New Hollywood

Last updated

New Hollywood
Years activeMid-1960s to early 1980s
CountryUnited States
Influences
Influenced

The New Hollywood, also known as American New Wave or Hollywood Renaissance, was a movement in American film history from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s, when a new generation of young filmmakers came to prominence. They influenced the types of film produced, their production and marketing, and the way major studios approached filmmaking. [2] In New Hollywood films, the film director, rather than the studio, took on a key authorial role. The definition of "New Hollywood" varies, depending on the author, with some defining it as a movement and others as a period. The span of the period is also a subject of debate, as well as its integrity, as some authors, such as Thomas Schatz, argue that the New Hollywood consists of several different movements. The films made in this movement are stylistically characterized in that their narrative often deviated from classical norms. After the demise of the studio system and the rise of television, the commercial success of films was diminished.

Contents

Successful films of the early New Hollywood era include Bonnie and Clyde , The Graduate , Rosemary's Baby , Night of the Living Dead , The Wild Bunch , and Easy Rider while films that failed at the box office such as New York, New York , Sorcerer , Heaven's Gate , They All Laughed and One from the Heart marked the end of the era.

History

Background

In fact, The Wild Angels was kind of a... it was a big success for the New Hollywood. It was Roger Corman, it was Peter Fonda, Nancy Sinatra, it was a New Hollywood kind of movie, and it was very anti-the Old Hollywood, it was very hard-edged, violent, you know, it was not at all an Old Hollywood movie. And I didn't, I wasn't particularly aware of it. Then the following year was Bonnie and Clyde . Shadows had come out in the early '60s, so that was really the first sign of a kind of off-Hollywood movement [3]
Peter Bogdanovich

Following the Paramount Case (which ended block booking and ownership of theater chains by film studios) and the advent of television (where Rod Serling, John Frankenheimer, Paddy Chayefsky and Sidney Lumet worked in their earlier years), both of which severely weakened the traditional studio system, Hollywood studios initially used spectacle to retain profitability. Technicolor developed a far more widespread use, while widescreen processes and technical improvements, such as CinemaScope, stereo sound, and others, such as 3-D, were invented in order to retain the dwindling audience and compete with television. However, these were generally unsuccessful in increasing profits. [4] By 1957, Life magazine called the 1950s "the horrible decade" for Hollywood. [5]

In the 1950s and early 1960s, Hollywood was dominated by musicals, historical epics, and other films that benefited from the larger screens, wider framing, and improved sound. Hence, as early as 1957, the era was dubbed a "New Hollywood". [5] However, audience shares continued to dwindle, and had reached alarmingly low levels by the mid-1960s. Several costly flops, including Tora! Tora! Tora! and Hello, Dolly! , and failed attempts to replicate the success of The Sound of Music , put great strain on the studios. [6]

By the time the Baby Boomer generation started to come of age in the 1960s, "Old Hollywood" was rapidly losing money; the studios were unsure how to react to the much-changed audience demographics. The change in the market during the period went from a middle-aged high school-educated audience in the mid-1960s to a younger, more affluent, college-educated demographic: by the mid-1970s, 76% of all movie-goers were under 30, 64% of whom had gone to college. [7] European films, both arthouse and commercial (especially the Commedia all'italiana, the French New Wave, the Spaghetti Western), and Japanese cinema were making a splash in the United States — the huge market of disaffected youth seemed to find relevance and artistic meaning in movies like Michelangelo Antonioni's Blowup , with its oblique narrative structure and full-frontal female nudity. [8] [9]

The desperation felt by studios during this period of economic downturn, and after the losses from expensive movie flops, led to innovation and risk-taking, allowing greater control by younger directors and producers. [10] Therefore, in an attempt to capture that audience that found a connection to the "art films" of Europe, the studios hired a host of young filmmakers and allowed them to make their films with relatively little studio control. Some of whom, like actor Jack Nicholson and director Peter Bogdanovich, were mentored by "King of the Bs" Roger Corman while others like celebrated cinematographer Vilmos Zsigmond worked for lesser-known B movie directors like Ray Dennis Steckler, known for the 1962 Arch Hall Jr. vehicle Wild Guitar [11] and the 1963 horror musical flick The Incredibly Strange Creatures Who Stopped Living and Became Mixed-Up Zombies . [12] This, together with the breakdown of the Motion Picture Production Code in 1966 and the new ratings system in 1968 (reflecting growing market segmentation) set the scene for the New Hollywood. [13]

Bonnie and Clyde

A defining film of the New Hollywood generation was Bonnie and Clyde (1967). [14] Produced by and starring Warren Beatty and directed by Arthur Penn, its combination of graphic violence and humor, as well as its theme of glamorous disaffected youth, was a hit with audiences. The film won Academy Awards for Best Supporting Actress (Estelle Parsons) [15] and Best Cinematography. [16] [17]

When Jack L. Warner, then-CEO of Warner Bros., first saw a rough cut of Bonnie and Clyde in the summer of 1967, he hated it. Distribution executives at Warner Brothers agreed, giving the film a low-key premiere and limited release. Their strategy appeared justified when Bosley Crowther, middlebrow film critic at The New York Times, gave the movie a scathing review. "It is a cheap piece of bald-faced slapstick comedy," he wrote, "that treats the hideous depredations of that sleazy, moronic pair as though they were as full of fun and frolic as the jazz-age cut-ups in Thoroughly Modern Millie ..." Other notices, including those from Time and Newsweek magazines, were equally dismissive. [18]

Its portrayal of violence and ambiguity in regard to moral values, and its startling ending, divided critics. Following one of the negative reviews, Time magazine received letters from fans of the movie, and according to journalist Peter Biskind, the impact of critic Pauline Kael in her positive review of the film (October 1967, New Yorker) led other reviewers to follow her lead and re-evaluate the film (notably Newsweek and Time). [19] Kael drew attention to the innocence of the characters in the film and the artistic merit of the contrast of that with the violence in the film: "In a sense, it is the absence of sadism — it is the violence without sadism — that throws the audience off balance at Bonnie and Clyde. The brutality that comes out of this innocence is far more shocking than the calculated brutalities of mean killers." Kael also noted the reaction of audiences to the violent climax of the movie, and the potential to empathize with the gang of criminals in terms of their naiveté and innocence reflecting a change in expectations of American cinema. [20]

The cover story in Time magazine in December 1967, celebrated the movie and innovation in American New Wave cinema. This influential article by Stefan Kanfer claimed that Bonnie and Clyde represented a "New Cinema" through its blurred genre lines, and disregard for honored aspects of plot and motivation, and that "In both conception and execution, Bonnie and Clyde is a watershed picture, the kind that signals a new style, a new trend." [9] Biskind states that this review and turnaround by some critics allowed the film to be re-released, thus proving its commercial success and reflecting the move toward the New Hollywood. [21] The impact of this film is important in understanding the rest of the American New Wave, as well as the conditions that were necessary for it.

These initial successes paved the way for the studio to relinquish almost complete control to these innovative young filmmakers. In the mid-1970s, idiosyncratic, startling original films such as Paper Moon , Dog Day Afternoon , Chinatown , and Taxi Driver among others, enjoyed enormous critical and commercial success. These successes by the members of the New Hollywood led each of them in turn to make more and more extravagant demands, both on the studio and eventually on the audience.

Characteristics

This new generation of Hollywood filmmaker was most importantly, from the point of view of the studios, young, therefore able to reach the youth audience they were losing. This group of young filmmakers—actors, writers and directors—dubbed the "New Hollywood" by the press, briefly changed the business from the producer-driven Hollywood system of the past.

Todd Berliner has written about the period's unusual narrative practices. The 1970s, Berliner says, marks Hollywood's most significant formal transformation since the conversion to sound film and is the defining period separating the storytelling modes of the studio era and contemporary Hollywood. New Hollywood films deviate from classical narrative norms more than Hollywood films from any other era or movement. Their narrative and stylistic devices threaten to derail an otherwise straightforward narration. Berliner argues that five principles govern the narrative strategies characteristic of Hollywood films of the 1970s:

Thomas Schatz points to another difference with the Hollywood Golden Age, which deals with the relationship of characters and plot. He argues that plot in classical Hollywood films (and some of the earlier New Hollywood films like The Godfather) "tended to emerge more organically as a function of the drives, desires, motivations, and goals of the central characters". However, beginning with mid-1970s, he points to a trend that "characters became plot functions". [24]

During the height of the studio system, films were made almost exclusively on set in isolated studios. The content of films was limited by the Motion Picture Production Code, and though golden-age film-makers found loopholes in its rules, the discussion of more taboo content through film was effectively prevented. The shift towards a "new realism" was made possible when the Motion Picture Association of America film rating system was introduced and location shooting was becoming more viable. New York City was a favorite spot for this new set of filmmakers due to its gritty atmosphere. [25]

Because of breakthroughs in film technology (e.g. the Panavision Panaflex camera, introduced in 1972), the New Hollywood filmmakers could shoot 35mm camera film in exteriors with relative ease. Since location shooting was cheaper (no sets need to be built) New Hollywood filmmakers rapidly developed the taste for location shooting, resulting in a more naturalistic approach to filmmaking, especially when compared to the mostly stylized approach of classical Hollywood musicals and spectacles made to compete with television during the 1950s and early 1960s. The documentary films of D.A. Pennebaker, the Maysles Brothers and Frederick Wiseman, among others, also influenced filmmakers of this era. [26]

However, in editing, New Hollywood filmmakers adhered to realism more liberally than most of their classical Hollywood predecessors, often using editing for artistic purposes rather than for continuity alone, a practice inspired by European art films and classical Hollywood directors such as D. W. Griffith and Alfred Hitchcock. Films with unorthodox editing included Easy Rider's use of jump cuts (influenced by the works of experimental collage filmmaker Bruce Conner [27] [28] [29] ) to foreshadow the climax of the movie, as well as subtler uses, such as those to reflect the feeling of frustration in Bonnie and Clyde , the subjectivity of the protagonist in The Graduate and the passage of time in the famous match cut from 2001: A Space Odyssey . [30] [31] Also influential were the works of experimental filmmakers Arthur Lipsett, [32] Bruce Baillie [33] and Kenneth Anger with their combinations of music and imagery and each were cited by George Lucas and Martin Scorsese as influences. [34]

The end of the production code enabled New Hollywood films to feature anti-establishment political themes, the use of rock music, and sexual freedom deemed "counter-cultural" by the studios. [35] The youth movement of the 1960s turned anti-heroes like Bonnie and Clyde and Cool Hand Luke into pop-culture idols, and Life magazine called the characters in Easy Rider "part of the fundamental myth central to the counterculture of the late 1960s." [36] Easy Rider also affected the way studios looked to reach the youth market. [36] The success of Midnight Cowboy , in spite of its "X" rating, was evidence for the interest in controversial themes at the time and also showed the weakness of the rating system and segmentation of the audience. [37]

Interpretations on defining the movement

For Peter Biskind, the new wave was foreshadowed by Bonnie and Clyde and began in earnest with Easy Rider. Biskind's book Easy Riders, Raging Bulls argues that the New Hollywood movement marked a significant shift towards independently produced and innovative works by a new wave of directors, but that this shift began to reverse itself when the commercial success of Jaws and Star Wars led to the realization by studios of the importance of blockbusters, advertising and control over production (even though the success of The Godfather was said to be the precursor to the blockbuster phenomenon). [38] [39]

Writing in 1968, critic Pauline Kael argued that the importance of The Graduate was in its social significance in relation to a new young audience, and the role of mass media, rather than any artistic aspects. Kael argued that college students identifying with The Graduate were not too different from audiences identifying with characters in dramas of the previous decade. [40]

In 1980, film historian/scholar Robert P. Kolker examined New Hollywood film directors in his book A Cinema of Loneliness: Penn, Kubrick, Coppola, Scorsese, Altman, and how their films influenced American society of the 1960s and 1970s. [41] Kolker observed that "for all the challenge and adventure, their films speak to a continual impotence in the world, an inability to change and to create change." [42]

John Belton points to the changing demographic to even younger, more conservative audiences in the mid 1970s (50% aged 12–20) and the move to less politically subversive themes in mainstream cinema, [43] as did Thomas Schatz, who saw the mid- to late 1970s as the decline of the art cinema movement as a significant industry force with its peak in 1974–75 with Nashville and Chinatown. [44]

Geoff King sees the period as an interim movement in American cinema where a conjunction of forces led to a measure of freedom in filmmaking, [45] while Todd Berliner says that 70s cinema resists the efficiency and harmony that normally characterize classical Hollywood cinema and tests the limits of Hollywood's classical model. [46]

According to author and film critic Charles Taylor (Opening Wednesday at a Theater or Drive-In Near You), he stated that "the 1970s remain the third — and, to date, last — great period in American movies". [47]

Author A.D. Jameson (I Find Your Lack of Faith Disturbing), on the other hand, claimed that Star Wars was New Hollywood's finest achievement that actually embodied the characteristics of the respected "serious, sophisticated adult films". [48] [49]

Criticism

The New Hollywood was not without criticism, as in a Los Angeles Times article film critic Manohla Dargis described it as the "halcyon age" of the decade's filmmaking, that "was less revolution than business as usual, with rebel hype". [50] She also pointed out in her New York Times article that New Hollywood enthusiasts insist this was "when American movies grew up (or at least starred underdressed actresses); when directors did what they wanted (or at least were transformed into brands); when creativity ruled (or at least ran gloriously amok, albeit often on the studio's dime)." [51]

This era of American cinema was also criticized for its excessive decadence and on-set mishaps. [52] [53] Even Steven Spielberg, who co-directed/co-produced 1983's Twilight Zone: The Movie with John Landis, was so disgusted by the latter's handling of the deadly helicopter accident that resulted in the death of character actor Vic Morrow and child actors Myca Dinh Le and Renee Shin-Yi Chen, he ended their friendship and publicly called for the end of this era. When approached by the press about the accident, he stated "No movie is worth dying for. I think people are standing up much more now, than ever before, to producers and directors who ask too much. If something isn't safe, it's the right and responsibility of every actor or crew member to yell, 'Cut!' [54]

Legacy

The films of Steven Spielberg, Brian De Palma, Martin Scorsese and Francis Ford Coppola influenced both the Poliziotteschi genre films in Italy [55] and a decade later the Cinéma du look movement in France. [56]

American Eccentric Cinema has been framed as influenced by this era. [57] Both traditions have similar themes and narratives of existentialism and the need for human interaction. [57] The New Hollywood focuses on the darker elements of humanity and society within the context of the American Dream in the mid-1960s to the early 1980s, [57] with themes that were reflective of sociocultural issues and were centered around the potential meaninglessness of pursuing the American Dream as generation upon generation was motivated to possess it. [57] In comparison, American Eccentric Cinema does not have a distinct context, its films show characters who are very individual and their concerns are very distinctive to their own personalities. [57]

The behind-the-scenes of some of the films from this era (Rosemary's Baby, The Exorcist, Twilight Zone: The Movie and The Omen) were also the subjects for the docuseries Cursed Films . [58] [59] [60] [61]

List of selected important and notable figures of the movement

Actors

Directors

Others

List of selected important and notable films

The following is a chronological list of notable films that are generally considered to be "New Hollywood" productions.

Notes

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Bonnie and Clyde</i> (film) 1967 film by Arthur Penn

Bonnie and Clyde is a 1967 American biographical neo-noir crime film directed by Arthur Penn and starring Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway as the title characters Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker. The film also features Michael J. Pollard, Gene Hackman, and Estelle Parsons. The screenplay is by David Newman and Robert Benton. Robert Towne and Beatty provided uncredited contributions to the script; Beatty produced the film. The music is by Charles Strouse.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Faye Dunaway</span> American actress

Dorothy Faye Dunaway is an American actress. She is the recipient of many accolades, including an Academy Award, a Primetime Emmy Award, three Golden Globe Awards, and a BAFTA Award. In 2011, the government of France made her an Officer of the Order of Arts and Letters.

New German Cinema is a period in German cinema which lasted from 1962 to 1982, in which a new generation of directors emerged who, working with low budgets, and influenced by the French New Wave and Italian Neorealism, gained notice by producing a number of "small" motion pictures that caught the attention of art house audiences. These filmmakers included Percy Adlon, Harun Farocki, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Peter Fleischmann, Werner Herzog, Alexander Kluge, Ulli Lommel, Wolfgang Petersen, Volker Schlöndorff, Helma Sanders-Brahms, Werner Schroeter, Hans-Jürgen Syberberg, Margarethe von Trotta and Wim Wenders. Rosa von Praunheim, who formed the German lesbian and gay movement with his film It Is Not the Homosexual Who Is Perverse, But the Society in Which He Lives (1971), also plays an important role. As a result of the attention they garnered, they were able to create better-financed productions which were backed by the big US studios. However, most of these larger films were commercial failures and the movement was heavily dependent on subsidies. By 1977, 80% of a budget for a typical German film was ensured by a subsidy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pauline Kael</span> American film critic (1919–2001)

Pauline Kael was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker from 1968 to 1991. Known for her "witty, biting, highly opinionated and sharply focused" reviews, Kael's opinions often ran contrary to those of her contemporaries.

A message picture is a motion picture that, in addition to or instead of being for entertainment, intends to communicate a certain message or ideal about society.

<i>Day for Night</i> (film) 1973 film by François Truffaut

Day for Night is a 1973 romantic comedy-drama film co-written and directed by François Truffaut, starring Jacqueline Bisset, Jean-Pierre Léaud and Truffaut himself. The original French title, La Nuit américaine, refers to the French name for the filmmaking process whereby sequences filmed outdoors in daylight are shot with a filter over the camera lens or also using film stock balanced for tungsten (indoor) light and underexposed to appear as if they are taking place at night. In English, the technique is called day for night.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Art film</span> Film genre

An art film is typically an independent film, aimed at a niche market rather than a mass market audience. It is "intended to be a serious, artistic work, often experimental and not designed for mass appeal", "made primarily for aesthetic reasons rather than commercial profit", containing "unconventional or highly symbolic content".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Road movie</span> Film genre in which the main characters leave home on a road trip

A road movie is a film genre in which the main characters leave home on a road trip, typically altering the perspective from their everyday lives. Road movies often depict travel in the hinterlands, with the films exploring the theme of alienation and examining the tensions and issues of the cultural identity of a nation or historical period; this is all often enmeshed in a mood of actual or potential menace, lawlessness, and violence, a "distinctly existential air" and is populated by restless, "frustrated, often desperate characters". The setting includes not just the close confines of the car as it moves on highways and roads, but also booths in diners and rooms in roadside motels, all of which helps to create intimacy and tension between the characters. Road movies tend to focus on the theme of masculinity, some type of rebellion, car culture, and self-discovery. The core theme of road movies is "rebellion against conservative social norms".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bosley Crowther</span> American film critic

Francis Bosley Crowther Jr. was an American journalist, writer, and film critic for The New York Times for 27 years. His work helped shape the careers of many actors, directors and screenwriters, though his reviews, at times, were perceived as unnecessarily mean. Crowther was an advocate of foreign-language films in the 1950s and 1960s, particularly those of Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, Ingmar Bergman, and Federico Fellini.

The Australian New Wave was an era of resurgence in worldwide popularity of Australian cinema, particularly in the United States. It began in the early 1970s and lasted until the mid-late 1980s. The era also marked the emergence of Ozploitation, a film genre characterised by the exploitation of colloquial Australian culture.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">David Bordwell</span> American film scholar

David Jay Bordwell is an American film theorist and film historian. Since receiving his PhD from the University of Iowa in 1974, he has written more than fifteen volumes on the subject of cinema including Narration in the Fiction Film (1985), Ozu and the Poetics of Cinema (1988), Making Meaning (1989), and On the History of Film Style (1997).

Hyperlink cinema is a style of filmmaking characterised by complex or multilinear narrative structures with multiple characters under one unifying theme.

Gerald Bernard "Jerry" Greenberg was an American film editor with more than 40 feature film credits. Greenberg received both the Academy Award for Best Film Editing and the BAFTA Award for Best Editing for the film The French Connection (1971). In the 1980s, he edited five films with director Brian De Palma.

An auteur is an artist with a distinctive approach, usually a film director whose filmmaking control is so unbounded but personal that the director is likened to be the "author" of the film, which thus manifests the director's unique style or thematic focus. As an unnamed value, auteurism originated in French film criticism of the late 1940s, and derives from the critical approach of André Bazin and Alexandre Astruc, whereas American critic Andrew Sarris in 1962 called it auteur theory. Yet the concept first appeared in French in 1955 when director François Truffaut termed it policy of the authors, and interpreted the films of some directors, like Alfred Hitchcock, as a body revealing recurring themes and preoccupations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antony Gibbs</span>

Antony Gibbs was an English film and television editor with more than 40 feature film credits. He was a member of the American Cinema Editors (ACE).

Sadhana is an Indian actress in Malayalam movies. She was a leading actress during the late 1960s and 1970s in Malayalam and Tamil movies. She has acted in more than 100 movies.

Lou Lombardo was an American filmmaker whose editing of the 1969 film The Wild Bunch has been called "seminal". In all, Lombardo is credited on more than twenty-five feature films. Noted mainly for his work as a film and television editor, he also worked as a cameraman, director, and producer. In his obituary, Stephen Prince wrote, "Lou Lombardo's seminal contribution to the history of editing is his work on The Wild Bunch (1969), directed by Sam Peckinpah. The complex montages of violence that Lombardo created for that film influenced generations of filmmakers and established the modern cinematic textbook for editing violent gun battles." Several critics have remarked on the "strange, elastic quality" of time in the film, and have discerned the film's influence in the work of directors John Woo, Quentin Tarantino, Kathryn Bigelow, and the Wachowskis, among others. While Lombardo's collaboration with Peckinpah lasted just a few years, his career was intertwined with that of director Robert Altman for more than thirty years. Lombardo edited Altman's 1971 film McCabe & Mrs. Miller (1971), which had "a radical approach to the use of dialogue and indeed other sound, both in and beyond the frame." Towards the end of his career Lombardo edited Moonstruck (1987) and two other films directed by Norman Jewison. While his editing is now considered "revolutionary" and "brilliant", Lombardo was never nominated for editing awards during his career.

<i>The Bonnie Parker Story</i> 1958 film

The Bonnie Parker Story is a 1958 crime film directed by William Witney. The movie is loosely based on the life of Bonnie Parker, a well-known outlaw of the 1930. The film stars Dorothy Provine as Parker; Parker's actual historical partner, Clyde Barrow, is renamed Guy Darrow for the film's story, and played by Jack Hogan. The film was released by American International Pictures as a double feature with Machine Gun Kelly starring Charles Bronson in his first leading role.

Terrence Malick is an American film director, screenwriter and producer. Throughout his career, which has spanned over four decades, he has directed nine feature films and one documentary. He has also written scripts for other directors, and since the 1990s has acted as producer and executive producer on numerous projects.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gangster film</span> Film genre

A gangster film or gangster movie is a film belonging to a genre that focuses on gangs and organized crime. It is a subgenre of crime film, that may involve large criminal organizations, or small gangs formed to perform a certain illegal act. The genre is differentiated from Westerns and the gangs of that genre.

References

  1. 1 2 "Film History of the 1970s". www.filmsite.org.
  2. "50 best movies from the 1970s". Stacker.
  3. Bogdanovich, Peter. "Peter Bogdanovich Chapter 2".
  4. David E James, Allegories of Cinema, American Film in the Sixties, Princeton University Press, New York, 1989, pp. 14–26
  5. 1 2 Hodgins, Eric (1957-06-10). "Amid Ruins of an Empire a New Hollywood Arises". Life. p. 146. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
  6. Schatz (1993) , pp. 15–20
  7. Belton (1993) , p. 290
  8. David A Cook, "Auteur Cinema and the film generation in 70s Hollywood", in The New American Cinema by Jon Lewis (ed), Duke University Press, New York, 1998, pp. 1–4
  9. 1 2 "Arthur Penn's 'Bonnie and Clyde': A New Style of Film - TIME". April 21, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-04-21.
  10. Schatz (1993) , pp. 14–16
  11. From the Arthouse to the Grindhouse - Google Books (pg.192)
  12. Patterson, John (January 6, 2016). "Vilmos Zsigmond: the cinematographer who transformed how films look". The Guardian. London, United Kingdom. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  13. Schatz (1993)
  14. 1 2 "AFI Silver Theatre and Cultural Center". www.afi.com.
  15. "Estelle Parsons winning Best Supporting Actress" via www.youtube.com.
  16. "Burnett Guffey winning the Oscar® for Cinematography for "Bonnie and Clyde"" via www.youtube.com.
  17. "The 40th Academy Awards | 1968". Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
  18. "New Hollywood: American New Wave Cinema (1967-69)". www.newwavefilm.com.
  19. Biskind (1998) , pp. 40–47
  20. Pauline Kael, "Bonnie and Clyde" in, Pauline Kael, For Keeps (Plume, New York, 1994) pp. 141–57. Originally published in The New Yorker, October 21, 1967
  21. Biskind (1998)
  22. Berliner (2010) , pp. 51–52
  23. John Frankenheimer's 'Seconds': The Loneliest Studio Film of the 1960s - Film School Rejects
  24. Schatz (1993) , pp. 22
  25. McCormack, J. W. (May 1, 2018). "The 11 Best Gritty New York Films from the 1970s". Culture Trip.
  26. 1 2 3 "Filmmuseum - Program SD". www.filmmuseum.at.
  27. Dargis, Manohla (July 12, 2008). "An Artist of the Cutting-Room Floor". The New York Times.
  28. "Bruce Conner: The Artist Who Shaped Our World". DangerousMinds. June 25, 2011.
  29. "Bruce Conner: Father of the Music Video – Utne". www.utne.com. October 2, 2013.
  30. Monaco (2001) , p. 183
  31. April 02, David Canfield; EDT, 2018 at 10:15 AM. "Why '2001: A Space Odyssey' was a masterpiece so ahead of its time". EW.com.
  32. "Arthur Lipsett: Inside His Disturbed & Disturbing Collage Films". October 5, 2016.
  33. Hoberman, J. (April 10, 2020). "Bruce Baillie, 'Essential' Avant-Garde Filmmaker, Dies at 88". The New York Times.
  34. "Martin Scorsese: Champion Of The Underground". Underground Film Journal. January 20, 2010.
  35. Schatz (1993) , pp. 12–22
  36. 1 2 Monaco (2001) , pp. 182–188
  37. Belton (1993) , p. 288
  38. Biskind (1998) , p. 288
  39. "A Century in Exhibition—The 1970s: A New Hope". Boxoffice. November 27, 2020.
  40. Pauline Kael, "Trash, Art, and the Movies" in Going Steady, Film Writings 1968–69, Marion Boyers, New York, 1994, pp. 125–7
  41. Aleiss, Angela (December 1981). "Review: A Cinema of Loneliness by Robert Phillip Kolker". Comparative Literature. Johns Hopkins University Press. 96 (5): 1257–1260. JSTOR   2906265 . Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  42. Palmer, R. Barton (2007). "The Shining and Anti-Nostalgia: Postmodern Notions of History". In Abrams, Jerold J. (ed.). The Philosophy of Stanley Kubrick. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 201–218. ISBN   9780813124452. JSTOR   j.ctt2jcpb1.15 . Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  43. Belton (1993) , pp. 292–296
  44. Schatz (1993) , p. 20
  45. King (2002) , p. 48
  46. Berliner (2010)
  47. 1 2 Valentine, Genevieve (June 7, 2017). "'Opening Wednesday' Dusts Off Some Overlooked Cinematic Treasures". NPR.
  48. 1 2 Keane, Erin (May 4, 2018). ""Star Wars" didn't kill American cinema. Is it New Hollywood's greatest achievement?". Salon.
  49. Kelly, Brian P. (June 7, 2018). "'I Find Your Lack of Faith Disturbing' Review: The Geeks Strike Back". Wall Street Journal via www.wsj.com.
  50. 1 2 Dargis, Dargis (August 17, 2003). "The '70s: Get over it". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  51. 1 2 Dargis, Manohla (12 November 2010). "'60s Hollywood, the Rebels and the Studios: Power Shifted (or Did It?)". The New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  52. "Decade of decadence: Nicholson, Polanski and Hollywood in the Seventies". The Independent. October 1, 2009.
  53. 1 2 3 "Cursed Films' 'Twilight Zone: The Movie' is a devastating account of a tragedy that shook Hollywood to the core | MEAWW". meaww.com.
  54. 1 2 "Deadliest horror movies ever made: Films surrounded by real-life death". gulfnews.com.
  55. Nobile, Phil Jr. (September 13, 2015). "Violent Italy: A Poliziotteschi Primer". Birth.Movies.Death.
  56. Ross, Cai. "10 Essential Films For An Introduction To Cinema du Look".
  57. 1 2 3 4 5 Wilkins, Kim. American eccentric cinema. ISBN   978-1-5013-3694-2. OCLC   1090782214.
  58. "CURSED FILMS Interviews: Director Jay Cheel and Occult Writer Mitch Horowitz Talk Horror Movies". ScreenAnarchy. August 19, 2020.
  59. Fowler, Matt (April 18, 2020). "Shudder's Cursed Films: Season 1 Review". IGN.
  60. "Cursed Films: The Omen | A Shudder Original Series" via www.youtube.com.
  61. Romanchick, Shane (March 25, 2022). "'Cursed Films' Season 2 Trailer Reveals More Mysteries and Oddities From Famous Films". Collider.
  62. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 "Actors of the '70s: Then and now". msn.com. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  63. "McCabe & Mrs. Miller (1971)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  64. "The Best Movies Starring Ned Beatty". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  65. Warren Beatty: 10 essential films. "He helped usher in New Hollywood with Bonnie and Clyde, and became one of the key actors of that 1970s golden age of American cinema." BFI Website, 27 March 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  66. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "New Hollywood". Flickchart. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  67. 1 2 3 4 5 "A HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEW WAVE CINEMA Part Three: New Hollywood (1970–1971)". newwavefilm.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  68. "Why 1974 Was Mel Brooks's Best Year". Best Movies by Farr.
  69. "The Best Movies Starring Keith Carradine". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  70. 1 2 "The Conversation" via www.flickchart.com.
  71. 1 2 TV News Desk. "BAMcinématek to Present A Different Picture: Women Filmmakers in the New Hollywood Era". broadwayworld.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  72. 1 2 "The 70s was the golden age of Hollywood. But why? | Film". The Guardian. 13 July 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  73. 1 2 "20 Movies That Prove That The 1970s Was The Best Decade For Film-Page 14-8. One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest". whatculture.com. 7 January 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  74. 1 2 3 "Personal Criticism". The New Yorker. August 3, 2009.
  75. 1 2 3 "Trends in 70's Cinema: New Hollywood". cinelinx.com. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  76. "The Best Movies Starring Richard Gere". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  77. "Oscar-winner Lee Grant talks classic films, the blacklist and being a female director in Hollywood". Los Angeles Times. April 5, 2017.
  78. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "The Greatest Era in Film History: 10 Movies From '70s America". Paste Magazine. 27 October 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  79. 'Road Trip to Nowhere: Hollywood Encounters the Counterculture' Review - Slant Magazine
  80. 1 2 "Peter Bogdanovich, Between Old and New Hollywood - Harvard Film Archive". hcl.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-06-21. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  81. 1 2 "New Hollywood (1967–1977)". jahsonic.com. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  82. 1 2 Hendershot, Heather (11 May 2011). "Losers Take All: On the New American Cinema". The Nation. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  83. "All That Jazz (1979)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  84. "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner (1967)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  85. "Julia (1977)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  86. "The Best Movies Starring Jason Robards". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  87. "Days of Heaven (1978)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  88. "The Best Movies Starring Tom Skerritt". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  89. "Melvin and Howard (1980)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  90. "The Late Show (1977)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  91. 1 2 "You're a Big Boy Now (1966)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  92. "20 Movies That Prove That The 1970s Was The Best Decade For Film-Page 2-20.Alien". whatculture.com. 7 January 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  93. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "The 10 Greatest Directors of The New Hollywood Era « Taste of Cinema - Movie Reviews and Classic Movie Lists". www.tasteofcinema.com.
  94. 1 2 3 4 "The 10 Greatest Directors of The New Hollywood Era « Taste of Cinema - Movie Reviews and Classic Movie Lists". www.tasteofcinema.com.
  95. Popeye: The WTF Masterstroke in Robert Altman's Filmography - Hollywood Suite
  96. "The shallow Hal skims the career of the director behind Harold And Maude and Being There". The A.V. Club. September 4, 2018.
  97. Cocaine Parlays with Hal Ashby - Splice Today
  98. "The Best Movies Directed by John G. Avildsen". Flickchart. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  99. 1 2 "10 essential New Hollywood directors you should know". Little White Lies. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  100. 1 2 "Keeping it Real with Ralph Bakshi (Part II)". Star & Crescent. October 23, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2018.
  101. 1 2 "The China Syndrome (1979)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  102. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Thompson & Bordwell 2003, p. 528.
  103. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 "A HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEW WAVE CINEMA Part Three: New Hollywood (1967–1969)". newwavefilm.com. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  104. 1 2 3 4 "Top 100 Best 70s Movies". filmschoolwtf.com. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  105. 1 2 3 "Critical Discussion Transforms Art: Haile Gerima, the L.A. Rebellion, and Cinema as Life, PopMatters". November 18, 2019.
  106. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "Heaven's Gate (1980)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  107. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A Brief History Of New Hollywood|The Rise - Little White Lies on YouTube
  108. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A Brief History Of New Hollywood | The Fall - Little White Lies on YouTube
  109. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Michalis Kokonis (February 4, 2009). "Hollywood's Major Crisis and the American Film "Renaissance"" (PDF). Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  110. 1 2 "Night of Vengeance: Wes Craven's 'The Last House on the Left' 43 Years Later". grantland.com. 2 September 2015. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  111. Duralde, Alonso (July 5, 2021). "Richard Donner Appreciation: An Old-School Hit-Maker Who Emerged From New Hollywood".
  112. 1 2 3 Bernardoni, J. (2001). The New Hollywood: What the Movies Did with the New Freedoms of the Seventies. McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers. p. 14. ISBN   9780786483075 . Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  113. "The Top 10 Movies Directed by Walter Hill". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  114. Aurthur, Kate. "Hollywood's Forgotten Gay Romance". BuzzFeed.
  115. "News - A Never Ending (Love) Story?". www.kino-zeit.de.
  116. Staff, The Playlist (24 April 2014). "10 Great Overlooked Films From The 1970s".
  117. "Hollywood has never matched the gritty masterpieces of the 1970s" . Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  118. "BOMB Magazine | Damaged Goods: John Landis". BOMB Magazine.
  119. "New Hollywood: Paul Mazursky". Film Comment.
  120. Foundas, Scott (July 2, 2014). "Variety's Scott Foundas Remembers Paul Mazursky: A Poetic Farceur of American Lives".
  121. The Pickle Exemplifies Everything That Made Paul Mazursky's Exhausting — Nathan Rabin's Happy Place
  122. 1 2 Kirshner 2012, p. 191.
  123. Carioscia, Anthony (December 27, 2018). "New Hollywood Rewind: The Birth of the Blockbuster".
  124. Jacobs, Laura (31 May 2018). "The Devil Inside: Watching Rosemary's Baby in the Age of #MeToo". HWD.
  125. "Alan Rudolph and Keith Carradine in Conversation". MUBI.
  126. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Robnik, Drehli. "Allegories of post-Fordism in 1970s New Hollywood: Countercultural combat films, conspiracy thrillers as genre-recycling (2004) | Drehli Robnik". The Last Great American Picture Show: 333. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  127. Lindsey, Craig (March 22, 2021). "Hear me out: why 1941 isn't a bad movie". the Guardian.
  128. 1 2 3 Palmer, Landon (October 20, 2015). "The Darkness of Steven Spielberg". Film School Rejects.
  129. 1 2 New Hollywood Cinema in the 1970s. Amsterdam University Press. 2004. ISBN   9789053566312. JSTOR   j.ctt46mxhc via JSTOR.
  130. It's 'Shirley' Something to Remember: Airplane! 40 Years Later - JewThink
  131. "Remembering Pioneering Film Editor Dede Allen". NPR.org. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  132. 1 2 "The 30 Greatest Cinematographers of All Time « Taste of Cinema - Movie Reviews and Classic Movie Lists". tasteofcinema.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  133. "My Year Of Flops Case File #81 Heaven's Gate". The A.V. Club. November 1, 2007.
  134. eFilmCritic - Bill Butler, Cinematographer - Profile Interview Series Vol.7
  135. "Classic Hollywood: This will turn your head around: 'The Exorcist' turns 45 this month". Los Angeles Times. October 20, 2018.
  136. "Wendy Carlos - A Clockwork Orange: Wendy Carlos's Complete Original Score - Amazon.com Music". amazon.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  137. "A Clockwork Orange - Complete Original Score (1971)". www.soundtrack.net.
  138. Notebook Soundtrack Mix #9: Secret Synthesis — The Lost Worlds of Wendy Carlos on Notebook|MUBI
  139. "What Paddy Chayefsky's Notes on 'Network' Teach Us about 'Parenting' a Screenplay". No Film School. 24 April 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  140. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 "Notebook Soundtrack Mix #6: The New Hollywood Mixtape". MUBI.
  141. "Stewart Copeland - Rumble Fish Album Reviews, Songs & More | AllMusic" via www.allmusic.com.
  142. "Rumble Fish - Original Motion Picture Soundtrack" via Amazon.
  143. "Blow Out Soundtrack (1981)". soundtrack.net. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  144. "Sorcerer | Film Review". Slant Magazine. 23 May 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  145. "Sorcerer Soundtrack (1977)". www.soundtrack.net.
  146. "Pat Garrett & Billy the Kid (1973)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  147. 1 2 "Watch: 'Siskel And Ebert' Discuss The Lost Classics Of the 1970s". theplaylist.net. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  148. Gleiberman, Owen (October 29, 2019). "A Tribute to Robert Evans: The Producer Who Stayed in the Picture".
  149. "Robert Evans: eloquent and passionate midwife to the Hollywood new wave | Peter Bradshaw". the Guardian. October 28, 2019.
  150. Fractured Mirror 2.0 #3 The Kid Stays in the Picture (2002) — Nathan Rabin's Happy Place
  151. "William A. Fraker dies at 86; Hollywood cinematographer". Los Angeles Times. June 2, 2010.
  152. "Badlands (1973)-Articles-TCM.com". tcm.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  153. "Chinatown Soundtrack (1974)". soundtrack.net. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  154. "The 30 Greatest Cinematographers of All Time « Taste of Cinema - Movie Reviews and Classic Movie Lists". tasteofcinema.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  155. James Wong Howe: A Gutsy Cinematographer Finally Gets His Due - The New York Times
  156. Cooper, Carol. "Quincy Goes to Hollywood". The Criterion Collection.
  157. "Filmmaker's Handbook: What is the New Hollywood movement?". ScreenPrism. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  158. 1 2 3 4 When the Movies Mattered - Google Books
  159. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "A HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEW WAVE CINEMA Part Three: New Hollywood (1970–1971)". newwavefilm.com. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  160. "American Gigolo". July 20, 1980 via Amazon.
  161. "Giorgio Moroder - Midnight Express [Original Soundtrack] Album Reviews, Songs & More | AllMusic" via www.allmusic.com.
  162. "Days Of Heaven Soundtrack (1978)". soundtrack.net. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  163. "Original Soundtrack - Midnight Cowboy Album Reviews, Songs & More | AllMusic" via www.allmusic.com.
  164. "Midnight Cowboy" via Amazon.
  165. "Jack Nitzsche, Jack Nitzsche - One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest: Original Soundtrack - Amazon.com Music". amazon.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  166. "One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest Soundtrack (1975)". www.soundtrack.net.
  167. "The Exorcist Soundtrack (1973)". soundtrack.net. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  168. Erbland, Kate (May 28, 2020). "'You Must Remember This': How an Unfinished Memoir Reveals Polly Platt's Forgotten Hollywood Legacy".
  169. "OWEN ROIZMAN | Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences". oscars.org. 17 October 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  170. "Bullitt Soundtrack (1968)". soundtrack.net. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  171. "Original Soundtrack - THX 1138 [Original Motion Picture Soundtrack] Album Reviews, Songs & More | AllMusic" via www.allmusic.com.
  172. "The Conversation Soundtrack (1974)". soundtrack.net. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  173. Revisiting an Oscar Night Controversy - in 1975 - UC Press Blog
  174. "13 Things You Didn't Know About Woodstock". HuffPost. November 25, 2013.
  175. "What's the Big Deal?: Raging Bull (1980)". MTV.
  176. "The 10 Most Influential Cinematographers of All Time « Taste of Cinema - Movie Reviews and Classic Movie Lists". tasteofcinema.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  177. "'The Last Detail': Hal Ashby and Robert Towne's Slice of the '70s America • Cinephilia & Beyond". cinephiliabeyond.org. 26 April 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  178. "Tom Waits, Crystal Gayle - One from the Heart Album Reviews, Songs & More | AllMusic" via www.allmusic.com.
  179. "One From The Heart Soundtrack (1982 / 2004)". www.soundtrack.net.
  180. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 "One great New Hollywood film for every year (1967 to 82)". BFI.
  181. Jon Burlingame (10 January 2018). "John Williams Could Set Another Oscar Record". Variety. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  182. "John Williams - Jaws [Original Score] Album Reviews, Songs & More | AllMusic" via www.allmusic.com.
  183. "Remembering Legendary Cinematographers Haskell Wexler and Vilmos Zsigmond". American Film Institute. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  184. Kreps, Daniel (2 July 2016). "Michael Cimino, 'The Deer Hunter' Director, Dead at 77". Rolling Stone .
  185. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 "New American Cinema".
  186. 1 2 3 4 5 Davidson, James. "15 Sleeper Films Of The New Hollywood Era That Are Worth Seeing".
  187. "The Chase" via www.flickchart.com.
  188. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Thompson & Bordwell 2003, p. 515.
  189. Stevens, Kyle (2011). DiMare, Philip C. (ed.). Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?. Movies in American History: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 528–530. ISBN   9781598842968.
  190. Nashawaty, Chris (2013). "Book Excerpt: Crab Monsters, Teenage Cavemen, and Candy Stripe Nurses".
  191. "Seconds" via www.flickchart.com.
  192. Seconds (John Frankenheimer, 1967) and Point Blank (John Boorman, 1968) - Offscreen
  193. "The Shooting" via www.flickchart.com.
  194. "The Best Movies Directed by Monte Hellman". Flickchart.
  195. 1 2 Looking Back on Hollywood's Second Golden Age|Hollywood.com
  196. "In the Heat of the Night" via www.flickchart.com.
  197. 1 2 3 Thompson & Bordwell 2003, p. 513.
  198. 1 2 3 4 Harris 2008, p. 1–4.
  199. 1 2 3 4 5 Film History According to Tarantino - ArtReview
  200. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Krämer 2005, p. 8.
  201. "In Cold Blood" via www.flickchart.com.
  202. "Reflections in a Golden Eye" via www.flickchart.com.
  203. "The Best Movies Starring Paul Newman". Flickchart.
  204. "Who's That Knocking At My Door" via www.flickchart.com.
  205. 1 2 Thompson & Bordwell 2003, p. 514.
  206. 1 2 Harris 2008, p. 386.
  207. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Schasny, Josh. "25 New Hollywood Era Films That Projected the Hopes and Fears of the Times".
  208. "The Best Movies Directed by John Cassavetes". Flickchart.
  209. "THE SWIMMER - American Cinematheque". www.americancinemathequecalendar.com.
  210. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Thompson & Bordwell 2003, p. 516.
  211. 1 2 3 4 Thompson & Bordwell 2003, p. 517.
  212. Harris 2008, pp. 416–417.
  213. 1 2 Harris 2008, p. 422.
  214. "The Thomas Crown Affair" via www.flickchart.com.
  215. Kirshner 2012, p. 127.
  216. Steve McQueen's Bullitt Set A New Standard For What Car Chase Scenes Could Be|/Film
  217. 1 2 Thompson & Bordwell 2003, p. 530.
  218. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Crawford, Travis (16 December 2010). "Criterion: American Lost and Found: The BBS Story". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  219. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Thompson & Bordwell 2003, p. 518.
  220. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Thompson & Bordwell 2003, p. 519.
  221. 1 2 3 4 Hughes, Woodson. "The 30 Most Underappreciated Movies of The New Hollywood Era".
  222. The Dark Side of the New Hollywood: On Jon Lewis's "Road Trip to Nowhere" - Los Angeles Review of Books
  223. "Husbands (1970)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  224. M*A*S*H at 50: the Robert Altman comedy that revels in cruel misogyny The Guardian. 21 January 2020.
  225. 1 2 "Return to New Hollywood". March 15, 2006.
  226. "The Landlord (1970)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  227. "New Hollywood Auteur | wcftr.commarts.wisc.edu". wcftr.commarts.wisc.edu.
  228. 1 2 Kehr, Dave (June 3, 2009). "Two Views of One Time". The New York Times.
  229. "A New Leaf (1971)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  230. Kirshner 2012, p. 94.
  231. 1 2 3 4 5 Hughes, Woodson. "The 30 Most Underappreciated Movies of The New Hollywood Era".
  232. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "New Hollywood: 50 Movies That Reshaped the Film Industry: Carnal Knowledge (1971)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  233. 1 2 3 Hughes, Woodson. "The 30 Most Underappreciated Movies of The New Hollywood Era".
  234. "The Hospital (1971)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  235. Hitchman, Simon (2015). "A History of American New Wave Cinema".
  236. "Harold and Maude (1971)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  237. "THX 1138 (1971)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  238. "The Heartbreak Kid (1972)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  239. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "New Hollywood: 50 Movies That Reshaped the Film Industry: Cabaret (1972)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  240. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "New Hollywood: 50 Movies That Reshaped the Film Industry: Deliverance (1972)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  241. 1 2 3 4 Hughes, Woodson. "The 30 Most Underappreciated Movies of The New Hollywood Era".
  242. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "New Hollywood: 50 Movies That Reshaped the Film Industry: Fat City (1972)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  243. Fritz the Cat (1972) - Flickchart
  244. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 Best Films Of The American New Wave, According To IMDb - Screen Rant
  245. "15 Sleeper Films Of The New Hollywood Era That Are Worth Seeing « Taste of Cinema".
  246. Krämer 2005, p. 50.
  247. Symmons, Tom (13 June 2016). The New Hollywood Historical Film: 1967-78. p. 61. ISBN   9781137529305.
  248. "The Friends of Eddie Coyle (1973)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  249. 1 2 3 Phipps, Keith (15 March 2011). "New Hollywood gumshoes: The Long Goodbye, The Late Show, Night Moves". Film.
  250. Gleiberman, Owen (January 31, 2018). "Film Review: 'Hal'".
  251. "The New Hollywood". Lewis Center for the Arts.
  252. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "New Hollywood: 50 Movies That Reshaped the Film Industry: Paper Moon (1973)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  253. Langford 2010, p. 148.
  254. "Blume in Love (1973)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  255. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "New Hollywood: 50 Movies That Reshaped the Film Industry: Serpico (1973)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  256. "Three Takes #2: James William Guercio's "Electra Glide In Blue"". MUBI.
  257. Wolfe, Denise (28 July 2014). ""Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore" - 1974: New Hollywood's Golden Year". Purple Clover.
  258. "Thieves Like Us (1974)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  259. "Robert Altman|NE Film Center".
  260. "Thunderbolt and Lightfoot (1974)". Flickchart. Retrieved December 14, 2022.
  261. 1 2 3 4 Perno, G.S. (September 20, 2015). "Trends in 70's Cinema: New Hollywood". Cinelinx. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  262. "The Taking of Pelham One Two Three (1974)". Flickchart. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  263. "Bert Schneider, 1933 - 2011". MUBI.
  264. Sub-Cult 2.0 # 10 Freebie and the Bean (1974) — Nathan Rabin's Happy Place
  265. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "New Hollywood: 50 Movies That Reshaped the Film Industry: Dog Day Afternoon (1975)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  266. Cheever, Abigail (June 11, 2018). "Unpredictable: Three Days of the Condor, Information Theory, and The Remaking of Professional Ideology". Post45. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
  267. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thompson & Bordwell 2003, p. 527.
  268. 1 2 Harris 2008, p. 419.
  269. Symmons, Tom (2016). The 'New Wave' and 'Old Hollywood': The Day of the Locust (1975), 'Movies About the Movies' and the Generational Divide. pp. 21–56. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-52930-5_2. ISBN   978-1-137-52929-9.
  270. Thompson & Bordwell 2003, p. 617.
  271. 1 2 3 On the Tuneless Cole Porter Musical At Long Last Love, Peter Bogdanovich’s “Great Debacle,” Screening This Weekend - The L Magazine
  272. "Mikey and Nicky (1976)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  273. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "New Hollywood: 50 Movies That Reshaped the Film Industry: All the President's Men (1976)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  274. Brayton, Tim (June 11, 2015). "Summer of Blood: New Hollywood Horror - Little devil". Alternative Ending. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  275. 1 2 3 4 5 "Filmmuseum - Program SD". www.filmmuseum.at.
  276. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "New Hollywood: 50 Movies That Reshaped the Film Industry".
  277. Robert Altman Sixteen Films. 1970-2006 - Filmmuseum - Program SD
  278. News and Commentary – Robert Altman: The New Hollywood Years - MidCenturyCinema
  279. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "New Hollywood: 50 Movies That Reshaped the Film Industry: Annie Hall (1977)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  280. Shail, Robert (July 25, 2019). Seventies British Cinema. United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 33. ISBN   9781838718060.
  281. "The Late Show" via www.flickchart.com.
  282. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "New Hollywood: 50 Movies That Reshaped the Film Industry: Looking for Mr. Goodbar (1977)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  283. "New York, New York (1977)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  284. "Opening Night (1977)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  285. Nordine, Michael (April 11, 2017). "Sorcerer (1977)". IndieWire . Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  286. "Coming Home (1978)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  287. "F.I.S.T" via www.flickchart.com.
  288. "Big Wednesday (1978)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  289. "Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978)". Flickchart . Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  290. "Midnight Express" via www.flickchart.com.