Music of Mozambique

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The native folk music of Mozambique has been highly influenced by Portuguese forms. The most popular style of modern dance music is marrabenta. Mozambican music also influenced another Lusophone music in Brazil, like maxixe (its name derived from Maxixe in Mozambique), and Cuban music like Mozambique.

Folk music Music of the people

Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century, but folk music extends beyond that.

Mozambique country in Africa

Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique, is a country located in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Eswatini (Swaziland) and South Africa to the southwest. The sovereign state is separated from the Comoros, Mayotte and Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east. The capital of Mozambique is Maputo while Matola is the largest city, being a suburb of Maputo.

Dance music music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing

Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing. It can be either a whole musical piece or part of a larger musical arrangement. In terms of performance, the major categories are live dance music and recorded dance music. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. In the classical music era, the minuet was frequently used as a third movement, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing. The waltz also arose later in the classical era. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which also saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle, mazurka, ecossaise, ballade and polonaise.

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Culture was an integral part of the struggle for independence, which began in 1964. Leaders of the independence movement used cultural solidarity to gain support from the common people, while the Portuguese colonialists promoted their own culture. By the time independence came in 1975, Mozambican bands had abandoned their previous attempts at European-style music, and began forging new forms based out of local folk styles and the new African popular music coming from Zaire, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Zambia and South Africa.

Zaire Country in Africa now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire, was the name of a sovereign state between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa that is now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The country was a one-party totalitarian dictatorship, run by Mobutu Sese Seko and his ruling Popular Movement of the Revolution party. Zaire was established following Mobutu's seizure of power in a military coup in 1965, following five years of political upheaval following independence known as the Congo Crisis. Zaire had a strongly centralist constitution, and foreign assets were nationalised. The period is sometimes referred to as the Second Congolese Republic.

Zimbabwe Republic in southern Africa

Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare and the second largest being Bulawayo. A country of roughly 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used.

Tanzania Country in Africa

Tanzania officially the United Republic of Tanzania, is a country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north; Kenya to the northeast; Comoro Islands at the Indian Ocean to the east; Mozambique and Malawi to the south; Zambia to the southwest; and Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania.

In 1978, the Ministry of Education and Culture organized a National Dance Festival that involved more than half a million people, and led to the creation of numerous organizations and festivals promoting Mozambican music.

Timbila

The Chopi people of the coastal Inhambane Province are known for a unique kind of xylophone called mbila (pl: timbila) and the style of music played with it, which "is believed to be the most sophisticated method of composition yet found among preliterate peoples." [1] Ensembles consist of around ten xylophones of four sizes and accompany ceremonial dances with long compositions called ngomi which consist of an overture and ten movements of different tempos and styles. The ensemble leader serves as poet, composer, conductor, and performer, creating a text, improvising a melody partially based on the features of the Chopi's tone language, and composing a second countrapuntal line. The musicians of the ensemble partially improvise their parts according to style, instrumental idiom, and the leader's indications. The composer then consults with the choreographer of the ceremony and adjustments are made. (Nettl 1956, p. 18-19)

The Chopi are an ethnic group of Mozambique. They have traditionally lived primarily in the Zavala region of southern Mozambique, in the Inhambane Province. They traditionally lived a life of subsistence agriculture, traditionally living a rural existence, although many were displaced or killed in the civil war that followed Mozambique's liberation from Portuguese colonial rule in 1975. In addition, drought forced many away from their homeland and into the nation's cities.

Inhambane Province Province in Mozambique

Inhambane is a province of Mozambique located on the coast in the southern part of the country. It has an area of 68,615 km2 and a population of 1,496,824. The provincial capital is also called Inhambane.

Xylophone musical instrument of the family of mallets

The xylophone is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use.

Marrabenta

Marrabenta is the best-known form of music from Mozambique. It is urban in origin, and meant for dancing. Marrabenta was born as a fusion of imported European music played on improvised materials. The word marrabenta derives from the Portuguese rebentar (arrabentar in the local vernacular), meaning to break, a reference to cheap guitar strings that snapped quickly. Instruments were fashioned out of tin cans and pieces of wood. Lyrics were usually in local languages, and included songs of social criticism as well as love. Additionally, there are songs whose lyrics are in Portuguese, the official language of Mozambique, for nationwide and international promotion of the songs to other CPLP nations. The late 1970s saw tremendous innovation in marrabenta, as 1001 Music Productions recorded artists and staged large concerts. The compilation album Amanhecer was released, followed by more such LPs under the title Ngoma.

Marrabenta is a popular style of Mozambican dance music combining traditional Mozambican dance rhythms with Portuguese folk music. It was developed in Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique, during the 1930s and 1940s.

Portuguese language Romance language that originated in Portugal

Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (Lusófono).

Guitar Fretted string instrument

The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings. It is typically played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger(s)/fingernails of one hand, while simultaneously fretting with the fingers of the other hand. The sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker.

The most influential early marrabenta performer was Fany Pfumo, whose fame began after the success of "Loko ni kumbuka Jorgina". He recorded in South Africa on HMV and later incorporated South African kwela into his music. The group Orchestra Marrabenta Star de Moçambique formed in 1979, led by long-time performer Wazimbo. The group toured Europe and other parts of the world, and soon brought international recognition to marrabenta.

Fany Pfumo is a Mozambican-born singer, mainly active in South Africa. He is considered one of the founders and of the prominent artists in the marrabenta style scene. Born to a poor family, he started his career playing an "oil tin guitar" in Maputo's suburbs but later moved to South Africa in search of a better living. In Johannesburg, Pfumo had the opportunity to record with HMV, achieving international fame with songs such as Loko ni kumbuka Jorgina ; this one, in particular, remains one of the best known songs of marrabenta and Mozambican pop music. After achieving international fame in South Africa, Pfumo eventually returned to Mozambique.

HMV is a UK-based music and film retailer. The first HMV-branded store was opened by the Gramophone Company on Oxford Street in 1921, and the HMV name was also used for television and radio sets manufactured from the 1930s onwards. The retail side of the business began to expand in the 1960s, and in 1998 was divested from EMI, the successor to the Gramophone Company, to form what would become HMV Group.

Kwela is a pennywhistle-based street music from southern Africa with jazzy underpinnings and a distinctive, skiffle-like beat. It evolved from the marabi sound and brought South African music to international prominence in the 1950s.

Many of the most popular musicians in modern Mozambique spent time with Orchestra Marrabenta Star de Moçambique, including Stewart Sukuma, Chico António, Mr. Bow, Neyma, José Mucavel and Mingas, while other popular bands include Ghorwane.

Pandza

Pandza is the newest and most-popular style of Mozambican music, credited to be invented by N'Star, Ziqo and Dj Ardiles in Maputo. Pandza is especially popular amongst Mozambican youths and is a mix of Marrabenta and Ragga. The roots of Pandza originate from Marrabenta but Pandza has a more faster tempo with major influences from Ragga and some Hip Hop. Most of Pandza is mostly song in Portuguese and the Shangana language from Maputo and its lyrics most of the time, elaborate the social daily lifestyles of young Mozambicans. The most notable Pandza singers in Mozambique today include, Lizha James, Ziqo, Dj Ardiles, N'star, DH, Mr. Kuka, MC Roger, Denny Og, Dj Junior, Cízer Boss.


Hip hop

Mozambican hip hop is developing bit by bit whilst is receiving positive response to people.in 200's people who were uplifting hip hop were group called H20,G-pro and Danny OG.Currently in 21st Century Hip hop has developed with the likes of Bander Artista,Dygo boy Jurus,Ziqo,Same blood and Laylizzy

See also

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Neyma Julio Alfredo is a Mozambican singer, born in Maputo. She is known for producing Mozambican genres songs such as Marrabenta, Kizomba, etc.

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Humberto Carlos Benfica, known as Wazimbo, is a Mozambican vocalist considered one of the greatest voices of Mozambique and one of the most famous marrabenta singers. Born in Chibuto, in Gaza Province, Mozambique he moved to the capital — Lourenço Marques — where he grew up in the popular neighborhood Mafalala. There he started as a vocal member for the local group "Silverstars" and then "Geiziers". Later, he joined Orchestra Marrabenta Star de Moçambique.

Luis Pereira (born in 1963), known as Stewart Sukuma, is a Mozambican singer. His stage name – Stewart Sukuma – means 'Rise Up' in Zulu and 'Push' in Swahili. He was born in Cuamba, Niassa Province in Mozambique. Coming from a modest family he soon realised his passion for music and in 1977 he moved to the capital Maputo, where he learned how to play percussion, guitar and piano. In 1982 he joined a music group as a vocalist. He won the Mozambican prize for music – Ngoma – in 1983 and soon became one of the most played singers in the national radio stations of Mozambique, being described as "Mozambique's most popular male vocalist". His major works include songs such as Felizminha, Xitchuketa Marrabenta, Sumanga, Male and Why and he sings in languages including Portuguese, English, Swahili, Echwabo, Coti, and Tsonga.

Elisa Domingas Jamisse mostly known by her stage name 'Mingas' is a Mozambican singer. Born in the capital city, Maputo in Mozambique Mingas started to sing at a very early age. Her music is a mixture of Afro sounds that gives prominence to the rhythms of the Chope people of southern Mozambique, and she is one of the most famous singers of Marrabenta. Her career is marked with big hits and collaborations with major African singers like Miriam Makeba, Hugh Masekela, Angélique Kidjo, Baba Maal, Yvonne Chaka Chaka, Jimmy Dludlu, Gilberto Gil, among others.

Elisa Lisete James Humbane, popularly known as Lizha James, is one of the biggest musicians in Lusophone Africa. Born in Maputo, the capital of Mozambique, her music style includes a mixture of rhythms like Marrabenta, Reggae, R&B and hip-hop. She is also famous for the Mozambican style Dzukuta Pandza.

References

  1. "Theory of Music".