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|Cultural origins||Mid 1980s, North America, United Kingdom, Australia|
|Derivative forms||Technical death metal|
Progressive metal (sometimes known as prog metal) is a fusion genre melding heavy metal and progressive rock that combines the loud "aggression"and amplified guitar-driven sound of the former with the more experimental, cerebral or "pseudo-classical" compositions of the latter. The music typically showcases the extreme technical proficiency of the performers, and usually uses unorthodox harmonies as well as complex rhythms with frequent meter changes and intense syncopation.
While the genre emerged towards the late-1980s, it was not until the 1990s that progressive metal achieved widespread success.Queensrÿche, Dream Theater, Tool, Symphony X, Shadow Gallery, King's X, and Fates Warning are a few examples of progressive metal bands who achieved commercial success. Soon after the rise of the genre's popularity, other thrash and death metal bands started to incorporate elements of progressive music in their work.
Progressive metal, as a distinct musical style, was primarily advanced by members of the American heavy/power metal scene of the mid-1980s, particularly Queensrÿche, Fates Warning and, later, Dream Theater. These bands form the so-called triad, the "Big Three" [ citation needed ]of prog metal, or the most important and influential groups of the traditional scene. It has since developed over time in a non-linear fashion, with countless groups demonstrating innovations in personal ways.
The origins of the genre date back to the very beginning of heavy metal/hard rock and progressive rock when some bands began to merge the two different approaches.[ citation needed ] 1960s pioneers King Crimson maintained their musical innovation while incorporating a harder approach, using dissonance and experimental tones, yet still maintaining a relationship to the power chords of hard rock. At the same time, metal/doom stalwarts such as Black Sabbath began to integrate accentuated progressive influences into pioneering records such as Sabbath Bloody Sabbath (1973) and Sabotage (1975).[ citation needed ] Canadian trio Rush are widely recognized as bridging the gap between hard rock, English prog, and pure heavy metal. Initially influenced by Led Zeppelin, they evolved to combine established progressive rock technique with blues-based power chords. Records such as 2112 (1976), A Farewell to Kings (1977) and Hemispheres (1978) showcased technical expertise and complex compositional skill while still utilizing a more direct approach than the established English prog rockers.
1984 brought full length debut albums from American bands Queensrÿche,from Washington, and Fates Warning, from Connecticut. Taking inspiration from established metal acts like Iron Maiden, each expanded their music to include more progressive elements ( The Warning 1984, The Spectre Within 1985) – some through sound experimentation and compositional refinement, others through extremely complex structures and atypical riffs – up to the two seminal works in 1986: Rage for Order and Awaken the Guardian . In the following years the two bands, while following different paths – more basic and simple the first, more articulate and complex the latter - explore and expand the technical refinement and sonic finesse of their music, continuing to lay the foundations of the genre with important works such as Operation: Mindcrime (1988) by Queensrÿche, No Exit (1988) and Perfect Symmetry (1989) by Fates Warning.
Other important groups of 1980s prog-metal included Crimson Glory - Transcendence (1988), Heir Apparent, Savatage - Gutter Ballet (1989), and Canadian innovators Voivod.
Progressive metal also found a home in the growing U.S. speed metal movement, influencing popular heavy metal bands Metallica - ...And Justice for All (1988) and Megadeth."Math-metal" pioneers Watchtower, from Texas, took the concept of time-changes to a new level, combining thrash metal, syncopation and prog in their albums Energetic Disassembly (1985) and Control and Resistance (1989), giving rise to an extremely technical approach based on the rhythmic deconstruction typical of jazz fusion. This same type of prog metal will be later integrated into death metal by American bands such as Atheist (1991's Unquestionable Presence ) and Cynic (1993's Focus ). Among the other pioneering thrash metal bands, one of the most important is the Canadian Voivod, with their complex and experimental style, full of psychedelic dissonances ( Dimension Hatröss 1988, Nothingface 1989).
The major US bands that contribute to further delineating and developing the genre are Psychotic Waltz and Dream Theater. The former, with an approach halfway between Watchtower and Fates Warning, produced A Social Grace (1990), melding their signature sound with the psychedelic Into the Everflow (1992),while the latter explored the legacy of the bands that preceded them while advancing their personal style with When Dream and Day Unite (1989). Both albums focused on keyboards and band members' instrumental skills, and their efforts resulted in two fundamental albums, that institutionalize classic progressive metal and a - Images and Words (1992) and Awake (1994).
As for Europe, among the pioneers are the Germans Sieges Even, who, starting from the techno thrash of Watchtower, explore the more technical and angular side of progressive metal with Steps (1990), followed the following year by the more melodic A Sense of Change (1991).
The following groups are some of the other notable progressive metal bands that formed in the US.
• Shadow Gallery - Carved in Stone (1995), with elements of melodic and power metal;
• The neoclassical groups Symphony X - The Divine Wings of Tragedy (1997), Redemption - The Fullness of Time (2005), and OSI - Office of Strategic Influence (2003), with Kevin Moore (ex-keyboardist of Dream Theater) and Jim Matheos (guitarist of Fates Warning);
• The groups focusing more on technical elements Zero Hour - The Towers of Avarice (2001), Arch/Matheos - Sympathetic Resonance (2011), and instrumental groups such as Spastic Ink - Ink Compatible (2004), Liquid Tension Experiment - Liquid Tension Experiment (1998), Gordian Knot - Emergent (2003), and Canvas Solaris - Sublimation (2004);
The following groups are some of the other notable progressive metal bands that formed in Europe.
• The melodic and power metal side including the Norwegians Conception - Parallel Minds (1993) and Ark, the Germans Vanden Plas - The God Thing (1997), the English Threshold - Wounded Land (1993), the Danish Royal Hunt - Paradox (1997), the Swedes Andromeda - Extension of the Wish (2001) and Evergrey - In Search of Truth (2001), the Poles Riverside - Out of Myself (2003), the Spanish band Avalanch;[ citation needed ]
• The technical and experimental groups including the Norwegian Spiral Architect, with their innovative approach between Watchtower and Fates Warning in A Sceptic's Universe (1999), Leprous - Tall Poppy Syndrome 2009) and Frantic Bleep [ citation needed ]
Among the bands of the late 1990s who managed to bring innovation to the Dutch Ayreon (a project by Arjen Anthony Lucassen) and the Swedes Pain of Salvation. Ayreon focused on theatrical and melodramatic rock operas Into the Electric Castle (1998) and The Human Equation (2004), performed by many different members of prominent metal bands.[ citation needed ] Pain of Salvation was always working towards an unusual style, demonstrated by the eclecticism and anti-conformism of Faith No More, One Hour by the Concrete Lake (1998), BE (2004) Forerunners of a more experimental and alternative approach include Thought Industry - Mods Carve the Pig: Assassins, Toads and God's Flesh (1993), Mind over Four, and Voivod. Another important and key figure for eclectic and unusual prog is the singer, guitarist and composer Devin Townsend, who brought a vanguard attitude to highest levels within this genre ( Terria 2001).
As of 2019, the genre is still constantly evolving in multiple forms, and has reached a far broader variety of sounds and styles than it had at its origin, with many of the historical bands continuing to record new music and tour, while thousands of other new bands emerge in the underground scene every year, from all over the world. Recently, Mastodon - Crack the Skye (2009) and Gojira - Magma (2016) are two examples of progressive bands that have reached a greater mainstream popularity.
One of the hallmark musical qualities of progressive metal is the stylistic eclecticism that is pervasive across many groups. In between the riffs, choruses, solos, etc. typical of rock and metal songs, prog metal bands very often include sections inspired by jazz, classical, Middle Eastern music (especially often using the phrygian dominant scale), Dixieland, ragtime, and many others. This is usually achieved by the keyboard player of the band playing unique sounds, or by including instruments that are unorthodox for metal, such as the saxophone. The idea of incorporating these different kinds of music was primarily pioneered by Dream Theater and it is seen throughout most of their discography. Other groups that frequently use these eccentric sections include Haken, Between the Buried and Me, Thank You Scientist, Opeth, Liquid Tension Experiment, Circus Maximus, and many, many others.
Progressive metal can be broken down into many sub-genres corresponding to certain other styles of music that have influenced progressive metal groups.For example, two bands that are commonly identified as progressive metal, King's X and Opeth, are at opposite ends of the sonic spectrum to one another King's X are greatly influenced by softer mainstream rock and, in fact, contributed to the growth of grunge, influencing bands like Pearl Jam." Opeth's growling vocals and heavy guitars (liberally intermixed with gothic metal-evocative acoustic passages and clean melodic vocals) often see them cited as progressive death metal, yet their vocalist Mikael Åkerfeldt refers to Yes and Camel as major influences in the style of their music.
Similarly, bands such as Dream Theater, Planet X, Puya,Liquid Tension Experiment, The Faceless, Between the Buried and Me and Animals as Leaders have a jazz influence, with extended solo sections that often feature "trading solos". Cynic, Atheist, Opeth, Pestilence, Between the Buried and Me and Meshuggah all blended jazz fusion with death metal, but in dramatically different ways. Devin Townsend draws on more ambient influences in the atmosphere of his music. Progressive metal is also often linked with power metal, hence the ProgPower music festivals, with bands such as Fates Warning and Conception originating as power metal bands that incorporated progressive elements which came to overshadow their power metal roots. Recently, with a popularity in shred guitar, the genre of "technical metal" has become increasingly prevalent and popular. This has led to a resurgence of popularity for more traditional progressive metal bands like Dream Theater and Symphony X, and also has led to the inclusion within the progressive niche of bands that do not necessarily play in its traditional style such as thrash/power Nevermore and technical death metal pioneers Necrophagist and Obscura. These bands are often labeled progressive being as they play complex and technical music which do not readily cleave to any other genre.
In the late 2000s, bands such as Born of Osiris, Periphery, Tesseract, Animals as Leaders and Vildhjarta popularized the "djent" style of progressive metal in a sound originally developed by Meshuggah. It is characterized by palm-muted, syncopated riffs (often incorporating polymeters), as well as use of extended range guitars.Extended range guitars also feature in other forms of progressive metal; artists including Devin Townsend, Dir En Grey, and Ne Obliviscaris have used 7-string guitars without being part of the "djent" movement.
Proyecto Eskhata, a Spanish band, has received much press coverage in Spain for its fusion of progressive rock and rap metal, which journalists have described as "progressive rap metal".
Progressive doom is a fusion genre that combines elements of progressive metal and doom metal.Bands include King Goat, Below the Sun, Sierra, and Oceans of Slumber.
Although both favor experimentation and non-standard ideas, there are rather large differences between the two genres. The experimentation of progressive metal has a strong emphasis on technicality and theoretical complexity. This is done by playing complex rhythms and harmonies and implementing unusual time signatures and song structures - all with the use of traditional instruments.In experimental metal, most of the experimentation is in the use of unusual sounds and instruments - being more unorthodox and questioning of musical conventions.
Progressive rock is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid- to late 1960s. Initially termed "progressive pop", the style was an outgrowth of psychedelic bands who abandoned standard pop traditions in favour of instrumentation and compositional techniques more frequently associated with jazz, folk, or classical music. Additional elements contributed to its "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic, technology was harnessed for new sounds, music approached the condition of "art", and the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which often involved creating music for listening rather than dancing.
Kevin James LaBrie is a Canadian vocalist and songwriter, who is best known as the lead singer of the American progressive metal band Dream Theater, which he has fronted since 1991.
Power metal is a subgenre of heavy metal combining characteristics of traditional heavy metal with speed metal, often within symphonic context. Generally, power metal is characterized by a faster, lighter, and more uplifting sound, in contrast with the heaviness and dissonance prevalent for example in extreme metal. Power metal bands usually have anthem-like songs with fantasy-based subject matter and strong choruses, thus creating a theatrical, dramatic and emotionally "powerful" sound. The term was first used in the middle of the 1980s and refers to two different but related styles: the first pioneered and largely practiced in North America with a harder sound similar to speed metal, and a later more widespread and popular style based in Europe, South America and East Asia with a lighter, more melodic sound and frequent use of keyboards.
Rap metal is a subgenre of rap rock and alternative metal music which combines hip hop with heavy metal. It usually consists of heavy metal guitar riffs, funk metal elements, rapped vocals and sometimes turntables.
OSI is an American progressive rock band, originally formed by Fates Warning guitarist Jim Matheos in 2002. Chroma Key keyboardist and vocalist Kevin Moore is the only other full-time member of the band. The collaboration may be considered a studio project, as its members and contributors write and track most of their material independently, sharing and developing tracks long-distance, only coming together at the end of the process for mixing and additional tracking. The band's name is a reference to the Office of Strategic Influence, a short-lived American government agency formed in 2001 to support the War on Terror through propaganda. The band has featured a number of guest musicians on its albums, including Sean Malone, Steven Wilson, Mikael Akerfeldt, Joey Vera and Gavin Harrison.
Office of Strategic Influence is the first studio album by American progressive rock band OSI, released by InsideOut Music on February 18, 2003. The album was recorded in June 2002 and mixed in August 2002 at the Carriage House Studios in Stamford, Connecticut.
A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal during the late 1960s and early 1970s. At times heavy metal genres may overlap or are difficult to distinguish, but they can be identified by a number of traits. They may differ in terms of: instrumentation, tempo, song structure, vocal style, lyrics, guitar playing style, drumming style, and so on.
Images and Words is the second studio album by American progressive metal band Dream Theater, released on July 7, 1992 through ATCO Records. It is the first Dream Theater release to feature James LaBrie on vocals. Since its release, the album has maintained its position as the band's most commercially successful studio album, and the song "Pull Me Under" has the distinction of being the only Top 10 hit the band has had to date. This particular song has also had more recent success as it has appeared in the 2008 video game Guitar Hero World Tour.
Neo-progressive rock is a subgenre of progressive rock which developed in the UK in the early 1980s. The genre's most popular band, Marillion, achieved mainstream success in the decade. Several bands from the genre have continued to record and tour.
Fates Warning is an American progressive metal band, formed in 1982 by vocalist John Arch, guitarists Jim Matheos and Victor Arduini, bassist Joe DiBiase, and drummer Steve Zimmerman in Hartford, Connecticut.
Damnation is the seventh full-length studio album by Swedish progressive rock band Opeth. It was released on 22 April 2003, five months after Deliverance, which was recorded at the same time. Damnation was produced by Steven Wilson. Mikael Åkerfeldt dedicated both albums to his grandmother, who died in a car accident during the time the albums were being recorded.
Metal: A Headbanger's Journey is a 2005 documentary film directed by Sam Dunn with Scot McFadyen and Jessica Wise. The film follows 31-year-old Dunn, a Canadian anthropologist, who has been a heavy metal fan since the age of 12. Dunn sets out across the world to uncover the various opinions on heavy metal music, including its origins, culture, controversy, and the reasons it is loved by so many people. The film made its debut at the 2005 Toronto International Film Festival, and was released as a two-disc special edition DVD in the US on 19 September 2006.
Terrorizer was an extreme music magazine published by Dark Arts Ltd. in the United Kingdom. It was released every four weeks with thirteen issues a year and featured a "Fear Candy" covermount CD, a twice yearly "Fear Candy Unsigned" CD, and a double-sided poster.
The Blueprint Dives is the fourth studio release by the Norwegian Christian metal band Extol. Recorded at the end of 2004 at Top Room Studios and produced by Børge Finstad and Extol, Blueprint was released on February 21, 2005, on Century Media. The album met with a widely positive reception and received a Spellemannprisen nomination. On this album, Ole Børud and Christer Espevoll left Extol, and the band was joined by the members of the rock band Ganglión, Tor Magne S. Glidje and Ole Halvard Sveen.
Sky Architect is a progressive rock band based in Rotterdam, Netherlands. Their debut album, Excavations of the Mind, was released in 2010 from ProgRock Records. The drummer and backing vocalist, Christiaan Bruin, is also known for his solo project "Chris". They are currently signed to FREIA Music.
Extol is the fifth full-length studio album by the Norwegian Christian progressive death metal band Extol, released in 2013. It was described by music critics as a mixture of death and progressive metal, with some melodic elements. Reviews of the album were very positive, and the album managed to chart on the Billboard Top Christian Albums chart.
Distorted Harmony is a progressive metal band from Tel Aviv, Israel, formed in 2009.
Post-progressive is a type of rock music distinguished from vintage progressive rock styles, specifically 1970s prog. Post-progressive draws upon newer developments in popular music and the avant-garde since the mid-1970s. It especially draws from ethnic musics and minimalism, elements which were new to rock music. It is different from neo-progressive rock in that neo-prog pastiches 1970s prog, while "post-progressive" identifies progressive rock music that stems from sources other than prog.