical, surf, metal, soundtrack, ambient, and improvised music. He incorporates diverse styles in his compositions, which he identifies as avant-garde or experimental. Zorn was described by Down Beat as "one of our most important composers".
Naked City is an album by John Zorn, originally released on Nonesuch Records in 1990. The band which would become known under the same name included Zorn on alto saxophone with Bill Frisell on guitar, Wayne Horvitz on keyboards, Fred Frith on bass and Joey Baron on drums, and was established in 1988 as a "compositional workshop" to test the limitations of a rock band format.
Randolph Denard Ornette Coleman was an American jazz saxophonist, violinist, trumpeter, and composer. In the 1960s, he was one of the founders of free jazz, a term he invented for his album Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation. His "Broadway Blues" and "Lonely Woman" have become standards and are cited as important early works in free jazz. His album Sound Grammar received the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for music.
In 1994, the experimental band Evolution Control Committee released the first modern mashup tracks on their hand-made cassette album, Gunderphonic. These "Whipped Cream Mixes" combined a pair of Public Enemy a cappellas with instrumentals by Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass. First released on home-made cassettes in early 1992, it was later pressed on 7" vinyl, and distributed by Eerie Materials in the mid-1990s. The tracks gained some degree of notoriety on college radio stations in the United States. [ third-party source needed ]
Public Enemy is an American hip hop group consisting of Chuck D, Keith Shocklee, Flavor Flav, Professor Griff, and DJ Lord. Formed in Long Island, New York, in 1986, they are known for their politically charged music and criticism of the American media, with an active interest in the frustrations and concerns of the African American community.
HerbAlpert is an American jazz musician most associated with the group variously known as Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass, Herb Alpert's Tijuana Brass, or TJB. Alpert is also a recording industry executive, the "A" of A&M Records, a recording label he and business partner Jerry Moss founded and eventually sold to PolyGram. Alpert also has created abstract expressionist paintings and sculpture over two decades, which are publicly displayed on occasion. Alpert and his wife, Lani Hall, are substantial philanthropists through the operation of the Herb Alpert Foundation.
Eerie Materials was an independent record label started in the early 1990s, first based in Richmond, Virginia and later in San Francisco, California.
The name Pop Will Eat Itself was taken from an NME feature on the band Jamie Wednesday, written by David Quantick, which proposed the theory that because popular music simply recycles good ideas continuously, the perfect pop song could be written by combining the best of those ideas into one track. Hence, Pop Will Eat Itself. [ example's importance? ]
Pop Will Eat Itself are an English alternative rock band formed in Stourbridge in 1986 with members from Birmingham, Coventry and the Black Country. Initially known as a grebo act, they changed style to incorporate sample-driven indie and industrial rock. Their highest-charting single was the 1993 top-ten hit "Get The Girl! Kill The Baddies!". After initially disbanding in 1996, and having a brief reformation in 2005, they issued their first release in more than five years in 2010.
New Musical Express (NME) is a British music journalism website and former magazine that has been published since 1952. It was the first British paper to include a singles chart, in the edition of 14 November 1952. In the 1970s it became the best-selling British music newspaper. During the period 1972 to 1976, it was particularly associated with gonzo journalism, then became closely associated with punk rock through the writings of Julie Burchill, Paul Morley and Tony Parsons. It started as a music newspaper, and gradually moved toward a magazine format during the 1980s and 1990s, changing from newsprint in 1998.
Jamie Wednesday were a British 1980s jangle pop band, formed in Streatham, South London in 1984, that released eight songs on two records between 1985 and 1986. Previously they had been called The Ballpoints, and then they became Peter Pan's Playground, later deciding on the name Jamie Wednesday.
The mashup movement gained momentum again in 2001 with the release of the 2 Many DJs album As Heard on Radio Soulwax Pt. 2 by Soulwax's Dewaele brothers, which combined 45 different tracks; the same year a remix of Christina Aguilera's "Genie in a Bottle" was also released by Freelance Hellraiser, which coupled the pop star with the raucous guitars of "Hard To Explain" by New York's The Strokes in an infectious concoction entitled "A Stroke of Genie-us".
As Heard on Radio Soulwax Pt. 2 is the first album to be released by Soulwax members David and Stephen Dewaele also known as 2ManyDJs. It consists of 45 remixed tracks by a series of diverse artists including Dolly Parton, Basement Jaxx and 10cc. While some of the tracks are conventional remixes, most tracks are mashup collages with the vocals of one song placed over the instrumental part of another. The sampled material was extensively cleared for commercial release; as a result, only 114 elements appear out of the 187 recordings that 2ManyDJs initially wished to use. The artwork of the album was also altered following lawsuit threats from the photographer of the original images.
Soulwax are a Belgian band from Ghent, centred around brothers David Dewaele and Stephen Dewaele. Other current members include Igor Cavalera and Stefaan Van Leuven. They were first noticed after the release of their album Much Against Everyone's Advice, but after that, the Dewaeles started focusing on their other projects, such as 2manydjs. Their album As Heard on Radio Soulwax Pt. 2 was named the best popular music album of 2002 by The New York Times. The brothers have also hosted a show on Belgian television, Alter8.
Christina María Aguilera is an American singer, songwriter, actress and television personality. Her work has earned her five Grammy Awards, one Latin Grammy Award, and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. She has sold more than 75 million records worldwide, making her one of the world's best-selling music artists. In 2009, she ranked at number 58 on Rolling Stone's list of 100 Greatest Singers of All Time. Billboard recognized her as the 20th most successful artist of the 2000s, and in 2013, Time included Aguilera on their annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world.
Launched in San Francisco in 2003, Bootie was the first club night in the United States dedicated solely to the burgeoning art form of the bootleg mashup, and now[ when? ] hosts monthly parties in several cities around the globe, including Los Angeles, Paris, Boston, Munich, and New York City. The party's slogan, "Music for the A.D.D. Generation" also inspired the creation of "A.D.D", Israel's first mash-up dedicated party. The Best of Bootie mashup compilation series is compiled and produced each year by A Plus D, creators of the international mashup club Bootie. The compilations have been released in December every year since 2005, and are annual Internet sensations, with each album garnering over 5000GB+ of downloads.
Bootie is the first club night in the United States dedicated solely to mashups and bootlegs, and is now the biggest all-mashup party in the world, with regular parties in several cities. The original party began at the Cherry Bar in San Francisco in August 2003, and moved to DNA Lounge in March 2006, where it now occurs every Saturday, and is simulcast into the virtual venue The Level in Second Life. For over a year, it was the only club of its kind in America, and its creators, DJs Adrian & the Mysterious D, along with former resident DJ Party Ben, were instrumental in helping to popularize mashup culture on the West Coast. The club has showcased mashup DJs from around the world, including DJ Earworm, DJ Lobsterdust, DJs from Mars, ShyBoy, Go Home Productions, Evolution Control Committee, and dj BC, as well as featuring a live house band, Smash-Up Derby, known as "the world's first mashup rock band."
This section gives self-sourcing popular culture examples without describing their significance in the context of the article. (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Albums by Neil Cicierega
De La Soul is an American hip hop trio formed in 1987 in the Amityville area of Long Island, New York. They are best known for their eclectic sampling, quirky lyrics, and their contributions to the evolution of the jazz rap and alternative hip hop subgenres. The members are Posdnuos, Trugoy and Maseo. The three formed the group in high school and caught the attention of producer Prince Paul with a demo tape of the song "Plug Tunin'". With its playful wordplay, innovative sampling, and witty skits, the band's debut album, 3 Feet High and Rising, has been called "a hip hop masterpiece."
Brian Joseph Burton, better known by his stage name Danger Mouse, is an American musician, songwriter and record producer. He came to prominence in 2004 when he released The Grey Album, which combined vocal performances from Jay-Z's The Black Album with instrumentals from The Beatles' The Beatles .
Gerald Eaton is a Canadian R&B singer-songwriter and music producer, also known by his stage name Jarvis Church.
Rob Davis is an English guitarist and songwriter. He was the guitarist of the 1970s glam rock band Mud, who achieved the biggest selling Number One record of 1974 in the United Kingdom, with their song "Tiger Feet". After the band's eventual demise in 1977, Davis worked with several other groups, including The Tremeloes and Darts, but his efforts met with little commercial return.
Fragma are a German trance music group, originally comprising three producers. The group was successful in the early 2000s when they released several singles that charted successfully across Europe, especially the United Kingdom and Ireland, but also found some success in the United States and Australia. They continued to produce music until 2012 following the departure of vocalist Damae. After several years of hiatus, Fragma recruited a new vocalist in 2017, Tess, to front the group. She now does gigs in clubs around the world performing re-recorded remixes of Fragma's biggest hits.
American Edit is a mashup album released by Party Ben and Team9 under the shared alias Dean Gray. Its primary basis is the Green Day album American Idiot — the name "Dean Gray" is a spoonerism of "Green Day."
Bob Cronin, better known by the stage name dj BC, is an American disc jockey and Mashup record producer.
The Kleptones are a one-man English electronic music group fronted by music producer and DJ Eric Kleptone. They are best known for their Internet-exclusive mashup albums. Typically, Eric Kleptone mixes rock/R&B instrumentals with rap and hip-hop vocals in a style that is "fun... and often surprising". Both his name and the group's name are parodies of the famous guitarist, Eric Clapton, and a play on the fact that he is a "klepto of tones".
"Toca's Miracle" is a remix by the German musical group Fragma, featuring vocals from British singer Coco Star. Taken as the second single off the studio album Toca, the song is a mashup of Star's "I Need a Miracle" (1996) and Fragma's own "Toca Me". The instrumental was written by Dirk Duderstadt, Marco Duderstadt, Ramon Zenker and the lyrics were written by Rob Davis and Victor Imbres, while some of the song's production was by Zenker, the vocals were produced many years earlier by Imbres and Tim Orford.
Emandu Rashaan Wilcox, better known as Imani, is an American rapper of Ethiopian descent from California. He was one of the four founding members of the hip hop group The Pharcyde. He is currently working with the remaining member Bootie Brown on new projects on their indie label Chapter One.
Jaydiohead is the mashup project of the music of Jay-Z and Radiohead that was mixed and produced by New York producer Minty Fresh Beats. Tannone premiered the album Jaydiohead on his Myspace page on December 30, 2008, which was officially released to download January 1, 2009. The first album was followed up by the July 12, 2009 release of Jaydiohead: The Encore, which featured five new mixes. The album Jaydiohead has been called an internet sensation.
Daniela Marina Elisabeth Klein, known by her stage name Damae, is a German TV presenter and singer-songwriter who debuted as a vocalist on the Fragma track "You Are Alive". At the age of 14, Damae was discovered by a photographer from the teen magazine Bravo in Germany and began modeling. Soon after, she started receiving offers from music and film producers which she declined, preferring to sing and write in a punk band, and to do freelance and studio gigs. She later met Ramon Zenker, who she admired from Hardfloor. He invited her to his studio to see if they could work together. Damae describes the musical chemistry between them as "amazing" and Damae soon found herself with a record deal as the singer for Fragma. Following the success of Fragma, Damae became the presenter for Dance:District on onyx.tv in Germany and got to interview Paul Van Dyk, Tiësto, WestBam, Jean Jacques Smoothie, Junior Jack, Boogie Pimps, Milk & Sugar, Mousse T. and many more.
Susan Brice, better known by her stage name Coco Star, is an English singer-songwriter. She is currently signed to Universal Music and EMI. Coco Star has collaborated with artists such as Craig David, Artful Dodger and Fragma for the number 1 hit, "Toca's Miracle".
"Got to Get You into My Life" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, first released in 1966 on their album Revolver. It was written by Paul McCartney, though officially credited to Lennon–McCartney. The song is an homage to the Motown Sound, with colourful brass instrumentation, and lyrics that suggest a psychedelic experience. "It's actually an ode to pot," McCartney explained. A cover version by Cliff Bennett and the Rebel Rousers peaked at number six in 1966 in the UK. The song was issued in the United States as a single from the Rock 'n' Roll Music compilation album in 1976, six years after the Beatles disbanded. It reached number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, the Beatles' last top ten US hit until their 1995 release "Free as a Bird".
De La Soulviet is a mashup album produced and mixed by Miami-based producer and sound engineer TenDJiz. It uses acapellas of hip-hop trio De La Soul and couples it with instrumentals created from Soviet soul and jazz samples. The album was released on October 1, 2011.
TenDJiz is a Russian-born, Miami-based producer and sound engineer, best known for his albums CommoNasm, De La Soulviet and Q-Tipokratiya, that were created by blending acapellas of Common and Nas, De La Soul, Q-Tip with instrumentals composed from Soviet Jazz samples.
CommoNasm is a mashup album produced and mixed by Miami-based producer and sound engineer TenDJiz. It was created by blending the acapellas of Common and Nas with instrumentals composed from Soviet soul and jazz samples. The album was released on July 10, 2012.