Band (rock and pop)

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The Beatles were a four-piece rock band from Liverpool in England. They are pictured here in 1965, celebrating their Grammy win. Beatles ad 1965 just the beatles crop.jpg
The Beatles were a four-piece rock band from Liverpool in England. They are pictured here in 1965, celebrating their Grammy win.

A rock band or pop band is a small musical ensemble that performs rock music, pop music, or a related genre. A four-piece band is the most common configuration in rock and pop music. In the early years, the configuration was typically two guitarists (a lead guitarist and a rhythm guitarist, with one of them singing lead vocals), a bassist, and a drummer (e.g. the Beatles, KISS, and Metallica). Another common formation is a vocalist who does not play an instrument, electric guitarist, bass guitarist, and a drummer (e.g. the Who, the Monkees, Led Zeppelin, Queen, and U2). Instrumentally, these bands can be considered as trios. Sometimes, in addition to electric guitars, electric bass, and drums, also a keyboardist (especially a pianist) plays.

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Etymology

The usage of band as "group of musicians" originated from 1660 to describe musicians attached to a regiment of the army and playing instruments which may be used while marching. [1] This word also used in 1931 to describe "one man band" for people who plays several musical instruments simultaneously. [1]

Two members

The Black Keys are a two-part band consisting of drummer and a vocalist/guitarist lineup. Blackkeys022011.jpg
The Black Keys are a two-part band consisting of drummer and a vocalist/guitarist lineup.

Two-member rock and pop bands (such as The White Stripes, Tenacious D, The Black Keys and Twenty One Pilots) are relatively rare, because of the difficulty in providing all of the musical elements which are part of the rock or pop sound (vocals, chordal accompaniment, bass lines, and percussion or drumming). Two-member rock and pop bands typically omit one of these musical elements. In many cases, two-member bands omit a drummer, since guitars, bass guitars, and keyboards can all be used to provide a rhythmic pulse.

Other examples of two-member bands are MGMT, WZRD, Pet Shop Boys, Hella, Flight of the Conchords, the Ting Tings, Hall & Oates, They Might Be Giants (from 1982 to 1992) and T. Rex (until shortly after scoring their UK breakthrough hit, at which point they expanded to a four-piece and more).

When electronic sequencers became widely available in the 1980s, they made adding in musical elements easier for two-member bands to perform. Sequencers allowed bands to program some elements of their performance, such as an electronic drum part and a synth bass line. Two-member pop music bands such as Soft Cell, Blancmange, and Yazoo used programmed sequencers. Other pop bands from the 1980s, who were ostensibly fronted by two performers, such as Wham!, Eurythmics, and Tears for Fears, were not actually two-piece ensembles, because other instrumental musicians were used "behind the scenes" to fill out the sound. Modern bands that use this format include Ninja Sex Party and Death Grips.

Two-piece bands in rock music are quite rare. However, starting in the 2000s, blues-influenced rock bands such as the White Stripes and the Black Keys used a guitar-and-drums scheme. Death from Above 1979 featured a drummer and bass guitarist. Tenacious D is a two-guitar band; One Day as a Lion and the Dresden Dolls both feature a keyboardist and a drummer. Ratatat comprises a two-guitar band that uses a drum machine for beats. W.A.S.P. guitarist Doug Blair is also known for his work in the two-piece progressive rock band Signal2Noise, where he acts as the lead guitarist and bassist at the same time, due to a special custom instrument he invented (an electric guitar with five regular guitar strings paired with three bass guitar strings). Heisenflei of Los Angeles duo the Pity Party plays drums, keyboards, and sings simultaneously. Royal Blood is a two-piece band that uses bass and drums along with electronic effects.

Three members

The Jimi Hendrix Experience, a power trio, performing for Dutch television in 1967: From left to right: singer-guitarist Jimi Hendrix, bassist Noel Redding, and drummer Mitch Mitchell Jimi Hendrix Experience in Fenklup.png
The Jimi Hendrix Experience, a power trio, performing for Dutch television in 1967: From left to right: singer-guitarist Jimi Hendrix, bassist Noel Redding, and drummer Mitch Mitchell

The smallest ensemble commonly used in rock music is the trio format. In a hard-rock or blues-rock band, or heavy-metal rock group, a "power trio" format is often used, which consists of an electric guitar player, an electric bass guitar player, and a drummer, and typically one or more of these musicians also sing (sometimes all three members sing, e.g. the Bee Gees or Alkaline Trio). Some well-known power trios with the guitarist on lead vocals are the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble, Nirvana, and Muse.

Green Day, a power trio, at 2009 MTV Video Music Awards: From left to right: Bassist Mike Dirnt, singer/guitarist Billie Joe Armstrong, and drummer Tre Cool Green Day at 2009 MTV VMA's.jpg
Green Day, a power trio, at 2009 MTV Video Music Awards: From left to right: Bassist Mike Dirnt, singer/guitarist Billie Joe Armstrong, and drummer Tré Cool

A handful of others with the bassist on vocals include Thin Lizzy (from 1970 to 1974), Primus, Rush, Motörhead, the Police, and Cream.

Some power trios feature two lead vocalists. For example, in the band Blink-182, vocals are split between bassist Mark Hoppus and guitarist Matt Skiba, or in the band Dinosaur Jr., guitarist J. Mascis is the primary songwriter and vocalist, but bassist Lou Barlow writes some songs and sings, as well.

An alternative to the power trio is an organ trios formed with an electric guitarist, a drummer, and a keyboardist. Although organ trios are most commonly associated with 1950s and 1960s jazz organ trio groups such as those led by organist Jimmy Smith, organ trios also exist in rock-oriented styles, such as jazz-rock fusion and Grateful Dead–influenced jam bands, for instance Medeski Martin & Wood. In organ trios, the keyboard player typically plays a Hammond organ or similar instrument, which permits the keyboard player to perform bass lines, chords, and lead lines. A variant of the organ trio is a trio formed with an electric bassist, a drummer, and an electronic keyboardist (playing synthesizers) such as the progressive rock band Emerson, Lake & Palmer.

A power trio with the guitarist on lead vocals is a popular record-company lineup, as the guitarist and singer usually are songwriters. Therefore, the label only has to present one "face" to the public. The backing band may or may not be featured in publicity. If the backup band is not marketed as an integral part of the group, then the record company has more flexibility to replace band members or use substitute musicians. This lineup often leads to songs that are fairly simple and accessible, as the frontman (or frontwoman) has to sing and play guitar at the same time.

Four members

Red Hot Chili Peppers is a four-part band with a lead vocalist, guitarist, bassist, and drummer lineup. Rhcp-live-pinkpop05.jpg
Red Hot Chili Peppers is a four-part band with a lead vocalist, guitarist, bassist, and drummer lineup.

The four-piece band is the most common configuration in rock and pop music. Before the development of the electronic keyboard, the configuration was typically two guitarists, a bassist, and a drummer (e.g. the Beatles, KISS, Metallica, Rise Against, the Clash, and the Smashing Pumpkins).

Another common formation is a vocalist, electric guitarist, bass guitarist, and a drummer (e.g. Van Halen, the Who, Queen, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Led Zeppelin, and Blur). Instrumentally, these bands can be considered as trios.

In some bands, the guitarist could also be an occasional keyboardist, like The Smiths, The Who, and Joy Division. And some bands might have a keyboardist instead of a guitarist, like Bastille and Future Islands In some rock bands, bassists could be occasional keyboardists like Led Zeppelin and R.E.M.. keyboardists are used in place of bass, performing with a guitarist, singer, and drummer, for instance the Doors. Some bands have a guitarist, bassist, drummer, and keyboard player, for example the Talking Heads, the Small Faces, and Pink Floyd.

Some bands have the bassist on lead vocals, such as Thin Lizzy (a four-piece from 1974 onwards), Pink Floyd, Motörhead (as a four-piece 1984-1995), or even the lead guitarist, such as Dire Straits, Megadeth, Weezer, and Creedence Clearwater Revival. Some bands, such as the Beatles, have a lead guitarist, a rhythm guitarist, and a bassist that all sing lead and backing vocals, that also play keyboards regularly, as well as a drummer. Others, such as the Four Seasons, have a lead vocalist, a lead guitarist, a keyboard player, and a bassist, with the drummer not being a member of the band.

Five members

The Strokes are a five-part band with a lead vocalist, two guitarists, bassist, and drummer lineup. TheStrokes.jpg
The Strokes are a five-part band with a lead vocalist, two guitarists, bassist, and drummer lineup.

Five-piece bands have existed in rock music since the development of the genre.The Beach Boys, Aerosmith, AC/DC, and Oasis are examples of the common lineup of vocalist, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, bass, and drums. An alternative lineup replaces the rhythm guitarist with a keyboard–synthesizer player (examples being the bands Yes, Dream Theater, Marilyn Manson, and Deep Purple). Another alternative replaces the rhythm guitarist with a turntablist, such as in the Deftones, Incubus, or Limp Bizkit.

Further alternatives include a keyboardist, guitarist, drummer, bassist, and saxophonist, such as the Sonics, the Dave Clark 5, and Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs. Three guitarists may be present with a bassist and a drummer, such as in the bands Radiohead, Pearl Jam, and the Byrds. Some five-person bands feature two guitarists, a keyboardist, a bassist, and a drummer, with one or more of these musicians (typically one of the guitarists) handling lead vocals on top of their instrument (examples being Children of Bodom and Styx). The four-piece arrangement can be augmented to five with a second drummer playing a separate full drumkit, such as Adam and The Ants from 1980 onwards, although other formations can also be expanded using two drummers such as Pink Fairies 1970–1971, The Glitter Band, Wizzard, Sigue Sigue Sputnik, Add N to (X), and Rialto.

Other times, the vocalist brings another musical "voice" to the table, most commonly a harmonica or percussion; Mick Jagger, for example, plays harmonica and percussion instruments such as maracas and tambourine in the Rolling Stones. Ozzy Osbourne played the harmonica on some occasions with Black Sabbath. Flutes may also be used by vocalists, most notably Ian Anderson of Jethro Tull and Ray Thomas of the Moody Blues.

Larger rock ensembles

Iron Maiden is a six-part band with a lead vocalist, three guitarists, a bassist, and drummer lineup. (Not shown in this image are Bruce Dickinson and Nicko McBrain.) Iron Maiden in performance.jpg
Iron Maiden is a six-part band with a lead vocalist, three guitarists, a bassist, and drummer lineup. (Not shown in this image are Bruce Dickinson and Nicko McBrain.)

Larger bands have long been a part of rock and pop music, in part due to the influence of the "singer accompanied with orchestra" model inherited from popular big-band jazz and swing and popularized by Frank Sinatra and Ella Fitzgerald. To create larger ensembles, rock bands often add an additional guitarist, an additional keyboardist, additional percussionists or second drummer, an entire horn section, and even a flautist. An example of a six-member rock band is Toto with a lead vocalist, guitarist, bassist, two keyboard players, and drummer. Other examples include Australian band INXS and American Blondie; both consist of a lead vocalist, two guitarists, a keyboard player, a bassist, and a drummer. The American heavy-metal band Slipknot is composed of nine members, with a vocalist, two guitarists, a drummer, a bassist, two custom percussionists, a turntablist, and a sampler. Brazilian band Titãs, currently a three-man band, had as many as eight members in the late 1980s, with three lead singers, two guitarists, bassist, keyboard player, and drummer.

In larger groups (such as the Band), instrumentalists could play multiple instruments, which enabled the ensemble to create a wider variety of instrument combinations. More modern examples of such a band are Arcade Fire and the Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros. More rarely, rock or pop groups are accompanied in concerts by a full or partial symphony orchestra, where lush string-orchestra arrangements are used to flesh out the sound of slow ballads. Rhys Chatham and Glenn Branca started doing performances in the late 1970s with orchestras consisting of 10 to 100 (Branca) and even 400 guitars. [2] Some groups have a large number of members who all play the same instrument, such as guitar, keyboard, horns, or strings.

Role of women

Suzi Quatro is a singer, bassist, and bandleader. When she launched her career in 1973, she was one of the few prominent women instrumentalists and bandleaders. Suzi Quatro plays a bass guitar while she sings at AIS Arena.jpg
Suzi Quatro is a singer, bassist, and bandleader. When she launched her career in 1973, she was one of the few prominent women instrumentalists and bandleaders.

Women have a high prominence in many popular music styles as singers. However, professional women instrumentalists are uncommon in popular music, especially in rock genres such as heavy metal. "[P]laying in a band is largely a male homosocial activity, that is, learning to play in a band is largely a peer-based... experience, shaped by existing sex-segregated friendship networks. [3] As well, rock music "...is often defined as a form of male rebellion vis-à-vis female bedroom culture." [4] In popular music, a gendered "distinction between public (male) and private (female) participation" in music has existed. [4] "[S]everal scholars have argued that men exclude women from bands or from the bands' rehearsals, recordings, performances, and other social activities." [5] "Women are mainly regarded as passive and private consumers of allegedly slick, prefabricated – hence, inferior – pop music..., excluding them from participating as high-status rock musicians." [5] One of the reasons that mixed-gender bands rarely exist is that "bands operate as tight-knit units in which homosocial solidarity – social bonds between people of the same sex... – plays a crucial role." [5] In the 1960s, pop music scene, "[s]inging was sometimes an acceptable pastime for a girl, but playing an instrument...simply wasn't done." [6]

"The rebellion of rock music was largely a male rebellion; the women—often, in the 1950s and '60s, girls in their teens—in rock usually sang songs as personæ utterly dependent on their macho boyfriends...". Philip Auslander says that "Although there were many women in rock by the late 1960s, most performed only as singers, a traditionally feminine position in popular music". Though some women played instruments in American all-female garage rock bands, none of these bands achieved more than regional success. So they "did not provide viable templates for women's on-going participation in rock". [7] :2–3 In relation to the gender composition of heavy-metal bands, it has been said that "[h]eavy metal performers are almost exclusively male" [8] "...[a]t least until the mid-1980s" [9] apart from "...exceptions such as Girlschool." [8] However, "...now [in the 2010s] maybe more than ever–strong metal women have put up their dukes and got down to it", [10] "carv[ing] out a considerable place for [them]selves." [11] When Suzi Quatro emerged in 1973, "no other prominent female musician worked in rock simultaneously as a singer, instrumentalist, songwriter, and bandleader". [7] :2 According to Auslander, she was "kicking down the male door in rock and roll and proving that a female musician ... and this is a point I am extremely concerned about ... could play as well if not better than the boys". [7] :3

Variable line-ups

Many bands maintain different but consistent lineups for studio recording vs. live performances. Toxic Holocaust, for instance, consisted entirely of a single member within the recording studio for the first 10 years of their existence but still toured as a band with supplementary members on stage. For decades Genesis maintained two consistent lineups: Tony Banks, Mike Rutherford and Phil Collins in the studio with Chester Thompson and Daryl Stuermer always additionally appearing as band members in live performances.

See also

Related Research Articles

Musical ensemble Group of people who perform instrumental and/or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name

A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name. Some music ensembles consist solely of instruments, such as the jazz quartet or the orchestra. Other music ensembles consist solely of singers, such as choirs and doo wop groups. In both popular music and classical music, there are ensembles in which both instrumentalists and singers perform, such as the rock band or the Baroque chamber group for basso continuo and one or more singers. In classical music, trios or quartets either blend the sounds of musical instrument families or group together instruments from the same instrument family, such as string ensembles or wind ensembles. Some ensembles blend the sounds of a variety of instrument families, such as the orchestra, which uses a string section, brass instruments, woodwinds and percussion instruments, or the concert band, which uses brass, woodwinds and percussion.

Power trio rock band format having a lineup of electric guitar, bass, and drums

A power trio is a rock and roll band format having a lineup of electric guitar, bass guitar and drum kit, leaving out the second rhythm guitar or keyboard instrument that are used in other rock music bands that are quartets and quintets. Larger rock bands use one or more additional rhythm section to fill out the sound with chords and harmony parts.

Ancient (band)

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Accompaniment Musical parts which provide the rhythmic and/or harmonic support for the melody or main themes of a song or instrumental piece

Accompaniment is the musical part which provides the rhythmic and/or harmonic support for the melody or main themes of a song or instrumental piece. There are many different styles and types of accompaniment in different genres and styles of music. In homophonic music, the main accompaniment approach used in popular music, a clear vocal melody is supported by subordinate chords. In popular music and traditional music, the accompaniment parts typically provide the "beat" for the music and outline the chord progression of the song or instrumental piece.

James Gang American rock band

The James Gang was an American rock band formed in Cleveland, Ohio in 1966. The band went through a variety of line-up changes until they recorded their first album as a power trio consisting of Joe Walsh, Tom Kriss (bass) and Jim Fox (drums). Dale Peters replaced Kriss on bass for the band's second and third albums. The band had two hit songs, "Funk #49" and "Walk Away", which continue to be popular on classic rock and AOR stations. In 1972, Walsh left to pursue a solo career and would later join the Eagles. The band continued on with a variety of other guitarists and lead singers to replace Walsh, but failed to produce a hit song over the course of six more studio albums and broke up in 1977. Various incarnations have reformed for several reunions since then.

A sextet is a formation containing exactly six members. The former term is commonly associated with vocal ensembles or musical instrument groups, but can be applied to any situation where six similar or related objects are considered a single unit.

Rhythm section

A rhythm section is a group of musicians within a music ensemble or band that provides the underlying rhythm, harmony and pulse of the accompaniment, providing a rhythmic and harmonic reference and "beat" for the rest of the band. The rhythm section is often contrasted with the roles of other musicians in the band, such as the lead guitarist or lead vocals whose primary job is to carry the melody.

Krokus (band) Swiss hard rock/heavy metal band

Krokus is a hard rock/heavy metal band from Switzerland. They enjoyed success in North America during the 1980s.

Lu Edmonds British musician

Robert David "Lu" Edmonds is an English rock and folk musician. He is currently, as of 2018, a vocalist and saz and cümbüş player in the Mekons and the lead guitarist for Public Image Limited. Edmonds reportedly plays electric guitar, bass guitar, keyboards, bouzouki, saz, cümbüs, oud, and drums, among other instruments.

The Babys British rock group

The Babys are a British rock group best known for their songs "Isn't It Time" and "Every Time I Think of You". Both songs were composed by Jack Conrad and Ray Kennedy, and each reached No. 13 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 and No. 8 on the Cashbox chart in the late 1970s. The original Babys line-up consisted of founding member keyboardist/guitarist Michael Corby, and, in order of joining the group, vocalist/bassist John Waite, drummer Tony Brock, and guitarist Wally Stocker.

Rough Cutt

Rough Cutt is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California, United States, who released two studio albums on Warner Bros. Records in the mid-1980s. Rough Cutt never achieved the commercial success enjoyed by many other Los Angeles bands of that time but various members went on to success in other groups, including Jake E. Lee with Ozzy Osbourne, Amir Derakh with Orgy, Paul Shortino with Quiet Riot, and Craig Goldy and Claude Schnell with Dio.

Ark is a Bangladeshi rock band formed in 1991 in Dhaka City by keyboardist Ashiquzzaman Tulu. The original founder members are Ashiquzzaman Tulu, Ridwan nabi Ponchom and Shamim. As of 2017, the band line-up re-consists of lead vocalist Syed Hasanur Rahman guitarist Shourin, bassist Shimul, keyboardist Tinku Azizur Rahman and drummer Rumi Rahman. Since their debut album "মুক্তিযুদ্ধ (Muktijuddho)" in 1991, the band has released five studio albums and some contributed albums. These have included songs like "আমি পাহাড়ের চূরায় ", "ভুলে গেছি ", "সুইটি (Sweety)", "যারে যা ", "দূরে বহু দূরে ", "সেই মেয়েটি " which have all been top hits in Bangladeshi rock music.

Kingfisher Sky

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Jeffrey "Jeff" Kollman is an American guitar player from Toledo, Ohio, best known for his work with Chad Smith's Bombastic Meatbats, Glenn Hughes, UFO offshoot Mogg/Way, progressive rock trio, Cosmosquad, and his 90s progressive metal band, Edwin Dare.

Heavy metal bass

Heavy metal bass is the use of the bass guitar in the rock music genres of heavy metal and hard rock. The bassist is part of the rhythm section in a heavy metal band, along with the drummer, rhythm guitarist and, in some bands, a keyboard player. The prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, and the interplay of bass and distorted electric guitar is a central element of metal. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy". The bass plays a "... more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock."

Heavy metal guitar

Heavy metal guitar is the use of highly-amplified electric guitar in heavy metal. Heavy metal guitar playing is rooted in the guitar playing styles developed in 1960s-era blues rock and psychedelic rock,and folk harmonic traditions and it uses a massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos and overall loudness. The electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has historically been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of high volumes and heavy distortion.

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Offstage musicians and singers in popular music

Offstage musicians and singers are performers who play instruments and/or sing backstage, out of sight of the audience, during a live popular music concert at which the main band is visible playing and singing onstage. The sound from the offstage musicians or singers is captured by a microphone or from the output of their instrument, and this signal is mixed in with the singing and playing of the onstage performers using an audio console and a sound reinforcement system. Offstage backup singers are also used in some Broadway musicals, as have offstage instrumentalists, in cases where an onstage actor needs to appear to play an instrument.

References

  1. 1 2 "band | Origin and meaning of band by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  2. Chatham
  3. Julian Schaap and Pauwke Berkers. "Grunting Alone? Online Gender Inequality in Extreme Metal Music" in Journal of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music. Vol.4, no.1 (2014) p. 101-102
  4. 1 2 Julian Schaap and Pauwke Berkers. "Grunting Alone? Online Gender Inequality in Extreme Metal Music" in Journal of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music. Vol.4, no.1 (2014) p. 102
  5. 1 2 3 Julian Schaap and Pauwke Berkers. "Grunting Alone? Online Gender Inequality in Extreme Metal Music" in Journal of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music. Vol.4, no.1 (2014) p. 104
  6. White, Erika (28 January 2015). "Music History Primer: 3 Pioneering Female Songwriters of the '60s | REBEAT Magazine". Rebeatmag.com. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  7. 1 2 3 Auslander, Philip (28 January 2004). "I Wanna Be Your Man: Suzi Quatro's musical androgyny" (PDF). Popular Music. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. 23 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1017/S0261143004000030. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  8. 1 2 Brake, Mike (1990). "Heavy Metal Culture, Masculinity and Iconography". In Frith, Simon; Goodwin, Andrew (eds.). On Record: Rock, Pop and the Written Word. Routledge. pp. 87–91.
  9. Walser, Robert (1993). Running with the Devil:Power, Gender and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Wesleyan University Press. p. 76.
  10. Eddy, Chuck (1 July 2011). "Women of Metal". Spin. SpinMedia Group.
  11. Kelly, Kim (17 January 2013). "Queens of noise: heavy metal encourages heavy-hitting women". The Telegraph.