Compilation album

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A compilation album comprises tracks, which may be previously released or unreleased, usually from several separate recordings by either one or several performers. If by one artist, then generally the tracks were not originally intended for release together as a single work, [1] but may be collected together as a greatest hits album or box set. [2] If from several performers, there may be a theme, topic, time period, or genre which links the tracks, [3] [4] or they may have been intended for release as a single work—such as a tribute album. [5] When the tracks are by the same recording artist, the album may be referred to as a retrospective album or an anthology. [6]

A greatest hits album, sometimes called a "best of" album or a catalog album, is a compilation of songs by a particular artist or band. Most often the track list contains previously released recordings with a high degree of notability. However, to increase the appeal, especially to people who already own the original release, it is common to include remixes or alternate takes of popular songs; sometimes even new material will function as bonus tracks. At times, a greatest hits compilation is the original album release for songs that have themselves been released as a single and charted successfully.

A box set or boxed set is a set of items traditionally packaged in a box and is offered for sale as a single unit.

Contents

Content and scope

Songs included on a compilation album may be previously released or unreleased, usually from several separate recordings by either one or several performers. If by one artist, then generally the tracks were not originally intended for release together as a single work, but may be collected together as a greatest hits album or box set. Compilation albums may employ traditional product bundling strategies.[ citation needed ]

In marketing, product bundling is offering several products or services for sale as one combined product or service package. It is a common feature in many imperfectly competitive product and service markets. Industries engaged in the practice include telecommunications services, financial services, health care, information and consumer electronics. A software bundle might include a word processor, spreadsheet, and presentation program into a single office suite. The cable television industry often bundles many TV and movie channels into a single tier or package. The fast food industry combines separate food items into a "meal deal" or "value meal".

According to sound technician Richard King, classical music compilations "may require more processing to match tracks coming from various sources and recording venues as well as the different sizes of ensembles." [7]

Richard King is an American sound designer and editor who has worked on over 70 films. A native of Tampa, Florida, he graduated from Plant High School (1972) and the University of South Florida. He won the Academy Award for Best Sound Editing for the films Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World (2003), The Dark Knight (2008), Inception (2010), and Dunkirk (2017). He was also nominated for War of the Worlds (2005), and Interstellar (2014).

Classical music broad tradition of Western art music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows:

In Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies (1981), Robert Christgau said, "While compilation albums by album artists (as opposed to stylistically unified singles specialists) are often useless, sometimes they present themselves as events", citing as examples the 1971 Ray Charles LP A 25th Anniversary in Show Business Salute to Ray Charles, The Kink Kronikles (1972), and Changesonebowie (1976). [8]

<i>Christgaus Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies</i>

Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies is a music reference book by American music journalist and essayist Robert Christgau. It was first published in October 1981 by Ticknor & Fields.

Robert Christgau American music journalist

Robert Thomas Christgau is an American essayist and music journalist. One of the earliest professional rock critics, he spent 37 years as the chief music critic and senior editor for The Village Voice, during which time he created and oversaw the annual Pazz & Jop poll. He has also covered popular music for Esquire, Creem, Newsday, Playboy, Rolling Stone, Billboard, NPR, Blender, and MSN Music, and was a visiting arts teacher at New York University.

The album era was a period in English-language popular music from the mid 1960s to the mid 2000s in which the album was the dominant form of recorded music expression and consumption. It was primarily driven by three successive music recording formats, the 33​13 rpm LP record, the audiocassette and the music Compact disc. Rock musicians were often at the forefront of the era.

Common types

Common types of compilation include:

A-side and B-side the two sides of 78, 45, and 33 1/3 rpm phonograph records and cassette capes

The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, and 33​13 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays (EPs), or long-playing (LP) records. The A-side usually featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and then receive radio airplay, hopefully, to become a "hit" record. The B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side.

A soundtrack, also written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, book, television program, or video game; a commercially released soundtrack album of music as featured in the soundtrack of a film, video, or television presentation; or the physical area of a film that contains the synchronized recorded sound.

Extended play musical recording longer than a single, but shorter than a full album

An extended play record, often referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is usually unqualified as an album or LP. Contemporary EPs generally contain a minimum of three tracks and maximum of six tracks, and are considered "less expensive and time-consuming" for an artist to produce than an album. An EP originally referred to specific types of vinyl records other than 78 rpm standard play (SP) and LP, but it is now applied to mid-length CDs and downloads as well.

Royalties

For multi-artist compilations, royalties are usually pro-rated. In most cases, each artist's per-record royalty rate (typically 12–14% in 1999) [12] is divided by the number of artists on the album. However, some record companies opt to simplify the equation and pay a rounded-off rate, either as a percentage or as a set amount, regardless of the total number of artists on the record. As of 1999, these rates were around 1/2% to 1% or 15–16 cents per record. [12] When a compilation album includes a track from a different record company, the royalties are split between the artist and the original record company. [12] Unless specifically limited by a contract, record companies may release as many greatest hits albums by their recording artist as they wish without requiring the artist's agreement or permission. [13]

A royalty is a payment made by one party, the licensee or franchisee to another that owns a particular asset, the licensor or franchisor for the right to ongoing use of that asset. Royalties are typically agreed upon as a percentage of gross or net revenues derived from the use of an asset or a fixed price per unit sold of an item of such, but there are also other modes and metrics of compensation. A royalty interest is the right to collect a stream of future royalty payments.

Charts

In the United Kingdom, The Official Charts Company compiles a weekly compilation albums chart, limited to various artists compilations and soundtrack compilations. [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

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  2. Marc Burrows (20 Nov 2013). "Why a greatest hits album can be the band's greatest". theguardian.com.
  3. "Definition of 'compilation album'". collinsdictionary.com.
  4. Emily Jupp (25 September 2015). "32 years of NOW music compilations". independent.co.uk.
  5. Michael Hann (9 Apr 2018). "Covered in glory: the tribute albums that saved careers and changed lives". theguardian.com.
  6. "Definition of retrospective in English". oxforddictionaries.com.
  7. King, Richard (2016). Recording Orchestra and Other Classical Music Ensembles. Taylor & Francis. p. 223. ISBN   1317520815.
  8. Christgau, Robert (1981). "The Criteria". Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies . Ticknor & Fields. ISBN   0899190251 . Retrieved April 6, 2019 via robertchristgau.com.
  9. "TLC to Release Greatest Hits Compilation to Accompany Biopic, New Album Coming in 2014". Pitchfork. 23 September 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  10. Gentile, John (8 November 2013). "Deadmau5 Compilation 'We Are Friends Vol. 2' – Album Premiere". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  11. Suchet, Richard (28 November 2013). "Now Compilation Albums Celebrate 30 Years". Sky News. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  12. 1 2 3 Brian McPherson (1999). Get It in Writing: The Musician's Guide to the Music Business. Hal Leonard Corp. p. 68. ISBN   9780793566990 . Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  13. Brian McPherson (1999). Get It in Writing: The Musician's Guide to the Music Business. Hal Leonard Corp. p. 89. ISBN   9780793566990.
  14. "UK Top 40 Compilation Albums", BBC, retrieved 2012-04-01