Mashup (music)

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A mashup (also mesh, mash up, mash-up, blend, or bootleg [1] ) is a creative work, usually in a form of a song, created by blending two or more pre-recorded songs, usually by superimposing the vocal track of one song seamlessly over the instrumental track of another, increasing the tempo and pitch while adding or reducing gaps to make it flow. [2] To the extent that such works are "transformative" of original content, in the United States they may find protection from copyright claims under the "fair use" doctrine of copyright law. [3]



The 1990 John Zorn album Naked City features a version of Ornette Coleman's "Lonely Woman" set over the bassline of Roy Orbison's "Pretty Woman". [4] [ example's importance? ]

In 1994, the experimental band Evolution Control Committee released the first modern mashup tracks on their hand-made cassette album, Gunderphonic. These "Whipped Cream Mixes" combined a pair of Public Enemy a cappellas with instrumentals by Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass. First released on home-made cassettes in early 1992, it was later pressed on 7" vinyl, and distributed by Eerie Materials in the mid-1990s. The tracks gained some degree of notoriety on college radio stations in the United States. [5] [ third-party source needed ]

The name Pop Will Eat Itself was taken from an NME feature on the band Jamie Wednesday, written by David Quantick, which proposed the theory that because popular music simply recycles good ideas continuously, the perfect pop song could be written by combining the best of those ideas into one track. Hence, Pop Will Eat Itself. [6] [ example's importance? ]

The mashup movement gained momentum again in 2001 with the release of the 2 Many DJs album As Heard on Radio Soulwax Pt. 2 by Soulwax's Dewaele brothers, which combined 45 different tracks; the same year a remix of Christina Aguilera's "Genie in a Bottle" was also released by Freelance Hellraiser, which coupled Aguilera's vocals with the guitar track of "Hard To Explain" by New York's the Strokes, in a piece called "A Stroke of Genie-us". [7]

Launched in San Francisco in 2003, Bootie was the first club night in the United States dedicated solely to the burgeoning art form of the bootleg mashup, and now[ when? ] hosts monthly parties in several cities around the globe, including Los Angeles, Paris, Boston, Munich, and New York City. The party's slogan, "Music for the A.D.D. Generation" also inspired the creation of "A.D.D", Israel's first mash-up dedicated party. [8] The Best of Bootie mashup compilation series is compiled and produced each year by A Plus D, creators of the international mashup club Bootie. The compilations have been released in December every year since 2005, and are annual Internet sensations, with each album garnering over 5000GB+ of downloads. [9]

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Related Research Articles

The Evolution Control Committee

The Evolution Control Committee is an experimental music band based in Columbus, Ohio. The ECC was founded by Mark Gunderson in Columbus, in 1986. They create music that falls within the borders of the sound collage genre, as it typically uses uncleared and illegal samples from various sources as a form of protest against copyright law. The ECC also produces numerous audio experiments, such as the disfiguring of compact discs in live performance, known as "CDestruction", and has produced a few video works as well, ranging from re-edited 50's corporate shorts to Teddy Ruxpin reciting the works of William S. Burroughs. Other activities include culture jamming.

Roy Kerr, aka the Freelance Hellraiser, is one of the creators of the UK bootleg (mashup) scene.

<i>Christina Aguilera</i> (album) 1999 studio album by Christina Aguilera

Christina Aguilera is the self-titled debut studio album by American singer Christina Aguilera. It was released on August 24, 1999, by RCA Records. After recording "Reflection", the theme song for Mulan, RCA laid the foundation for the album immediately and started presenting Aguilera with tracks for her debut album, which they later decided would have a January 1999 release. Its music incorporates dance-pop and teen pop genres, with a few songs featuring strong elements from soul and R&B. Contributions to the album's production came from a wide range of producers, including David Frank, Ron Fair, Guy Roche, Robin Thicke, Diane Warren, Matthew Wilder, and Aaron Zigman.

"Boulevard of Broken Songs" is a popular mash-up mixed by American DJ and producer Party Ben in late 2004. The mix consists of elements from American pop punk band Green Day's "Boulevard of Broken Dreams", English Britpop band Oasis's "Wonderwall", Scottish soft rock band Travis's "Writing to Reach You", and American rapper Eminem's "Sing for the Moment", which itself samples American hard rock band Aerosmith's "Dream On". "Sing for the Moment" was used solely because Party Ben did not have "Dream On" on hand and was on deadline for his Sixx Mixx radio show. Later versions used Aerosmith's original.

Richard Philips, better known by his stage name Richard X, is a British songwriter and music producer. Gaining attention as a pioneer of the bootleg craze, Richard X has earned success as a producer and remixer. He has helmed hit singles for artists including Annie, Kelis, Liberty X, Rachel Stevens and Sugababes. According to an early issue of the now defunct Popworld magazine, Philips' alias comes from a postcard which was sealed with a kiss misinterpreted for the letter X.

Soulwax Belgian electronic music band

Soulwax are a Belgian band from Ghent, centred around brothers David and Stephen Dewaele. Other current members include Igor Cavalera and Stefaan Van Leuven. They were first noticed after the release of their album Much Against Everyone's Advice, but after that, the Dewaeles started focusing on their other projects, such as 2manydjs. Their album As Heard on Radio Soulwax Pt. 2 was named the best popular music album of 2002 by The New York Times. The brothers have also hosted a show on Belgian television, Alter8.

Genie in a Bottle 1999 single by Christina Aguilera

"Genie in a Bottle" is a song recorded by American singer Christina Aguilera from her self-titled debut album released in 1999. It was written by Pam Sheyne, Steve Kipner and David Frank, and produced by Kipner and Frank. The song was released on June 22, 1999, by RCA Records as the album's lead single. It is a teen pop and dance-pop song which incorporates elements from R&B. Lyrically, "Genie in a Bottle" uses sexual references to talk about the theme of self-respect.

What a Girl Wants (Christina Aguilera song) 1999 single by Christina Aguilera

"What a Girl Wants" is a song by American singer Christina Aguilera, taken from her eponymous debut album in 1999. The song was originally written and recorded by French singer Ophélie Winter in 1998 for her album Privacy, released a year before Aguilera's. Though a songwriter along with Peiken and Roche, Winter was never credited as such for this single. A re-recorded version was released on November 28, 1999 by RCA Records as the album's second single, following the commercial success of the album's lead single "Genie in a Bottle". The song was written by Shelly Peiken and Guy Roche. The song was completed and pitched to RCA executive Ron Fair as "What a Girl Needs" and was renamed "What a Girl Wants"; Fair later gave the track to Aguilera. A Spanish version of the song, titled "Una Mujer," was included on Aguilera's second studio album Mi Reflejo (2000).

Cassetteboy English electronic music and comedy duo

Cassetteboy are an English electronic music and comedy duo. The pair have achieved success with their cut-ups of celebrities such as Alan Sugar and David Cameron to make parodies of their subjects. Several of the duo's videos have gone viral, with up to 6 million views on YouTube. Despite their success, Cassetteboy made no money from their videos due to their questionable legal status, until a revision of UK copyright law in 2014.

<i>American Edit</i> 2005 remix album by Dean Gray

American Edit is a mashup album released by Party Ben and Team9 under the shared alias Dean Gray. Its primary basis is the Green Day album American Idiot — the name "Dean Gray" is a spoonerism of "Green Day."

Bob Cronin, better known by the stage name dj BC, is an American disc jockey and Mashup record producer.

<i>As Heard on Radio Soulwax Pt. 2</i> 2003 compilation album by 2ManyDJs

As Heard on Radio Soulwax Pt. 2 is the first album to be released by Soulwax members David and Stephen Dewaele also known as 2ManyDJs. It consists of 45 remixed tracks by a series of diverse artists including Dolly Parton, Basement Jaxx and 10cc. While some of the tracks are conventional remixes, most tracks are mashup collages with the vocals of one song placed over the instrumental part of another. The sampled material was extensively cleared for commercial release; as a result, only 114 elements appear out of the 187 recordings that 2ManyDJs initially wished to use. The artwork of the album was also altered following lawsuit threats from the photographer of the original images.

Ben Gill, better known as Party Ben, is a DJ in San Francisco. He spent many years working at radio station Live 105 and producer of mashup music.

Bootie is the first club night in the United States dedicated solely to mashups and bootlegs, and is now the biggest all-mashup party in the world, with regular parties in several cities. The original party began at the Cherry Bar in San Francisco in August 2003, and moved to DNA Lounge in March 2006, where it now occurs every Saturday, and is simulcast into the virtual venue The Level in Second Life. For over a year, it was the only club of its kind in America, and its creators, DJs Adrian & the Mysterious D, along with former resident DJ Party Ben, were instrumental in helping to popularize mashup culture on the West Coast. The club has showcased mashup DJs from around the world, including DJ Earworm, DJ Lobsterdust, DJs from Mars, ShyBoy, Go Home Productions, Evolution Control Committee, and dj BC, as well as featuring a live house band, Smash-Up Derby, known as "the world's first mashup rock band."

"Shut 'Em Down" is the fourth single from Public Enemy's fourth studio album Apocalypse 91...The Enemy Strikes Black.

DJs Adrian & the Mysterious D – a.k.a. A Plus D – were widely recognized as the DJ duo who helped bring mashup and bootleg culture to America. Based in San Francisco, the duo founded the Bootie in 2003, the first mashup bootleg party in the United States. In 2005, they started a sister Bootie club in Los Angeles, and in 2007, launched Bootie parties in New York City and Paris, and in 2008, Munich and Boston. Bootie Mashup parties and one-offs in other cities followed.

DJ Earworm American DJ

Jordan Roseman, known professionally as DJ Earworm, is an American mashup artist from San Francisco, California. who has achieved recognition for his technically sophisticated, songwriting oriented music and video mashups. His annual “United State of Pop” mashup features the top 25 songs of the year according to Billboard's Year-End Hot 100 chart in one mix.

<i>Jaydiohead</i> 2009 remix album by Minty Fresh Beats

Jaydiohead is the mashup project of the music of Jay-Z and Radiohead that was mixed and produced by New York producer Minty Fresh Beats. Tannone premiered the album Jaydiohead on his Myspace page on December 30, 2008, which was officially released to download January 1, 2009. The first album was followed up by the July 12, 2009 release of Jaydiohead: The Encore, which featured five new mixes. The album Jaydiohead has been called an internet sensation.

Mashup (culture) rearranging spliced parts of musical pieces

Participants in an online music scene who rearrange spliced parts of musical pieces form mashup culture. The audio-files are normally in MP3 format and spliced with audio-editing software online. The new, edited song is called mashup. The expression mashup culture is also strongly connected to mashup in music. Even though it was not originally a political community, the production of mash-up music is related to the issue of copyright. Mashup Culture is even regarded as "a response to larger technological, institutional, and social contexts".

<i>Mouth Moods</i> 2017 mixtape by Neil Cicierega

Mouth Moods is the third mashup album by American musician and comedian Neil Cicierega released in 2017. Like his previous mashup albums Mouth Sounds and Mouth Silence, its source material is primarily Top 40 hits from the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Samples from Smash Mouth's "All Star" return, after being absent outside of Easter eggs in Mouth Silence. A fourth installment to the Mouth series, Mouth Dreams, was released in 2020.


  1. Rojas, Pete (1 August 2002). "Bootleg culture". Salon. Archived from the original on 17 June 2006.
  2. Geoghegan, Michael and Klass, Dan (2005). Podcast Solutions: The Complete Guide to Podcasting, p.45. ISBN   1-59059-554-8.
  3. "Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Online Video". Center for Social Media, American University. Archived from the original on 2 June 2010.
  4. Dancing in Your Head. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  5. [ dead link ]
  6. "Who the hell is Clint Mansell?". Archived from the original on 10 October 2004. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  7. Jam, Billy (23 May 2007). "Music For Generation ADD: Mashups quietly mature into a thriving subculture". New York Press . Archived from the original on 25 July 2008.
  8. "Mashup best-of 2006 album". Boing Boing. Retrieved 18 December 2014.

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