Pastiche

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A pastiche combining elements of two paintings (original 1 and original 2), using Photoshop Pastiche.jpg
A pastiche combining elements of two paintings (original 1 and original 2), using Photoshop

A pastiche is a work of visual art, literature, theatre, or music that imitates the style or character of the work of one or more other artists. [1] Unlike parody, pastiche celebrates, rather than mocks, the work it imitates. [2]

Contents

The word pastiche is a French cognate of the Italian noun pasticcio , which is a pâté or pie-filling mixed from diverse ingredients. [1] [3] Metaphorically, pastiche and pasticcio describe works that are either composed by several authors, or that incorporate stylistic elements of other artists' work. Pastiche is an example of eclecticism in art.

Allusion is not pastiche. A literary allusion may refer to another work, but it does not reiterate it. Moreover, allusion requires the audience to share in the author's cultural knowledge. [4] Both allusion and pastiche are mechanisms of intertextuality.

By art

Literature

In literature usage, the term denotes a literary technique employing a generally light-hearted tongue-in-cheek imitation of another's style; although jocular, it is usually respectful. The word implies a lack of originality or coherence, an imitative jumble, but with the advent of postmodernism pastiche has become positively constructed as deliberate, witty homage or playful imitation. [5]

For example, many stories featuring Sherlock Holmes, originally penned by Arthur Conan Doyle, have been written as pastiches since the author's time. [6] [7] Ellery Queen and Nero Wolfe are other popular subjects of mystery parodies and pastiches. [8] [9]

A similar example of pastiche is the posthumous continuations of the Robert E. Howard stories, written by other writers without Howard's authorization. This includes the Conan the Barbarian stories of L. Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter. David Lodge's novel The British Museum Is Falling Down (1965) is a pastiche of works by Joyce, Kafka, and Virginia Woolf. In 1991 Alexandra Ripley wrote the novel Scarlett , a pastiche of Gone with the Wind , in an unsuccessful attempt to have it recognized as a canonical sequel.

In 2017, John Banville published Mrs. Osmond, a sequel to Henry James's The Portrait of a Lady , written in a style similar to that of James. [10] In 2018, Ben Schott published Jeeves and the King of Clubs, an homage to P. G. Wodehouse's character Jeeves, with the blessing of the Wodehouse estate. [11]

Music

Charles Rosen has characterized Mozart's various works in imitation of Baroque style as pastiche, and Edvard Grieg's Holberg Suite was written as a conscious homage to the music of an earlier age. Some of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's works, such as his Variations on a Rococo Theme and Serenade for Strings, employ a poised "classical" form reminiscent of 18th-century composers such as Mozart (the composer whose work was his favorite). [12] Perhaps one of the best examples of pastiche in modern music is that of George Rochberg, who used the technique in his String Quartet No. 3 of 1972 and Music for the Magic Theater. Rochberg turned to pastiche from serialism after the death of his son in 1963.

"Bohemian Rhapsody" by Queen is unusual as it is a pastiche in both senses of the word, as there are many distinct styles imitated in the song, all "hodge-podged" together to create one piece of music. [13] A similar earlier example is "Happiness is a Warm Gun" by The Beatles. One can find musical "pastiches" throughout the work of the American composer Frank Zappa.

A pastiche Mass is a musical Mass where the constituent movements come from different Mass settings. Most often this convention has been chosen for concert performances, particularly by early-music ensembles. Masses are composed of movements: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei; for example, the Missa Solemnis by Beethoven and the Messe de Nostre Dame by Guillaume de Machaut. In a pastiche Mass, the performers may choose a Kyrie from one composer, and a Gloria from another; or choose a Kyrie from one setting of an individual composer, and a Gloria from another.

Musical theatre

In musical theatre, pastiche is often an indispensable tool for evoking the sounds of a particular era for which a show is set. For the 1971 musical Follies , a show about a reunion of performers from a musical revue set between the World Wars, Stephen Sondheim wrote over a dozen songs in the style of Broadway songwriters of the 1920s and 1930s. Sondheim imitates not only the music of composers such as Cole Porter, Irving Berlin, Jerome Kern, and George Gershwin but also the lyrics of writers such as Ira Gershwin, Dorothy Fields, Otto Harbach, and Oscar Hammerstein II. For example, Sondheim notes that the torch song "Losing My Mind" sung in the show contains "near-stenciled rhythms and harmonies" from the Gershwins' "The Man I Love" and lyrics written in the style of Dorothy Fields. [14] Examples of musical pastiche also appear in other Sondheim shows including Gypsy, Saturday Night, Assassins, and Anyone Can Whistle . [15]

Film

Pastiche can also be a cinematic device whereby filmmakers pay homage to another filmmaker's style and use of cinematography, including camera angles, lighting, and mise en scène. A film's writer may also offer a pastiche based on the works of other writers (this is especially evident in historical films and documentaries but can be found in non-fiction drama, comedy and horror films as well). Italian director Sergio Leone`s Once Upon a Time in the West is a pastiche of earlier American Westerns. Another major filmmaker, Quentin Tarantino, often uses various plots, characteristics and themes from many lesser-known films to create his films, among them from the films of Sergio Leone, in effect creating a pastiche of a pastiche. Tarantino has openly stated that "I steal from every single movie ever made." [16] Director Todd Haynes' 2002 film Far From Heaven was a conscious attempt to replicate a typical Douglas Sirk melodrama - in particular All That Heaven Allows . The film works as a mostly reverential and unironic tribute to Sirk's filmmaking, lovingly re-creating the stylized mise-en-scene, colors, costumes, cinematography and lighting of Sirkian melodrama.[ citation needed ]

In cinema, the influence of George Lucas' Star Wars films (spawning their own pastiches, such as the 1983 3D film Metalstorm: The Destruction of Jared-Syn ) can be regarded as a function of postmodernity. [17] [18]

Architecture

The Palace of Westminster was built in a pastiche Perpendicular Gothic Revival style in the Victorian period Parliament at Sunset.JPG
The Palace of Westminster was built in a pastiche Perpendicular Gothic Revival style in the Victorian period

In discussions of urban planning, the term "pastiche" may describe developments as imitations of the building styles created by major architects: with the implication that the derivative work is unoriginal and of little merit, and the term is generally attributed without reference to its urban context. Many 20th century European developments can in this way be described as pastiches, such as the work of Ebenezer Howard and Edwin Lutyens who created early 20th century neo-Georgian developments in Britain, or of later pastiche works based on the architecture of the modernist Le Corbusier and the Bauhaus movement. The term itself is not pejorative; [19] however, Alain de Botton describes pastiche as "an unconvincing reproduction of the styles of the past". [20]

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Follies</i> musical

Follies is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and a book by James Goldman.

George Gershwin American composer and pianist

George Gershwin was an American composer and pianist whose compositions spanned both popular and classical genres. Among his best-known works are the orchestral compositions Rhapsody in Blue (1924) and An American in Paris (1928), the songs Swanee (1919) and Fascinating Rhythm (1924), the jazz standard I Got Rhythm (1930), and the opera Porgy and Bess (1935) which spawned the hit Summertime.

Musical theatre Stage work that combines songs, music, spoken dialogue, acting, and dance

Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, pathos, love, anger – are communicated through words, music, movement and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue, movement and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have generally been called, simply, musicals.

Postmodern music is music in the art music tradition produced in the postmodern era. It also describes any music that follows aesthetical and philosophical trends of postmodernism. As an aesthetic movement it was formed partly in reaction to modernism but is not primarily defined as oppositional to modernist music. Postmodernists question the tight definitions and categories of academic disciplines, which they regard simply as the remnants of modernity.

Stephen Sondheim American composer and lyricist

Stephen Joshua Sondheim is an American composer and lyricist known for his work in musical theater.

Homage is a show or demonstration of respect or dedication to someone or something, sometimes by simple declaration but often by some more oblique reference, artistic or poetic. The term is often used in the arts for where one author or artist shows respect to another by allusion or imitation; this is often pronounced like the French hommage.

George Rochberg was an American composer of contemporary classical music. Long a serial composer, Rochberg abandoned the practice following the death of his teenage son in 1964; he claimed this compositional technique had proved inadequate to express his grief and had found it empty of expressive intent. By the 1970s, Rochberg's use of tonal passages in his music had invoked controversy among critics and fellow composers. A teacher at the University of Pennsylvania until 1983, Rochberg also served as chairman of its music department until 1968 and was named the first Annenberg Professor of the Humanities in 1978. For notable students See: List of music students by teacher: R to S#George Rochberg.

Postmodern literature is a form of literature that is characterized by the use of metafiction, unreliable narration, self-reflexivity, intertextuality, and which often thematizes both historical and political issues. This style of experimental literature emerged strongly in the United States in the 1960s through the writings of authors such as Kurt Vonnegut, Thomas Pynchon, and John Barth. Postmodernists often challenge authorities, which has been seen as a symptomatic of the fact that this style of literature first emerged in the context of political tendencies in the 1960s. This inspiration is, among other things, seen through how postmodern literature is highly self-reflexive about the political issues it speaks to.

A revue is a type of multi-act popular theatrical entertainment that combines music, dance, and sketches. The revue has its roots in 19th century popular entertainment and melodrama but grew into a substantial cultural presence of its own during its golden years from 1916 to 1932. Though most famous for their visual spectacle, revues frequently satirized contemporary figures, news or literature. Similar to the related subforms of operetta and musical theatre, the revue art form brings together music, dance and sketches to create a compelling show. In contrast to these, however, revue does not have an overarching storyline. Rather, a general theme serves as the motto for a loosely-related series of acts that alternate between solo performances and dance ensembles.

Parody music, or musical parody, involves changing or copying existing musical ideas, and/or lyrics, or copying the particular style of a composer or performer, or even a general style of music. Although the intention of a musical parody may be humour, it is the re-use of music that is the original defining feature.

Show tune Genre

A show tune is a song originally written as part of the score of a work of musical theatre, especially if the piece in question has become a standard, more or less detached in most people's minds from the original context.

In music, a pasticcio or pastiche is an opera or other musical work composed of works by different composers who may or may not have been working together, or an adaptation or localization of an existing work that is loose, unauthorized, or inauthentic.

Postmodernist film is a classification for works that articulate the themes and ideas of postmodernism through the medium of cinema. Postmodernist film attempts to subvert the mainstream conventions of narrative structure and characterization, and tests the audience's suspension of disbelief. Typically, such films also break down the cultural divide between high and low art and often upend typical portrayals of gender, race, class, genre, and time with the goal of creating something that does not abide by traditional narrative expression.

Leonard B. Meyer was a composer, author, and philosopher. He contributed major works in the fields of aesthetic theory in music, and compositional analysis.

A concept musical is a work of musical theatre whose book and score are structured around conveying a theme or message, rather than emphasizing a narrative plot.

For the Desperate Housewives episode, see Finishing the Hat.Finishing the Hat: Collected Lyrics (1954–1981) with Attendant Comments, Principles, Heresies, Grudges, Whines and Anecdotes is a memoir by American musical theatre composer and lyricist Stephen Sondheim. It was published on October 29, 2010 by Alfred A. Knopf, and is 444 pages. The second volume Look, I Made a Hat: Collected Lyrics (1981-2011) with Attendant Comments, Amplifications, Dogmas, Harangues, Wafflings, Diversions and Anecdotes was published on November 22, 2011 by Alfred A. Knopf and is 480 pages. These two volumes were sold together in late 2011 as a box set titled Hat Box, The Collected Lyrics of Stephen Sondheim. Together, these books include the collected lyrics from Sondheim's entire musical theater, film, and television careers, as well as details about the process of making these works and Sondheim's opinion and critique of his own work.

Parody Imitative work created to mock, comment on or trivialise an original work

A parody ; also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on (something), caricature, or joke, is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it, "parody ... is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice". Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, music, animation, gaming, and film.

<i>Six by Sondheim</i> 2013 documentary film directed by James Lapine

Six by Sondheim is an HBO television documentary which pays tribute to Broadway composer and lyricist Stephen Sondheim. The film was directed and co-produced by James Lapine, based on an idea by Frank Rich and "centers on the backstory of six great Sondheim songs."

"I'm Still Here" is a song written by Stephen Sondheim for the 1971 musical Follies.

Manhattan is the original motion picture soundtrack to Woody Allen's 1979 film Manhattan with music by George Gershwin. It was performed by the New York Philharmonic under Zubin Mehta and the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra under Michael Tilson Thomas. The soundtrack works supremely well with the film and is equally effective without the film. It was nominated for Best Soundtrack in the 33rd British Academy Film Awards.

References

  1. 1 2 Roland Greene; Stephen Cushman; Clare Cavanagh; Jahan Ramazani; Paul F. Rouzer; Harris Feinsod; David Marno; Alexandra Slessarev, eds. (2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. p. 1005. ISBN   0-691-15491-0.
  2. Hoestery, Ingeborg (2001). Pastiche: Cultural Memory in Art, Film, Literature. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 1. ISBN   978-0-253-33880-8. OCLC   44812124 . Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  3. Harper, Douglas. "pastiche". Online Etymology Dictionary . Retrieved 2013-08-02.
  4. Abrams, Meyer Howard; Harpham, Geoffrey (2009). A Glossary of Literary Terms. ISBN   1-4130-3390-3.
  5. Bowen, C. (2012). Pastiche. Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. p. 1005. ISBN   978-1-4008-4142-4.
  6. Lopresti, Rob (2009-08-12). "Pastiche Nuts". Tune It Or Die!. Criminal Brief. Retrieved 2010-01-10.
  7. Lundin, Leigh (2007-07-15). "When Good Characters Go Bad". ADD Detective. Criminal Brief. Retrieved 2010-01-10.
  8. Andrews, Dale (2008-10-28). "The Pastiche". Mystery Masterclass. Criminal Brief. Retrieved 2010-01-10.
  9. Ritchie, James; Tog; Gleason, Bill; Lopresti, Rob; Andrews, Dale; Baker, Jeff (2009-12-29). "Pastiche vs. fan fiction. Dividing line?". The Mystery Place. New York: Ellery Queen, Alfred Hitchcock, Dell Magazines. Retrieved 2010-01-10.
  10. Elliott, Helen (22 February 2018). "Mrs Osmond review: John Banville takes on Isabel Archer after Portrait of a Lady". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  11. Garcia-Navarro, Lulu. "Jeeves And Wooster, But Make It A Modern Spy Novel: An Interview with Ben Schott". NPR. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
    • Brown, David, "Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich." In The New Grove Encyclopedia of Music and Musicians (London: MacMillan, 1980), 20 vols., ed. Sadie, Stanley. ISBN   0-333-23111-2. 18:628
  12. Baker, Roy Thomas (October 1995). "AN INVITATION TO THE OPERA". Sound on Sound. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  13. Stephen Sondheim, "Follies" Finishing the Hat (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010), p. 235.
  14. Stephen Sondheim, "Follies", Finishing the Hat (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010), p.200.
  15. Debruge, Peter (7 October 2013). "Quentin Tarantino: The Great Recycler".
  16. (Jameson, 1991)
  17. (Sandoval, Chela. Methodology of the Oppressed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000)
  18. Jamses Stevens Curl, "Oxford Dictionary of Architecture", 2006, p562.
  19. "Alain de Botton: The Perfect Home". Channel 4 . Archived from the original on 2016-02-07. Retrieved 2015-11-11.

Further reading