Superman (1978 film)

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Superman
Superman ver1.jpg
Theatrical release poster by Bob Peak
Directed by Richard Donner
Produced by Pierre Spengler
Screenplay by
Story byMario Puzo
Based on Superman
by Jerry Siegel
Joe Shuster
Starring
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Geoffrey Unsworth
Edited by
Production
companies
  • International Film Productions [1]
  • Dovemead Ltd. [1]
Distributed by
Release date
  • December 10, 1978 (1978-12-10)(Kennedy Center)
  • December 14, 1978 (1978-12-14)(United Kingdom)
  • December 15, 1978 (1978-12-15)(United States)
Running time
143 minutes [2]
Country
  • United Kingdom [3]
  • Switzerland [3]
  • Panama [3]
  • United States [3]
LanguageEnglish
Budget$55 million [4]
Box office$300.5 million [4]

Superman (informally titled Superman: The Movie in some listings and reference sources) is a 1978 superhero film directed by Richard Donner starring Christopher Reeve as Superman based on the DC Comics character of the same name. An international co-production between the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Panama and the United States, [3] the film stars an ensemble cast featuring Marlon Brando, Gene Hackman, Christopher Reeve, Jeff East, Margot Kidder, Glenn Ford, Phyllis Thaxter, Jackie Cooper, Trevor Howard, Marc McClure, Terence Stamp, Valerie Perrine, Ned Beatty, Jack O'Halloran, Maria Schell, and Sarah Douglas. It depicts Superman's origin, including his infancy as Kal-El of Krypton and his youthful years in the rural town of Smallville. Disguised as reporter Clark Kent, he adopts a mild-mannered disposition in Metropolis and develops a romance with Lois Lane, while battling the villainous Lex Luthor.

Superhero film Film genre

A superhero film, superhero movie or superhero motion picture is a film that is focused on the actions of one or more superheroes: individuals who usually possess superhuman abilities relative to a normal person and are dedicated to protecting the public. These films typically feature action, adventure, fantasy or science fiction elements, with the first film of a particular character often including a focus on the origin of their special powers and their first confrontation with their most famous supervillain or archenemy.

Richard Donner film director

Richard Donner is an American director and producer of film and television. After directing the horror film The Omen (1976), Donner became famous for directing the first modern superhero film, Superman (1978), starring Christopher Reeve.

Superman (Salkind films)

Superman (Kal-El) or Clark Kent is a fictional character portrayed by Christopher Reeve in the Superman film series produced by Ilya and Alexander Salkind, and is an adaption of the original comic book character, Superman. Many actors were interviewed for the part before Christopher Reeve was chosen to fill the role. Superman is portrayed as a superhero who stands for "truth, justice and the American way". The character was received positively and Reeve's performance is ranked as one of the best in superhero films.

Contents

Several directors, most notably Guy Hamilton, and screenwriters (Mario Puzo, David and Leslie Newman, and Robert Benton), were associated with the project before Richard Donner was hired to direct. Tom Mankiewicz was drafted in to rewrite the script and was given a "creative consultant" credit. It was decided to film both Superman and its sequel Superman II (1980) simultaneously, with principal photography beginning in March 1977 and ending in October 1978. Tensions arose between Donner and the producers, and a decision was made to stop filming the sequel, of which 75 percent had already been completed, and finish the first film. [5]

Guy Hamilton English film director

Mervyn Ian Guy Hamilton, DSC was an English film director. He directed 22 films from the 1950s to the 1980s, including four James Bond films.

Mario Puzo American writer

Mario Gianluigi Puzo was an American author, screenwriter and journalist. He is known for his crime novels about the Italian-American mafia, most notably The Godfather (1969), which he later co-adapted into a three-part film saga directed by Francis Ford Coppola. He received the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay for the first film in 1972 and Part II in 1974. Puzo also wrote the original screenplay for the 1978 Superman film. His final novel The Family was released posthumously in 2001.

Leslie Newman is a screenwriter who co-wrote the first three Superman films with husband David Newman, who died in 2003. She was born in 1939, in the United States. They had two children together. She has written a novel entitled Gathering Force, and a cook book entitled Feasts: Menus for Home-cooked Celebrations.

The most expensive film made up to that point with a budget of $55 million, Superman was released in December 1978 to critical and financial success; its worldwide box office earnings of $300 million made it the second-highest-grossing release of the year. It received praise for Reeve's performance, [6] and was nominated for three Academy Awards, including Best Film Editing, Best Music (Original Score), and Best Sound, and received a Special Achievement Academy Award for Visual Effects. [7] Groundbreaking in its use of special effects and science fiction/fantasy storytelling, the film's legacy presaged the mainstream popularity of Hollywood's superhero film franchises. In 2017, Superman was inducted into the Library of Congress' National Film Registry.

Academy Awards American awards given annually for excellence in cinematic achievements

The Academy Awards, also officially and popularly known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership. The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more commonly referred to by its nickname "Oscar".

Academy Award for Best Film Editing one of the annual awards of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

The Academy Award for Best Film Editing is one of the annual awards of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). Nominations for this award are closely correlated with the Academy Award for Best Picture. For 33 consecutive years, 1981 to 2013, every Best Picture winner had also been nominated for the Film Editing Oscar, and about two thirds of the Best Picture winners have also won for Film Editing. Only the principal, "above the line" editor(s) as listed in the film's credits are named on the award; additional editors, supervising editors, etc. are not currently eligible. The nominations for this Academy Award are determined by a ballot of the voting members of the Editing Branch of the Academy; there were 220 members of the Editing Branch in 2012. The members may vote for up to five of the eligible films in the order of their preference; the five films with the largest vote totals are selected as nominees. The Academy Award itself is selected from the nominated films by a subsequent ballot of all active and life members of the Academy. This process is essentially the reverse of that of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA); nominations for the BAFTA Award for Best Editing are done by a general ballot of Academy voters, and the winner is selected by members of the editing chapter.

The Academy Award for Best Original Score is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to the best substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically for the film by the submitting composer.

Plot

On the planet Krypton, Jor-El of the Kryptonian high council discovers the planet will soon be destroyed when its red supergiant sun goes supernova. Despite his insistence, he fails to convince the other council members. To save his infant son, Kal-El, Jor-El launches him in a spaceship to Earth, a planet with a suitable atmosphere where his dense molecular structure will give him superhuman strength and other powers. Shortly after the launch, Krypton's sun explodes, destroying the planet.

Krypton (comics) fictional planet, native world of Superman

Krypton is a fictional planet appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The planet is the native world of Superman and is named after the element Krypton. The planet was created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, and was first referred to in Action Comics #1. The planet made its first full appearance in Superman #1.

Jor-El Fictional character appearing in DC Comics

Jor-El, originally known as Jor-L, is a fictional character appearing in comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, Jor-El first appeared in a newspaper comic strip in 1939 with Superman.

Supernova Star exploding at the end of its stellar lifespan

A supernova is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of the life of a massive star, whose dramatic and catastrophic destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion. This causes the sudden appearance of a "new" bright star, before slowly fading from sight over several weeks or months or years.

The ship crash-lands on Earth near Smallville, Kansas. Kal-El, who is now three years old, is found by Jonathan and Martha Kent, who are astonished when he lifts their truck. Taking him back to their farm, they decide to raise him as their own, naming him Clark after Martha's maiden name.

Smallville (comics) fictional place; childhood and adolescent hometown of Superman

Smallville is a fictional town and the childhood and adolescent hometown of Superman in comic books published by DC Comics. Smallville was first named in Superboy vol. 1 #2 in 1949. It is the setting of many Superboy comics, which depict the original Superboy defending Smallville from various evils as well as, occasionally, the young Lex Luthor.

Kansas State of the United States of America

Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; Missouri on the east; Oklahoma on the south; and Colorado on the west. Kansas is named after the Kansas River, which in turn was named after the Kansa Native Americans who lived along its banks. The tribe's name is often said to mean "people of the (south) wind" although this was probably not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to numerous and diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison.

Jonathan and Martha Kent fictional adoptive parents of Superman

Jonathan Kent and Martha Kent, often referred to as "Pa" and "Ma" Kent (respectively), are the fictional adoptive parents of Superman. They live in the rural town of Smallville, Kansas. In most versions of Superman's origin story, Jonathan and Martha were the first to come across the rocket that brought the infant Kal-El, with their adopting him shortly thereafter, renaming him Clark Kent, "Clark" being Martha's maiden name.

At 18, soon after Jonathan's death from a heart attack, Clark hears a psychic "call" and discovers a glowing green crystal in the remains of his spacecraft. It compels him to travel to the Arctic where it builds the Fortress of Solitude, resembling the architecture of Krypton. Inside, a hologram of Jor-El explains Clark's true origins, and after 12 further years of educating him on his reason for being sent to Earth and his powers, he leaves the Fortress wearing a blue and red suit with a red cape and the House of El family crest emblazoned on his chest and becomes a reporter at the Daily Planet in Metropolis. He meets and develops a romantic attraction to coworker Lois Lane.

Arctic polar region on the Earths northern hemisphere

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Northern Canada, Norway, Russia and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost -containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places.

Fortress of Solitude

The Fortress of Solitude is a fictional fortress appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, commonly in association with Superman. A place of solace and occasional headquarters for Superman, the fortress is typically depicted as being in frozen tundra, away from civilization. Its predecessor, Superman's "Secret Citadel", first appeared in Superman #17, where it was said to be built into a mountain on the outskirts of Metropolis. By issue #58 it is referred to as the Fortress of Solitude, seems at a glance to be a freestanding castle, and is said to be located in a "polar waste". When the Fortress reappears in 1958 and for the first time takes center stage in a story, it is again an underground complex in a mountainous cliffside.

Superman logo Logo

The Superman shield, also known as the Superman logo, is the iconic emblem for the fictional DC Comics superhero Superman. As a representation of one of the first superheroes, it served as a template for character design decades after Superman's first appearance. The tradition of wearing a representative symbol on the chest was mimicked by many subsequent superheroes, including Batman, Spider-Man, the Fantastic Four, Green Lantern, the Flash, Wonder Woman, Hawkman, and many others.

Lois becomes involved in a helicopter accident where conventional means of rescue are impossible. Clark uses his powers in public for the first time to save her, to the astonishment of the crowd gathered below. He then goes on to thwart a jewel thief attempting to scale the Solow Building, captures robbers fleeing police through the Fulton Market by depositing their cabin cruiser on Wall Street, and rescuing a girl's cat from a tree in Brooklyn Heights. He also saves Air Force One after a lightning strike destroys the port outboard engine, making the "caped wonder" an instant celebrity. Clark visits Lois at her penthouse apartment the next night and takes her for a flight over the city, allowing her to interview him for an article in which she names him "Superman."

Meanwhile, criminal genius Lex Luthor learns of a joint U.S. Army and U.S. Navy nuclear missile test. He then buys hundreds of acres of worthless desert land out west and has the test's two 500 megaton missiles reprogrammed, one to detonate inside of the San Andreas Fault, the other, rather unintentionally, to detonate in an undisclosed location.

Knowing Superman could stop his plan, Lex deduces that a meteorite found in Addis Ababa is actually part of Krypton and is radioactive to Superman. After he and his accomplices Otis and Eve Teschmacher retrieve a piece of it, Luthor lures Superman to his underground lair and reveals his plan to cause everything west of the San Andreas Fault to sink into the Pacific Ocean, leaving Luthor's desert as the new West Coast. Luthor then exposes him to a mineral from the meteor piece, Kryptonite, that weakens Superman greatly. Luthor further taunts Superman by revealing the other missile is headed in the eastbound direction toward Hackensack, New Jersey. Teschmacher is horrified because her mother lives in Hackensack, but Luthor does not care and leaves Superman to die a slow death. Knowing his reputation for keeping his word, Teschmacher rescues Superman on the condition that he will stop the eastbound missile first; Superman reluctantly agrees. After Teschmacher frees him, Superman diverts the eastbound missile into outer space, consequently preventing him from reaching the westbound missile before it explodes in the San Andreas Fault. Massive earthquakes erupt across California, damaging the Golden Gate Bridge and causing the Hollywood Sign to collapse and the Hoover Dam to breach, endangering lives. Superman mitigates the effects of the explosion by sealing the fault line, preventing Luthor's plan from reaching fruition.

While Superman is busy saving others, Lois' car falls into a crevice from one of the aftershocks, trapping her as it fills with dirt and debris. Superman is unable to reach her in time, and she suffocates. Angered at being powerless to save her, Superman defies Jor-El's earlier warning not to manipulate human history, preferring to heed Jonathan's advice that he must be here for "a reason". He accelerates around Earth, traveling several minutes backward in time, to prevent Lois' death. After saving the West Coast, he brings Luthor and Otis to prison, and flies into the sunrise for further adventures.

Cast

Kirk Alyn and Noel Neill have cameo appearances as Lois Lane's father and mother in a deleted scene that was restored in later home media releases. [16] Alyn and Neill portrayed Superman and Lois Lane in the film serials Superman (1948) and Atom Man vs. Superman (1950), and were the first actors to portray the characters onscreen in a live-action format. Neill reprised her role in the 1950s Adventures of Superman TV series.

Larry Hagman and Rex Reed also make cameos; Hagman plays an army major in charge of a convoy that is transporting one of the missiles, and Reed plays himself as he meets Lois and Clark outside the Daily Planet headquarters.

Production

Development

Ilya Salkind had first conceived the idea for a Superman film in late 1973. [17] In November 1974, after a long, difficult process with DC Comics, the Superman film rights were purchased by Ilya, his father Alexander Salkind, and their partner Pierre Spengler. DC wanted a list of actors that were to be considered for Superman, and approved the producer's choices of Muhammad Ali, Al Pacino, James Caan, Steve McQueen, Clint Eastwood and Dustin Hoffman. [15] The filmmakers felt it was best to film Superman and Superman II back-to-back, simultaneously, and to make a negative pickup deal with Warner Bros. [13] William Goldman was approached to write the screenplay, while Leigh Brackett was considered. Ilya hired Alfred Bester, who began writing a film treatment. Alexander felt, however, that Bester was not famous enough, so he hired Mario Puzo ( The Godfather ) to write the screenplay at a $600,000 salary. [18] [19] Francis Ford Coppola, William Friedkin, Richard Lester, Peter Yates, John Guillermin, Ronald Neame and Sam Peckinpah were in negotiations to direct. Peckinpah dropped out when he produced a gun during a meeting with Ilya. George Lucas turned down the offer because of his commitment to Star Wars . [11] [17]

Ilya wanted to hire Steven Spielberg to direct, but Alexander was skeptical, feeling it was best to "wait until [Spielberg's] big fish opens." Jaws was very successful, prompting the producers to offer Spielberg the position, but by then Spielberg had already committed to Close Encounters of the Third Kind . [17] Guy Hamilton was hired as director, while Puzo delivered his 500-page script for Superman and Superman II in July 1975. [13] Jax-Ur appeared as one of General Zod's henchmen, with Clark Kent written as a television reporter. Dustin Hoffman, who was previously considered for Superman, turned down Lex Luthor. [15] [18]

In early 1975, Brando signed on as Jor-El with a salary of $3.7 million and 11.75% of the box office gross profits, totaling $19 million. He horrified Salkind by proposing in their first meeting that Jor-El appear as a green suitcase or a bagel with Brando's voice, but Donner used flattery to persuade the actor to portray Jor-El himself. [17] Brando hoped to use some of his salary for a proposed 13-part Roots -style miniseries on Native Americans in the United States. [20] Brando had it in his contract to complete all of his scenes in twelve days. He also refused to memorize his dialogue, so cue cards were compiled across the set. Fellow Oscar winner Hackman was cast as Lex Luthor days later. The filmmakers made it a priority to shoot all of Brando's and Hackman's footage "because they would be committed to other films immediately." [13] [17] Though the Salkinds felt that Puzo had written a solid story for the two-part film, they deemed his scripts too long and so hired Robert Benton and David Newman for rewrite work. Benton became too busy directing The Late Show , so David's wife Leslie was brought in to help her husband finish writing duties. [11] George MacDonald Fraser was later hired to do some work on the script, but he says he did little. [21]

Their script was submitted in July 1976, [13] and carried a camp tone, including a cameo appearance by Telly Savalas as his Kojak character. The scripts for Superman and Superman II were now at over 400 pages combined. [8] [22] Pre-production started at Cinecittà Studios in Rome, with sets starting construction and flying tests being unsuccessfully experimented. "In Italy," producer Ilya Salkind remembered, "we lost about $2 million [on flying tests]." [17] Marlon Brando found out he could not film in Italy because of a warrant out for his arrest: a sexual-obscenity charge from Last Tango in Paris . Production moved to England in late 1976, but Hamilton could not join because he was a tax exile. [22]

Mark Robson was strongly considered and was in talks to direct, but after seeing The Omen , the producers hired Richard Donner. Donner had previously been planning Damien: Omen II when he was hired in January 1977 for $1 million to direct Superman and Superman II. [23] Donner felt it was best to start from scratch. "They had prepared the picture for a year and not one bit was useful to me." [23] Donner was dissatisfied with the campy script and brought in Tom Mankiewicz to perform a rewrite. According to Mankiewicz "not a word from the Puzo script was used." [22] "It was a well-written, but still a ridiculous script. It was 550 pages. I said, 'You can't shoot this screenplay because you'll be shooting for five years'," Donner continued. "That was literally a shooting script and they planned to shoot all 550 pages. You know, 110 pages is plenty for a script, so even for two features, that was way too much." [24] Mankiewicz conceived having each Kryptonian family wear a crest resembling a different letter, justifying the 'S' on Superman's costume. [23] The Writers Guild of America refused to credit Mankiewicz for his rewrites, so Donner gave him a creative consultant credit, much to the annoyance of the Guild. [23]

Casting of Superman

It was initially decided to first sign an A-list actor for Superman before Richard Donner was hired as director. Robert Redford was offered a large sum, but felt he was too famous. Burt Reynolds also turned down the role, while Sylvester Stallone was interested, but nothing ever came of it. Paul Newman was offered his choice of roles as Superman, Lex Luthor or Jor-El for $4 million, turning down all three roles. [11]

When it was next decided to cast an unknown actor, casting director Lynn Stalmaster first suggested Christopher Reeve, but Donner and the producers felt he was too young and skinny. [13] Over 200 unknown actors auditioned for Superman. [25]

Olympic champion Bruce (Caitlyn) Jenner had auditioned for the title role. [11] Patrick Wayne was cast, but dropped out when his father John Wayne was diagnosed with stomach cancer. [23]

Both Neil Diamond and Arnold Schwarzenegger lobbied hard for the role, but were ignored. James Caan, James Brolin, Lyle Waggoner, Christopher Walken, Nick Nolte, Jon Voight, and Perry King were approached. [11] [17] Kris Kristofferson and Charles Bronson were also considered for the title role. [26]

James Caan said he was offered the part but turned it down. "I just couldn't wear that suit." [27]

"We found guys with fabulous physique who couldn't act or wonderful actors who did not look remotely like Superman," creative consultant Tom Mankiewicz remembered. The search became so desperate that producer Ilya Salkind's wife's dentist was screen tested. [11] [17]

Stalmaster convinced Donner and Ilya to have Reeve screen test in February 1977. Reeve stunned the director and producers, but he was told to wear a "muscle suit" to produce the desired muscular physique. Reeve refused, [14] [28] undertaking a strict physical exercise regime headed by David Prowse. Prowse had wanted to portray Superman, but was denied an audition by the filmmakers because he was not American. Prowse also auditioned for Non. Reeve went from 188 to 212 pounds during pre-production and filming. [29] Reeve was paid a mere $250,000 for both Superman and Superman II, while his veteran co-stars received huge sums of money: $3.7 million for Brando and $2 million for Hackman for Superman I. [30] However, Reeve felt, "'Superman' brought me many opportunities, rather than closing a door in my face." [31] Jeff East portrays teenage Clark Kent. East's lines were overdubbed by Reeve during post-production. "I was not happy about it because the producers never told me what they had in mind," East commented. "It was done without my permission but it turned out to be okay. Chris did a good job but it caused tension between us. We resolved our issues with each other years later." [10] East also tore several thigh muscles when performing the stunt of racing alongside the train. He applied 3 to 4 hours of prosthetic makeup daily to facially resemble Reeve. [10]

Filming

Principal photography began on March 28, 1977 at Pinewood Studios for Krypton scenes, budgeted as the most expensive film ever made at that point. Since Superman was being shot simultaneously with Superman II , filming lasted nineteen months, until October 1978. Filming was originally scheduled to last between seven and eight months, but problems arose during production. John Barry served as production designer, while Stuart Craig and Norman Reynolds worked as art directors. Derek Meddings and Les Bowie were credited as visual effects supervisors. Stuart Freeborn was the make-up artist, while Barry, David Tomblin, John Glen, David Lane, Robert Lynn and an uncredited Peter Duffell and André de Toth [32] directed second unit scenes. Vic Armstrong was hired as the stunt coordinator and Reeve's stunt double; his wife Wendy Leech was Kidder's double. Superman was also the final complete film by cinematographer Geoffrey Unsworth, who died during post-production while working on Tess for director Roman Polanski. The Fortress of Solitude was constructed at Shepperton Studios and at Pinewood's 007 Stage. [33] [34] Upon viewing the footage of Krypton, Warner Bros. decided to distribute in not only North America, but also in foreign countries. Due to complications and problems during filming, Warner Bros. also supplied $20 million and acquired television rights. [19] [33]

New York City doubled for Metropolis, while the New York Daily News Building served as the location for the offices of the Daily Planet . Brooklyn Heights was also used. [35] Filming in New York lasted five weeks, during the time of the New York City blackout of 1977. Production moved to Alberta for scenes set in Smallville, with the cemetery scene filmed in the canyon of Beynon, Alberta, the high school football scenes at Barons, Alberta, and the Kent farm constructed at Blackie, Alberta. [36] [37] Brief filming also took place in Gallup, New Mexico, Lake Mead and Grand Central Terminal. [6] Director Donner had tensions with the Salkinds and Spengler concerning the escalating production budget and the shooting schedule. Creative consultant Tom Mankiewicz reflected, "Donner never got a budget or a schedule. He was constantly told he was way over schedule and budget. At one point he said, 'Why don't you just schedule the film for the next two days, and then I'll be nine months over?'." [33] Richard Lester, who worked with the Salkinds on The Three Musketeers and The Four Musketeers , was then brought in as a temporary co-producer to mediate the relationship between Donner and the Salkinds, [17] who by now were refusing to talk to each other. [33] With his relationship with Spengler, Donner remarked, "At one time if I'd seen him, I would have killed him." [19]

Lester was offered producing credit but refused, going uncredited for his work. [33] Salkind felt that bringing a second director onto the set meant there would be someone ready in the event that Donner could not fulfill his directing duties. "Being there all the time meant he [Lester] could take over," Salkind admitted. "[Donner] couldn't make up his mind on stuff." [17] On Lester, Donner reflected, "He'd been suing the Salkinds for his money on Three and Four Musketeers, which he'd never gotten. He won a lot of his lawsuits, but each time he sued the Salkinds in one country, they'd move to another, from Costa Rica to Panama to Switzerland. When I was hired, Lester told me, 'Don't do it. Don't work for them. I was told not to, but I did it. Now I'm telling you not to, but you'll probably do it and end up telling the next guy.' Lester came in as a 'go-between'. I didn't trust Lester, and I told him. He said, 'Believe me, I'm only doing it because they're paying me the money that they owe me from the lawsuit. I'll never come onto your set unless you ask me; I'll never go to your dailies. If I can help you in any way, call me." [24]

It was decided to stop shooting Superman II and focus on finishing Superman. Donner had already completed 75% of the sequel. [38] The filmmakers took a risk: if Superman was a box office bomb, they would not finish Superman II. The original climax for Superman II had General Zod, Ursa, and Non destroying the planet, with Superman time traveling to fix the damage. [11]

Donner commented, "I decided if Superman is a success, they're going to do a sequel. If it ain't a success, a cliffhanger ain't gonna bring them to see Superman II." [23]

Effects

Sprmnmovie.jpg
Publicity still emulating screen shot in which Superman (Christopher Reeve), with his traditional suit, flies toward the sky, with Metropolis underneath him.
Superman movie vid cap2.JPG
Actual screen shot for comparison. Suit has greenish hue, for use with blue-screen effects.

Superman is well known for its large-scale visual effects sequences, all of which were created before the digital age. The Golden Gate Bridge scale model stood 70 feet long and 20 feet wide. Other miniatures included the Krypton Council Dome and the Hoover Dam. Slow motion was used to simulate the vast amount of water for the Hoover Dam destruction. The Fortress of Solitude was a combination of a full-scale set and matte paintings. Young Clark Kent's long-distance football punt was executed with a wooden football loaded into an air blaster placed in the ground. The Superman costume was to be a much darker blue, but the use of blue screen made it transparent. [39]

The first test for the flying sequences involved simply catapulting a crash test dummy out of a cannon. Another technique had a remote control cast of Superman flying around. Both were discarded due to lack of movement. High-quality, realistic-looking animation was tried, with speed trails added to make the effect more convincing.

As detailed in the Superman: The Movie DVD special effects documentary 'The Magic Behind The Cape', presented by optical effects supervisor Roy Field, in the end, three techniques were used to achieve the flying effects.

For landings and take-offs, wire flying riggings were devised and used. On location, these were suspended from tower cranes, whereas in the studio elaborate rigs were suspended from the studio ceilings. Some of the wire-flying work was quite audacious considering computer-controlled rigs were not then available—the penultimate shot where Superman flies out of the prison yard, for example. Although stuntmen were used, Reeve did much of the work himself, and was suspended as high as 50 feet in the air. Counterweights and pulleys were typically used to achieve flying movement, rather than electronic or motorized devices. The thin wires used to suspend Reeve were typically removed from the film in post-production using rotoscope techniques, although this wasn't necessary in all shots (in certain lighting conditions or when Superman is very distant in the frame, the wires were more or less imperceptible).

For stationary shots where Superman is seen flying toward or away from the camera, blue screen matte techniques were used. Reeve would be photographed suspended against a blue screen. While a special device made his cape flap to give the illusion of movement, the actor himself would remain stationary (save for banking his body). Instead, the camera would use a mixture of long zoom-ins and zoom-outs and dolly in/dolly outs to cause him to become larger or smaller in the frame. The blue background would then be photochemically removed and Reeve's isolated image would be 'inserted' into a matted area of a background plate shot. The zoom-ins or zoom-outs would give the appearance of flying away or toward the contents of the background plate. The disparity in lighting and color between the matted image and the background plate, the occasional presence of black matte lines (where the matte area and the matted image—in this case, Superman—do not exactly match up), and the slightly unconvincing impression of movement achieved through the use of zoom lenses is characteristic of these shots.

Where the shot is tracking with Superman as he flies (such as in the Superman and Lois Metropolis flying sequence), front projection was used. This involved photographing the actors suspended in front of a background image dimly projected from the front onto a special screen made by 3M that would reflect light back at many times the original intensity directly into a combined camera/projector. The result was a very clear and intense photographic reproduction of both the actors and the background plate, with far less image deterioration or lighting problems than occur with rear projection.

A technique was developed that combined the front projection effect with specially designed zoom lenses. [39] The illusion of movement was created by zooming in on Reeve while making the front projected image appear to recede. For scenes where Superman interacts with other people or objects while in flight, Reeve and actors were put in a variety of rigging equipment with careful lighting and photography. [39] This also led to the creation of the Zoptic system. [40]

The highly reflective costumes worn by the Kryptonians are made of the same 3M material used for the front projection screens and were the result of an accident during Superman flying tests. "We noticed the material lit up on its own," Donner explained. "We tore the material into tiny pieces and glued it on the costumes, designing a front projection effect for each camera. There was a little light on each camera, and it would project into a mirror, bounce out in front of the lens, hit the costume, [and] millions of little glass beads would light up and bring the image back into the camera." [23]

Music

Jerry Goldsmith, who scored Donner's The Omen , was originally set to compose Superman. Portions of Jerry Goldsmith's work from Planet of the Apes were used in Superman's teaser trailer. He dropped out over scheduling conflicts and John Williams was hired. Williams conducted the London Symphony Orchestra to record the soundtrack. [41] The music was one of the last pieces to come into place. Williams' "Theme from Superman (Main Title)" was released as a single, reaching #81 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 and #69 Cash Box. [42] Williams liked that the film did not take itself too seriously and that it had a theatrical camp feel to it. [11]

Kidder was supposed to sing "Can You Read My Mind?", the lyrics to which were written by Leslie Bricusse, but Donner disliked it and changed it to a composition accompanied by a voiceover. [6] Maureen McGovern eventually recorded the single, "Can You Read My Mind?" in 1979, although the song did not appear on the film soundtrack. It became a mid-chart hit on the Billboard Hot 100 that year (#52), spending three weeks at number five on the U.S. Adult Contemporary chart, as well as making lesser appearances on the corresponding Canadian charts. It was also a very minor hit on the U.S. Country chart, reaching #93. Both Williams' and McGovern's singles contained theme music from the score. The score earned John Williams an Academy Award nomination, but he lost to Giorgio Moroder's score for Midnight Express . [43]

2000 Rhino complete album

* Previously unreleased selection
** Contains previously unreleased material

Themes

"You will travel far, my little Kal-El. But we will never leave you, even in the face of our deaths. The richness of our lives shall be yours. All that I have, all that I've learned, everything I feel—all this and more I bequeath you, my son. You will carry me inside you all the days of your life. You will make my strength your own, and see my life through your eyes, as your life will be seen through mine. The son becomes the father and the father the son. This is all I, all I can send you, Kal-El."

 – Jor-El

Superman is divided into three basic sections, each having a distinct theme and visual style. The first segment, set on Krypton, is meant to be typical of science fiction films, but also lays the groundwork for an analogy that emerges in the relationship between Jor-El and Kal-El. The second segment, set in Smallville, is reminiscent of 1950s films, and its small-town atmosphere is meant to evoke a Norman Rockwell painting. The third (and largest) segment, set mostly in Metropolis, was an attempt to present the superhero story with as much realism as possible (what Donner called "verisimilitude"), relying on traditional cinematic drama and using only subtle humor instead of a campy approach. [6]

In each of the three acts, the mythic status of Superman is enhanced by events that recall the hero's journey (or monomyth) as described by Joseph Campbell. Each act has a discernible cycle of "call" and journey. The journey is from Krypton to Earth in the first act, from Smallville to the Fortress of Solitude in the second act, and then from Metropolis to the whole world in the third act. [44]

Many have noted the examples of apparent Christian symbolism. Donner, Tom Mankiewicz and Ilya Salkind have commented on the use of Christian references to discuss the themes of Superman. [6] [11] Mankiewicz deliberately fostered analogies with Jor-El (God) and Kal-El (Jesus). [22] Donner is somewhat skeptical of Mankiewicz' actions, joking "I got enough death threats because of that." [6]

Several concepts and items of imagery have been used in Biblical comparisons. Jor-El casts out General Zod from Krypton, a parallel to the casting out of Satan from Heaven. [6] The spacecraft that brings Kal-El to Earth is in the form of a star (Star of Bethlehem). Kal-El comes to Jonathan and Martha Kent, who are unable to have children. Martha Kent states, "All these years how we've prayed and prayed that the good Lord would see fit to give us a child," which was compared to the Virgin Mary. [6]

Just as little is known about Jesus during his middle years, Clark travels into the wilderness to find out who he is and what he has to do. Jor-El says, "Live as one of them, Kal-El, to discover where your strength and power are needed. But always hold in your heart the pride of your special heritage. They can be a great people, Kal-El, and they wish to be. They only lack the light to show the way. For this reason above all, their capacity for good, I have sent them you, my only son." [6] The theme resembles the Biblical account of God sending his only son Jesus to Earth in hope for the good of mankind. More were seen when Donner was able to complete Superman II: The Richard Donner Cut , featuring the fall, resurrection and his battle with evil. Another vision was that of The Creation of Adam . [6]

The Christian imagery in the Reeve films has provoked comment on the Jewish origins of Superman. Rabbi Simcha Weinstein's book Up, Up and Oy Vey: How Jewish History, Culture and Values Shaped the Comic Book Superhero, says that Superman is both a pillar of society and one whose cape conceals a "nebbish", saying "He's a bumbling, nebbish Jewish stereotype. He's Woody Allen." [45] [46] Ironically, it is also in the Reeve films that Clark Kent's persona has the greatest resemblance to Woody Allen, though his conscious model was Cary Grant's character in Bringing Up Baby . This same theme is pursued about 1940s superheroes generally in Disguised as Clark Kent: Jews, Comics, and the Creation of the Superhero by Danny Fingeroth. [45] [46]

In the scene where Lois Lane interviews Superman on the balcony, Superman replies, "I never lie." Salkind felt this was an important point in the film, since Superman, living under his secret identity as Clark Kent, is "telling the biggest lie of all time." His romance with Lois also leads him to contradict Jor-El's orders to avoid altering human history, time traveling to save her from dying. Superman instead takes the advice of Jonathan Kent, his father on Earth. [11]

Release

Superman was originally scheduled to be released in June 1978, the 40th anniversary of Action Comics 1 , which first introduced Superman, but the problems during filming pushed the film back by six months. Editor Stuart Baird reflected, "Filming was finished in October 1978 and it is a miracle we had the film released two months later. Big-budgeted films today tend to take six to eight months." [33] Donner, for his part, wished that he had "had another six months; I would have perfected a lot of things. But at some point, you've gotta turn the picture over." [24] Warner Bros. spent $7 million to market and promote the film. [19]

Superman premiered at the Uptown Theater in Washington, D.C. on December 10, 1978, [47] with director Richard Donner and several cast members in attendance. Three days later, on December 13, it had a European Royal Charity Premiere at the Empire, Leicester Square in London in the presence of HM Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Andrew.

The film set a new all-time U.S. industry record for business during a pre-Christmas week with $12,044,352 and set new records for Warner Bros. for their best opening day ($2,762,112) and three-day weekend ($7,465,343). [48] In the week of December 22–28, it set an all-time U.S. weekly record of $18,517,515. [49] In its third weekend it grossed $13,135,498 for the four day holiday weekend setting a record 18 day gross of $43,697,365. [50]

It went on to gross $134.21 million in North America and $166 million internationally, totaling $300.21 million worldwide. [4] Superman was the second-highest-grossing film of 1978 (behind only Grease ), and became the sixth-highest-grossing film of all time after its theatrical run. It was also Warner Bros.' most successful film at the time. [33]

Critical reception

According to Rotten Tomatoes, 94% of 65 reviewers gave Superman a positive review, with an average rating of 8.1/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Superman deftly blends humor and gravitas, taking advantage of the perfectly cast Reeve to craft a loving, nostalgic tribute to an American pop culture icon." [51] Metacritic collected an average score of 88, resulting in "universal acclaim", based on twelve reviews. [52] The film was widely regarded as one of top 10 films of 1978. [53] [54] [55] Superman creators Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster gave a positive reaction. [15] Shuster was "delighted to see Superman on the screen. I got chills. Chris Reeve has just the right touch of humor. He really is Superman." [8]

Roger Ebert gave a very positive review, awarding a full four stars and writing, "Superman is a pure delight, a wondrous combination of all the old-fashioned things we never really get tired of: adventure and romance, heroes and villains, earthshaking special effects and wit. Reeve is perfectly cast in the role. Any poor choice would have ruined the film." [56] Ebert placed the film on his ten best list of 1978. [57] He would later go on to place it on his "Great Movies" list. [58] Gene Siskel gave the film three stars out of four, calling it "a delightful mess. Good performances. Sloppy editing. Cheap nonflying special effects. Funny dialog. In sum, 'Superman' is the kind of picture critics tear apart, but still say, 'You ought to see it.'" [59] Variety called the film "a wonderful, chuckling, preposterously exciting fantasy," adding, "As both the wholesome man of steel and his bumbling secret identity Clark Kent, Reeve is excellent." [60] Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote in a mixed review, "The Superman comic strip has been carefully, elaborately, sometimes wittily blown up for the big-theater screen, which, though busy, often seems sort of empty." [61] Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times called the film "a big letdown", praising Reeve as "the salvaging strength of the film" but referring to the matter of the villain as "an essential problem", finding that "even in a succession of wigs, Gene Hackman is not preposterous, funny or dementedly menacing, and what he's doing here is not evident." [62] Gary Arnold of The Washington Post wrote in a positive review, "Despite a lull here and a lapse there, this superproduction turns out to be prodigiously inventive and enjoyable, doubly blessed by sophisticated illusionists behind the cameras and a brilliant new stellar personality in front of the cameras—Christopher Reeve, a young actor at once handsome and astute enough to rationalize the preposterous fancy of a comic-book superhero in the flesh." [63] Dave Kehr felt "the tone, style, and point of view change almost from shot to shot. This is the definitive corporate film. It is best when it takes itself seriously, worst when it takes the easy way out in giggly camp. When Lex Luthor enters the action, Hackman plays the arch-villain like a hairdresser left over from a TV skit." [64]

Writing in a retrospective review, James Berardinelli believed "there's no doubt that it's a flawed movie, but it's one of the most wonderfully entertaining flawed movies made during the 1970s. It's exactly what comic book fans hoped it would be. Perhaps most heartening of all, however, is the message at the end of the credits announcing the impending arrival of Superman II ." [65] Harry Knowles is a longtime fan of the film, but was critical of elements that did not represent the Superman stories as seen in the comics. [66] Neal Gabler similarly felt that the film focused too much on shallow comedy. He also argued that the film should have adhered more to the spirit of Mario Puzo's original script, and referred to the first three Superman films collectively as "simply puffed-up TV episodes." [67]

Subsequent TV and home media releases

The extended TV version

While, by contract, Richard Donner had major editorial control over what was theatrically released, the Salkinds had editorial control on what was shown outside of theaters. This was the result of deals that had been made between the producers and the ABC television network prior to the film's release. Financially, the more footage that was restored for television, the more revenue that could be made for the broadcast (the producers charged by the minute for every bit of footage added back in). During production of the film, Alexander and Ilya Salkind had been relegated to having to sell more and more of their rights back to Warner Bros. in exchange for financial help[ citation needed ], which is why Warner Bros. would have theatrical and home video distribution rights. So by 1981, when the television rights reverted to the Salkinds, the producers had already prepared a 3-hour and 8-minute version that actually had been the first version of the film visually locked-down prior to being re-edited for theatrical release. This extended cut, which would be utilized for worldwide television distribution, reincorporated some 45 minutes of footage and music deleted from the theatrical cut. Networks and stations could then re-edit their own version at their discretion. This edit is commonly known as the "Salkind International Television Cut".

ABC aired the broadcast television debut of Superman over two nights in February 1982, with a majority of the unused footage. The 182-minute network cut (which was slightly cut down for content) was repeated in November of that same year, this time in its entirety in one evening. The remaining two ABC broadcasts were presented in its original theatrical version.

When the TV rights reverted to Warner Bros. in 1985, CBS aired the film one last time on network television in its theatrical version. When the movie entered the syndication [68] market in 1988 (following a play-out run on pay cable [69] [70] ) TV stations were offered the extended cut or the theatrical cut. The stations that showed the extended cut [69] edited the second half to add more advertising time and "previously on ..." cutback scenes just as ABC had done in 1982.

In 1994 (following a pay-cable reissue and its obligatory run on USA Network), Warner Bros. Television syndicated the full 188-minute international television version, most famously on Los Angeles station KCOP. The most notable additions unseen on U.S. television were two additional scenes never seen before, in addition to what had been previously reinstated. [9] This version also surfaced outside of Los Angeles. For example, WJLA Channel 7, an ABC affiliate out of Washington, D.C., aired the extended cut in July 1994. Because its first known airing was on the aforementioned KCOP, it is also known in fan circles as the "KCOP Version".

There were various extended TV versions each broadcast in various countries. Most of these are in pan and scan, as they were made in the 1980s, when films were not letterboxed to preserve the theatrical aspect ratio on old TVs.

Until 2017, it was thought the quality of the extended network TV version was inferior to any theatrical or previous home video release because it was mastered in 16mm (using the "film chain system") and a mono sound mix done, as by the time the extended cut was prepared in 1981, stereo was not available in television broadcasts (16mm television prints were, in fact, made and mastered on NTSC Standard Definition video for the initial ABC network broadcasts). However, during an inventory of the Warner Bros. library, an IP master of the full 188-minute television version was discovered. This eighteen-reel master was not marked with an aspect ratio, but the print was inspected and, as it turned out, was in the proper 2.35:1 Panavision ratio. This was the source of the Warner Archive Collection Blu-Ray release of what would officially be called the "Superman: The Movie Extended Cut", issued on October 3, 2017. [71] The video release was visually restored by WB's imaging department, and, other than the opening and end credits (which are in true stereo), the film is presented in an enhanced version of the mono TV sound mix. This particular release also includes another version discussed below.

Other editions

When Michael Thau and Warner Home Video started working on a film restoration in 2000, only eight minutes of the added footage that had been used in the TV cut could be considered restored into a version that director Richard Donner now calls his preferred version of the film. Thau determined that some of the extra footage could not be added because of poor visual effects. Thau felt "the pace of the film's storyline would be adversely affected [and there were] timing problems matching [footage] with John Williams' musical score, etc… The cut of the movie shown on KCOP was put together to make the movie longer when shown on TV as the Television Station paid per minute to air the movie. The "Special Edition" cut is designed for the best viewing experience in the true spirit of movie making." [72] There was a special test screening of the Special Edition in 2001 in Austin, Texas, on March 23 with plans for a possible wider theatrical release later that year, which did not occur. [73] In May 2001, Warner Home Video released the special edition on DVD. [74] Director Donner also assisted, working slightly over a year on the project. The release included making-of documentaries directed by Thau and eight minutes of restored footage. [75]

Thau explained, "I worked on Ladyhawke and that's how I really met Dick [Donner] and Tom Mankiewicz. I used to hear those wonderful stories in the cutting room that Tom and Dick and Stuart would tell about Superman and that's how I kind of got the ideas for the plots of 'Taking Flight' and 'Making Superman'". [75] Donner commented, "There are a few shots where Chris [Reeve]'s costume looked green. We went in and cleaned that up, bringing the color back to where it should be." [76] Thau wanted to make the film shorter: "I wanted to take out the damn poem where Lois is reciting a poem ("Can You Read My Mind") when they're flying around. I also wanted to take out a lot of that car chase where it was just generic action… It was like a two-minute car chase. But Dick didn't want to take [that] out [or] the poem." [75] It was followed by a box set release in the same month, containing "bare bones" editions of Superman II, Superman III, and Superman IV: The Quest for Peace. [77] In November 2006, a four-disc special edition was released, [78] followed by an HD DVD release [79] and Blu-ray. [80] Also available (with other films) is the nine-disc "Christopher Reeve Superman Collection" [81] and the 14-disc "Superman Ultimate Collector's Edition." [82]

On November 6, 2018 (following year-long worldwide revival theatrical screenings to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the film’s original release), Warner Bros. Home Entertainment released an Ultra HD Blu-ray of Superman presented in a new Dolby Vision transfer of the original theatrical version straight from the original camera negative, with its original 70mm/six-track stereo mix rendered in 5.1 surround, in addition to the 2000 remix in Dolby Atmos. This new release also includes a standard Blu-Ray of the theatrical cut, plus select bonus features carried over from previous video releases, and digital copies of both the theatrical and three-hour TV versions.

Legacy

Superman was nominated for three Academy Awards (Best Film Editing – (Stuart Baird), Best Original Score – (John Williams) and Best Sound – (Gordon K. McCallum, Graham V. Hartstone, Nicolas Le Messurier and Roy Charman)) [83] and received a Special Achievement Academy Award for its visual effects. Donner publicly expressed disgust that production designer John Barry and cinematographer Geoffrey Unsworth had not been recognized by the Academy. [23]

Superman was successful at the 32nd British Academy Film Awards. Reeve won Best Newcomer, while Hackman, Unsworth, Barry, and the sound designers earned nominations.[ citation needed ] The film won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.[ citation needed ] At the Saturn Awards, Kidder, Barry, John Williams, and the visual effects department received awards, and the film won Best Science Fiction Film. Reeve, Hackman, Donner, Valerie Perrine, and costume designer Yvonne Blake were nominated for their work as well.[ citation needed ] In addition, Williams was nominated at the 36th Golden Globe Awards and won the Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack for Visual Media.[ citation needed ] In 2007, the Visual Effects Society listed Superman as the 44th-most influential use of visual effects of all time. [84] In 2008, Empire magazine named it the 174th-greatest film of all time on its list of 500. [85] In 2009, Entertainment Weekly ranked Superman 3rd on their list of The All-Time Coolest Heroes in Pop Culture. [86]

With the film's success, it was immediately decided to finish Superman II . Ilya and Alexander Salkind and Pierre Spengler did not ask Donner to return because Donner had criticized them during the film's publicity phase. [11] Donner commented in January 1979, "I'd work with Spengler again, but only on my terms. As long as he has nothing to say as the producer, and is just liaison between Alexander Salkind and his money, that's fine. If they don't want it on those terms, then they need to go out and find another director, it sure as shit ain't gonna be me." [24] Kidder, who portrayed Lois Lane, was dissatisfied by the producers' decision, [33] and also criticized the Salkinds during publicity. As a result, Kidder was only given a cameo appearance for Superman III, and not a main supporting role. [87] Jack O'Halloran, who portrayed Non, stated, "It was great to work with Donner. Richard Lester was as big an asshole as the Salkinds." [88] Two more films, Superman III (1983) and Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1987), were produced. Superman Returns was released in 2006. Director Bryan Singer credited the 1978 Superman as an influence for Superman Returns, and used restored footage of Brando as Jor-El. Superman II: The Richard Donner Cut also was released in 2006. [34]

The film's final sequence, which features Superman flying high above the Earth at sunrise, and breaking the fourth wall to smile briefly at the camera, is featured at the end of every Superman film starring Reeve.

Because Superman went into production prior to the releases of Star Wars (May 1977) and Close Encounters of the Third Kind (November 1977), some observers credit the three films collectively for launching the reemergence of a large market for science fiction films in the 1980s. This is certainly the view of Superman producer Ilya Salkind and some who have interviewed him, [11] [17] as well as of film production assistant Brad Lohan. [89] Other observers of film history tend to credit the resurgence of science fiction films simply to the Lucas and Spielberg productions, and see Superman as the first of the new cycle of films launched by the first two. [90] Ilya Salkind denies any connection between Superman—which began filming in March 1977—and the other films, stating that "I did not know about 'Star Wars'; 'Star Wars' did not know about 'Superman'; 'Close Encounters' did not know about 'Superman.' It really was completely independent—nobody knew anything about anybody." [17] Superman also established the superhero film genre as viable outside the production of low-budget Saturday matinee serials. Director Christopher Nolan cited Richard Donner's vision and scope of Superman when pitching the concept for Batman Begins to Warner Bros. in 2002. [91]

The movie inspired The Kinks' 1979 song "(Wish I Could Fly Like) Superman", when the band's main songwriter, Ray Davies, watched the film in late 1978. [92]

In 2006 the "Last Son" comic book story arc debuted in Action Comics, co-written by Superman director Richard Donner.[ citation needed ]

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

In December 2017, the film was selected for preservation by the United States Library of Congress National Film Registry, for being "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant". [94]

Related Research Articles

Clark Kent fictional character and secret identity of Superman

Clark Joseph Kent is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, he debuted in Action Comics #1 and serves as the civilian and secret identity of the superhero Superman.

<i>Superman II</i> 1980 superhero film

Superman II is a 1980 superhero film directed by Richard Lester and written by Mario Puzo and David and Leslie Newman, based on the DC Comics character Superman. It is a sequel to the 1978 film Superman and stars Gene Hackman, Christopher Reeve, Terence Stamp, Ned Beatty, Sarah Douglas, Margot Kidder, and Jack O'Halloran. The film was released in Australia and mainland Europe on December 4, 1980, and in other countries throughout 1981. Selected premiere engagements of Superman II were presented in Megasound, a high-impact surround sound system similar to Sensurround.

<i>Superman III</i> 1983 superhero action comedy film directed by Richard Lester

Superman III is a British-American 1983 superhero film directed by Richard Lester, based on the DC Comics character Superman. It is the third film in the Superman film series and the last Superman film to be produced by Alexander Salkind and Ilya Salkind. The film features a cast of Christopher Reeve, Richard Pryor, Annette O'Toole, Annie Ross, Pamela Stephenson, Robert Vaughn, Marc McClure, and Gavan O'Herlihy. The film is followed by Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, released on July 24, 1987.

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Superman Returns is a 2006 American superhero film directed and co-produced by Bryan Singer and written by Michael Dougherty and Dan Harris, from a story by Singer, Dougherty and Harris. It is based on the DC Comics character Superman and serves as a homage sequel to the motion pictures Superman (1978) and Superman II (1980), while ignoring the events of Superman III (1983) and Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1987), including its spin-off Supergirl (1984). The film stars Brandon Routh as Clark Kent/Superman, Kate Bosworth as Lois Lane, Kevin Spacey as Lex Luthor, with James Marsden, Frank Langella, and Parker Posey. The film tells the story of the title character returning to Earth after a five-year absence. He finds that his love interest Lois Lane has moved on with her life, and that his archenemy Lex Luthor is plotting a scheme that will destroy both Superman and America.

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Lara (comics) fictional character

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Ilya Juan Salkind Dominguez, usually known as Ilya Salkind, is a Mexican film and television producer, known for his contributions to the live-action Superman films of the 1970s and '80s alongside his father, Alexander Salkind.

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Last Son (comics)

"Last Son" is a five-issue comic book story arc featuring Superman in the monthly Action Comics. It is written by Geoff Johns and Richard Donner, the director of the well-known 1978 film Superman: The Movie and a portion of Superman II, with pencils by Adam Kubert. This story introduces the original character, Christopher Kent and adapts the classic Superman film villains, General Zod, Ursa and Non into the regular DC Universe continuity.

The fictional character Superman, an American comic book superhero in DC Comics publications, has appeared in various films almost since his inception. He debuted in cinemas in a series of animated shorts beginning in 1941, and then starred in two movie serials in 1948 and 1950. An independent studio, Lippert Pictures, released the first Superman feature film, Superman and the Mole Men, starring George Reeves, in 1951. Ilya and Alexander Salkind and Pierre Spengler purchased the Superman film rights in 1974. After numerous scripts, Richard Donner was hired to direct the film, filming Superman (1978) and Superman II (1980) simultaneously. Donner had already shot eighty percent of Superman II with Christopher Reeve before it was decided to finish shooting the first film. The Salkinds fired Donner after Superman's release and commissioned Richard Lester as the director to finish Superman II. Lester also returned for Superman III (1983), and the Salkinds further produced the related 1984 spin-off Supergirl before selling the rights to Cannon Films, resulting in the poorly reviewed Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1987). Ilya Salkind commissioned a fifth Superman script before Warner Bros. acquired the rights entirely in 1993.

Origin of Superman

The origin of Superman is the story that relates Superman's arrival on Earth and the beginnings of his career as a superhero. The story has been through many revisions through decades of publication in comic books and radio, television and film adaptations.

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