Musical form

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Ketawang structure (a gendhing form) as a clock diagram.
T = kethuk, P = kempul, N = kenong, Gong = gong ageng. Ketawang colotomic structure.png
Ketawang structure (a gendhing form) as a clock diagram.
T = kethuk , P = kempul , N = kenong , Gong = gong ageng .

In music, Form refers to the structure of a musical composition or performance. In "Worlds of Music", Jeff Todd Titon suggests that a number of organizational elements may determine the formal structure of a piece of music, such as "the arrangement of musical units of rhythm, melody, and or/ harmony that show repetition or variation, the arrangement of the instruments (as in the order of solos in a jazz or bluegrass performance), or the way a symphonic piece is orchestrated", among other factors. [2]

Jeff Todd Titon is a professor emeritus of music at Brown University. He holds the B.A. (1965) from Amherst College; and the M.A. and the Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. He taught in the departments of English and Music at Tufts University (1971-1986) and Brown University (1986-2013) where he was director of the Ph.D. program in Ethnomusicology. His published books include Early Downhome Blues: A Musical and Cultural Analysis and Powerhouse for God. He is co-editor of the Oxford Handbook of Applied Ethnomusicology and general editor of Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples. He was editor of Ethnomusicology, the journal of the Society for Ethnomusicology, from 1990-1995. In 1998 he was elected a Fellow of the American Folklore Society. In 2015 his field recordings were chosen for preservation in the National Recording Registry, Library of Congress. Titon is known for developing collaborative ethnographic research based on reciprocity and friendship, for helping to establish an applied ethnomusicology based in social responsibility, for proposing that music cultures can be understood as ecosystems, for introducing the concepts of musical and cultural sustainability, and for his appeal for a sound commons for all living creatures and his ecomusicological project of a sound ecology. His definition of ethnomusicology as "the study of people making music"--making the sounds they call music, and making music as a cultural domain--is widely accepted within the field.

Contents

These organizational elements may be broken into smaller units called phrases, which express a musical idea but lack sufficient weight to stand alone. [3] Musical form unfolds over time through the expansion and development of these ideas.

Labeling procedures

To aid in the process of describing form, musicians have developed a simple system of labeling musical units with letters. In his textbook "Listening to Music," professor Craig Wright writes,

Craig Milton Wright is the Henry L. and Lucy G. Moses Professor of Music at Yale University. He studied at the Eastman School of Music from 1962-1966, and at Harvard University from 1966 and 1972, where he obtained an M.A. and a Ph.D. in musicology. Wright completed his Ph.D. in 1972 with a thesis titled Music at the court of Burgundy, 1364-1419. After a year teaching at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, he moved to Yale in 1973, serving as the chair of the department of music from 1986 to 1992.

The first statement of a musical idea is designated A. Subsequent contrasting sections are labeled B, C, D, and so on. If the first or any other musical unit returns in varied form, then that variation is indicated by a superscript number-- A1 and B2, for example. Subdivisions of each large musical unit are shown by lowercase letters (a, b, and so on). [4]

Some writers also use a prime label (such as B', pronounced "B prime", or B'', pronounced "B double prime") to denote sections that are closely related, but vary slightly.

Levels of organization

The founding level of musical form can be divided into two parts:

Pulse (music) musical term

In music and music theory, the pulse consists of beats in a (repeating) of identical yet distinct periodic short-duration stimuli perceived as points in time occurring at the mensural level. "This pulse is typically what listeners entrain to as they tap their foot or dance along with a piece of music, and is also colloquially termed the 'beat,' or more technically the 'tactus' ." "Even a person untrained in music, can generally sense the pulse and may respond by tapping a foot or clapping."

In music, an accent is an emphasis, stress, or stronger attack placed on a particular note or set of notes, or chord, either as a result of its context or specifically indicated by an accent mark. Accents contribute to the articulation and prosody of a performance of a musical phrase. Accents may be written into a score or part by a composer or added by the performer as part of his or her interpretation of a musical piece. By default, in the music notation program Sibelius, "accents boost the dynamic by 50%."

Beat (music) basic unit of time in music and music theory

In music and music theory, the beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse, of the mensural level. The beat is often defined as the rhythm listeners would tap their toes to when listening to a piece of music, or the numbers a musician counts while performing, though in practice this may be technically incorrect. In popular use, beat can refer to a variety of related concepts, including pulse, tempo, meter, specific rhythms, and groove.

Passage

The smallest level of construction concerns the way musical phrases are organized into musical sentences and "paragraphs" such as the verse of a song. This may be compared to, and is often decided by, the verse form or meter of the words or the steps of a dance.

In Western music theory, the term sentence is analogous to the way the term is used in linguistics, in that it usually refers to a complete, somewhat self-contained statement. Usually a sentence refers to musical spans towards the lower end of the durational scale; i.e. melodic or thematic entities well below the level of 'movement' or 'section', but above the level of 'motif' or 'measure'. The term is usually encountered in discussions of thematic construction. In the last fifty years, an increasing number of theorists such as William Caplin have used the term to refer to a specific theme-type involving repetition and development.

For example, the twelve bar blues is a specific verse form, while common meter is found in many hymns and ballads and, again, the Elizabethan galliard, like many dances, requires a certain rhythm, pace and length of melody to fit its repeating pattern of steps. Simpler styles of music may be more or less wholly defined at this level of form, which therefore does not differ greatly from the loose sense first mentioned and which may carry with it rhythmic, harmonic, timbral, occasional and melodic conventions.

Pieces

The next level concerns the entire structure of any single self-contained musical piece. If the hymn, ballad, blues or dance alluded to above simply repeats the same musical material indefinitely then the piece is said to be in strophic form overall. If it repeats with distinct, sustained changes each time, for instance in setting, ornamentation or instrumentation, then the piece is a theme and variations. If two distinctly different themes are alternated indefinitely, as in a song alternating verse and chorus or in the alternating slow and fast sections of the Hungarian czardas, then this gives rise to a simple binary form. If the theme is played (perhaps twice), then a new theme is introduced, the piece then closing with a return to the first theme, we have a simple ternary form.

Great arguments and misunderstanding can be generated by such terms as 'ternary' and 'binary', as a complex piece may have elements of both at different organizational levels.[ citation needed ] A minuet, like any Baroque dance, generally had simple binary structure (AABB), however, this was frequently extended by the introduction of another minuet arranged for solo instruments (called the trio), after which the first was repeated again and the piece ended—this is a ternary form—ABA: the piece is binary on the lower compositional level but ternary on the higher. Organisational levels are not clearly and universally defined in western musicology, while words like "section" and "passage" are used at different levels by different scholars whose definitions, as Schlanker[ full citation needed ] points out, cannot keep pace with the myriad innovations and variations devised by musicians.

Cycle

The grandest level of organization may be referred to as "cyclical form".[ citation needed ] It concerns the arrangement of several self-contained pieces into a large-scale composition. For example, a set of songs with a related theme may be presented as a song-cycle, whereas a set of Baroque dances were presented as a suite. The opera and ballet may organize song and dance into even larger forms. This level of musical form, though it again applies and gives rise to different genres, takes more account of the methods of musical organisation used. For example: a symphony, a concerto and a sonata differ in scale and aim, yet generally resemble one another in the manner of their organization. The individual pieces which make up the larger form may be called movements.

Common forms in Western music

Scholes suggested that European classical music had only six stand-alone forms: simple binary, simple ternary, compound binary, rondo, air with variations, and fugue (although musicologist Alfred Mann emphasized that the fugue is primarily a method of composition that has sometimes taken on certain structural conventions). [6]

Charles Keil classified forms and formal detail as "sectional, developmental, or variational." [7]

Sectional form

This form is built from a sequence of clear-cut units [8] that may be referred to by letters but also often have generic names such as introduction and coda, exposition, development and recapitulation, verse, chorus or refrain, and bridge. Sectional forms include:

Strophic form

Medley or "chain" form

Medley, potpourri or chain form is the extreme opposite, that of "unrelieved variation": it is simply an indefinite sequence of self-contained sections (ABCD...), sometimes with repeats (AABBCCDD...).

Binary form

"Greensleeves" as an example of Binary Form. Greensleeves.gif
"Greensleeves" as an example of Binary Form.

The term "Binary Form" is used to describe a musical piece with two sections that are about equal in length. Binary Form can be written as AB or AABB. [9] Using the example of Greensleeves provided, the first system is almost identical to the second system. We call the first system A and the second system A' (A prime) because of the slight difference in the last measure and a half. The next two systems (3rd and 4th) are almost identical as well, but a new musical idea entirely than the first two systems. We call the third system B and the fourth system B' (B prime) because of the slight difference in the last measure and a half. As a whole, this piece of music is in Binary Form: AA'BB'. [9]

Ternary form

Ternary form is a three-part musical form in which the third part repeats or at least contains the principal idea of the first part, represented as ABA [10] There are both simple and compound ternary forms. Da capo arias are usually in simple ternary form (i.e. "from the head"). A compound ternary form (or trio form) similarly involves an ABA pattern, but each section is itself either in binary (two sub-sections which may be repeated) or (simple) ternary form.

Rondo form

This form has a recurring theme alternating with different (usually contrasting) sections called "episodes". It may be asymmetrical (ABACADAEA) or symmetrical (ABACABA). A recurring section, especially the main theme, is sometimes more thoroughly varied, or else one episode may be a "development" of it. A similar arrangement is the ritornello form of the Baroque concerto grosso. Arch form (ABCBA) resembles a symmetrical rondo without intermediate repetitions of the main theme.

Variational form

Variational forms are those in which variation is an important formative element.

Theme and Variations: a theme, which in itself can be of any shorter form (binary, ternary, etc.), forms the only "section" and is repeated indefinitely (as in strophic form) but is varied each time (A,B,A,F,Z,A), so as to make a sort of sectional chain form. An important variant of this, much used in 17th-century British music and in the Passacaglia and Chaconne, was that of the ground bass—a repeating bass theme or basso ostinato over and around which the rest of the structure unfolds, often, but not always, spinning polyphonic or contrapuntal threads, or improvising divisions and descants. This is said by Scholes (1977) to be the form par excellence of unaccompanied or accompanied solo instrumental music. The Rondo is often found with sections varied (AA1BA2CA3BA4) or (ABA1CA2B1A).

Sonata-allegro form

This form, also known as sonata form, first movement form, compound binary, ternary and a variety of other names,[ example needed ] developed from the binary-formed dance movement described above but is almost always cast in a greater ternary form having the nominal subdivisions of Exposition, Development and Recapitulation. Usually, but not always, the "A" parts (Exposition and Recapitulation, respectively) may be subdivided into two or three themes or theme groups which are taken asunder and recombined to form the "B" part (the development)—thus e. g. (AabB[dev. of a and/or b]A1ab1+coda).

The Sonata Form is "the most important principle of musical form, or formal type from the classical period well into the twentieth century." [11] It is usually used as the form of the first movement in multi-movement works. So, it is also called "first-movement form" or "sonata-allegro form"(Because usually the most common first movements are in allegro tempo). [12]

Each section of Sonata Form movement has its own function. It may have an introduction at the beginning.

Then, the exposition is the first required section. It lays out the thematic material in its basic version. There are usually two themes or theme groups in the exposition, and they are often in contrast styles and keys and connected by a transition. In the end of the exposition, there is a closing theme which concludes the section.

The exposition is followed by the development section in which the material in the exposition is developed.

After the development section, there is a returning section called recapitulation where the thematic material returns in the tonic key.

At the end of the movement, there might be a coda, after the recapitulation. [12]

Some forms are used predominantly within popular music, including genre-specific forms. Popular music forms are often derived from strophic form (AAA song form), 32-bar form (AABA song form), verse-chorus form (AB song form) and 12-bar blues form (AAB song form). [13]

Sectional forms

See [13]

Extended forms

Extended form are forms that have their root in one of the forms above, however, they have been extended with additional sections. For example:

Compound forms

Also called Hybrid song forms. Compound song forms blend together two or more song forms. [13]


Cyclical forms

In the 13th century the song cycle emerged, which is a set of related songs (as the suite is a set of related dances). The oratorio took shape in the second half of the 16th century as a narrative recounted—rather than acted—by the singers.[ clarification needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

Sonata form is a musical structure consisting of three main sections: an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation. It has been used widely since the middle of the 18th century.

Binary form is a musical form in 2 related sections, both of which are usually repeated. Binary is also a structure used to choreograph dance. In music this is usually performed as A-A-B-B.

In music, a coda[ˈkoːda] is a passage that brings a piece to an end. Technically, it is an expanded cadence. It may be as simple as a few measures, or as complex as an entire section.

The Piano Quintet in F minor, Op. 34, by Johannes Brahms was completed during the summer of 1864 and published in 1865. It was dedicated to Her Royal Highness Princess Anna of Hesse. Like most piano quintets composed after Robert Schumann's Piano Quintet (1842), it is written for piano and string quartet.

Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 29 in B major, Op. 106 is a piano sonata that is widely viewed as one of the most important works of the composer's third period and among the greatest piano sonatas of all time. Completed in 1818, it is often considered to be Beethoven's most technically challenging piano composition and one of the most demanding solo works in the classical piano repertoire. The first documented public performance was in 1836 by Franz Liszt in the Salle Erard in Paris.

Strophic form song structure in which all verses or stanzas of the text are sung to the same music

Strophic form, also called verse-repeating or chorus form, 'AAA song form', or 'One-part song form', is a song structure in which all verses or stanzas of the text are sung to the same music. The opposite of strophic form, with new music written for every stanza, is called through-composed.

Clarinet Concerto (Mozart) musical composition by Mozart

Mozart's Clarinet Concerto in A major, K. 622, was written in October 1791 for the clarinetist Anton Stadler. It consists of three movements, in a fast–slow–fast succession:

String Quartet No. 15 (Beethoven) composition for string quartet by Ludwig van Beethoven

The String Quartet No. 15 in A minor, Op. 132, by Ludwig van Beethoven, was written in 1825, given its public premiere on November 6 of that year by the Schuppanzigh Quartet and was dedicated to Count Nikolai Galitzin, as were Opp. 127 and 130. The number traditionally assigned to it is based on the order of its publication; it is actually the thirteenth quartet in order of composition.

Recapitulation (music) section of a movement written in sonata form

In music theory, the recapitulation is one of the sections of a movement written in sonata form. The recapitulation occurs after the movement's development section, and typically presents once more the musical themes from the movement's exposition. This material is most often recapitulated in the tonic key of the movement, in such a way that it reaffirms that key as the movement's home key.

Section (music) section in a musical work

In music, a section is a complete, but not independent, musical idea. Types of sections include the introduction or intro, exposition, development, recapitulation, verse, chorus or refrain, conclusion, coda or outro, fadeout, bridge or interlude. In sectional forms such as binary, the larger unit (form) is built from various smaller clear-cut units (sections) in combination, analogous to stanzas in poetry or somewhat like stacking lego.

Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 22 in F major, Op. 54, was written in 1804. It is contemporary to the first sketches of the Symphony No. 5 in C Minor. It is one of Beethoven's lesser known sonatas, overshadowed by its widely known neighbours, the Waldstein and the Appassionata.

Repetition is important in music, where sounds or sequences are often repeated. It may be called restatement, such as the restatement of a theme. While it plays a role in all music, with noise and musical tones lying along a spectrum from irregular to periodic sounds,(Moravcsik, 114)(Rajagopal, ) it is especially prominent in specific styles.

Symphony No. 10 (Schubert) unfinished work by Franz Schubert that survives in a piano sketch, identified in the 1970s

Schubert's Symphony No. 10 in D major, D 936A, is an unfinished work that survives in a piano sketch. Written during the last weeks of the composer's short life, it was only properly identified in the 1970s. It has been orchestrated by Brian Newbould in a completion that has subsequently been performed, published and recorded.

The Piano Sonata in A minor D.845 (Op.42) by Franz Schubert is a sonata for solo piano. Composed in May 1825 and entitled Premiere Grande Sonata, it is the first of three sonatas published during the composer's lifetime, the others being D.850 and D.894. Conceived as a set, these works were composed during what was reportedly a period of relatively good health and spirits for Schubert, and are praised for their quality and ambition. This first sonata in particular marks a significant step toward the composer’s mature piano sonata style; the format and several characteristic stylistic elements continue through the last.

Piano Sonata No. 2, Op. 36, is a piano sonata in B-flat minor composed by Sergei Rachmaninoff in 1913. Rachmaninoff revised it in 1931, with the note, "The new version, revised and reduced by author."

Schuberts last sonatas Franz Schuberts last major compositions for the piano

Franz Schubert's last three piano sonatas, D 958, 959 and 960, are the composer's last major compositions for solo piano. They were written during the last months of his life, between the spring and autumn of 1828, but were not published until about ten years after his death, in 1838–39. Like the rest of Schubert's piano sonatas, they were mostly neglected in the 19th century. By the late 20th century, however, public and critical opinion had changed, and these sonatas are now considered among the most important of the composer's mature masterpieces. They are part of the core piano repertoire, appearing regularly on concert programs and recordings.

Sonata Theory is an approach to the description of sonata form in terms of individual works' treatment of generic expectations. For example, it is normative for the secondary theme of a minor-mode sonata to be in either the key of III or v. If a composer chooses to break this norm in a given piece, that is a deviation that requires analytical and interpretive explanation. The essentials of the theory are presented by its developers, James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy, in the book Elements of Sonata Theory, which won the Society for Music Theory's Wallace Berry Award in 2008. Although the theory is particularly designed to treat late-eighteenth-century works such as those by Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven, many of its principles are applicable to works in sonata form from later centuries.

Piano Quartet No. 3 (Brahms) piano quartet by Johannes Brahms

The Piano Quartet No. 3 in C minor, Op. 60, completed by Johannes Brahms in 1875, is scored for piano, violin, viola and cello. It is sometimes called the Werther Quartet after Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther.

Transition (music) term in music

A transition is a passage of music composed to link one section of music to another. Transitions often function as a moment of transformation and may, or may not in themselves, introduce new, musical material.

A slow movement is a form in a multi-movement musical piece. Generally, the second movement of a piece will be written as a slow movement, although composers occasionally write other movements as a slow movement as well. The tempo of a slow movement can vary from largo to andante. It is usually in the dominant, subdominant, parallel, or relative key of the musical work's main key.

References

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  3. Spring, Glenn (2013). Musical form and analysis : time, pattern, proportion. Hutcheson, Jere. Long Grove, Illinois. ISBN   147860722X. OCLC   882602291.
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  5. Macpherson, Stewart (1930). "Form". Form in Music (New and Revised ed.). London: Joseph Williams.
  6. Mann, Alfred (1958). The Study of Fugue. W.W.Norton and Co. Inc.
  7. Keil, Charles (1966). Urban blues. ISBN   0-226-42960-1.
  8. Wennerstrom, Mary (1975). "Form in Twentieth Century Music". In Wittlich, Gary (ed.). Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN   0-13-049346-5.
  9. 1 2 Kostka, Payne, Stefan, Dorothy (2009). Tonal Harmony with an Introduction to Twentieth-Century Music. 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020: McGraw-Hill. p. 335.
  10. Ebenezer Prout (1893). Musical form. London.[ full citation needed ]
  11. The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Oxford University Press. 2004. ISBN   978-0195170672.
  12. 1 2 "The Sonata Allegro Form". Lumen Music Appreciation.
  13. 1 2 3 "A Guide To Song Forms – Song Form Overview". Songstuff.

Further reading