|Directed by||Paul Schrader|
|Produced by||Don Guest|
|Written by||Paul Schrader|
|Based on||an article by|
Sydney A. Glass
|Starring|| Richard Pryor |
|Music by||Jack Nitzsche|
|Edited by||Tom Rolf|
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
|Box office||$6.5 million|
Blue Collar is a 1978 American crime drama film directed by Paul Schrader, in his directorial debut. Written by Schrader and his brother Leonard, the film stars Richard Pryor, Harvey Keitel and Yaphet Kotto.The film is both a critique of union practices and an examination of life in a working-class Rust Belt enclave. Although it has minimal comic elements provided by Pryor, it is mostly dramatic.
Schrader, who was a screenwriter renowned for his work on Taxi Driver (1976), recalls the shooting as being very difficult because of the artistic and personal tensions he had with the actors (including the stars themselves). Schrader has also stated that while making the film, he suffered an on-set mental breakdown, which made him seriously reconsider his career.
The film was shot in Detroit and Kalamazoo, Michigan.
A trio of Wayne County, Michigan auto workers, two black—Ezekiel "Zeke" Brown from Detroit, Michigan (Pryor) and two-time ex-con convicted murderer Smokey James from Mississippi who spent time in Michigan State Prison (Kotto)—and one white— Polish-American from Hamtramck, Michigan, Jerry Bartowski (Keitel)—are fed up with mistreatment at the hands of both management and union brass. Smokey is in debt to a loan shark over a numbers game, Jerry works a second job as a gas station attendant to get by and finds himself unable to pay for the orthodontics work that his daughter needs, and Zeke commits tax evasion by filing false claims to the IRS in order to improve his family's income.
Coupled with the financial hardships on each man's end, the trio hatch a plan to rob a safe at United Auto Workers union headquarters. They commit the caper but find only a few scant bills in the process. More importantly, they also come away with a ledger which contains evidence of the union's illegal loan operation and ties to organized crime syndicates in Las Vegas, Chicago and New York. They attempt to blackmail the union with the information but the union retaliates strongly and begins to turn the tables on the three friends. A suspicious accident at the plant results in Smokey's death that is investigated as a work accident caused by negligent safety protocols, which Zeke and Jerry realize was a murder coordinated by the union bosses in retaliation for the trio's blackmail.
An FBI agent John Burrows attempts to coerce Jerry into material witness on the union's corruption, which would make him an adversary of his co-workers as well as the union bosses. At the same time, corrupt union bosses succeed in coopting Zeke to work for them with promises of upward mobility being promoted to shop steward and increased remuneration. Zeke, happy with his new duties and higher pay, pragmatically prescinds from seeking justice for Smokey's murder, as it would jeopardize his newfound standing within the ranks of the union. Jerry attempts to convince Zeke to take steps to avenge Smokey's death, but Zeke rebukes him, telling Jerry that nothing will bring Smokey back and that they should just move forward. Disgusted with Zeke's capitulation, Jerry decides to cooperate with the FBI and a United States Congress Select or special committee (United States Congress) that have been investigating the union. Two gunmen, hired by Zeke try to shoot Jerry in a drive-by shooting when in the Detroit–Windsor tunnel but Jerry crashes his car and is rescued by the police. In the end, Zeke confronts Jerry, as Jerry enters the plant with federal agents. Once friends, Jerry and Zeke now turn on each other, and attack each other, confirming the prescient earlier narrative that union corruption divides workers against one another.
The film was shot on location at the Checker plant in Kalamazoo, Michigan and at locales around Detroit, including the Ford River Rouge Complex on the city's southwest side and the MacArthur Bridge to Belle Isle.
The three main actors did not get along and were continually fighting throughout the shoot. The tension became so great that at one point Richard Pryor (supposedly in a drug-fueled rage) pointed a gun at Schrader and told him that there was "no way" he would ever do more than three takes for a scene; an incident that may have triggered Schrader's nervous breakdown.
Schrader states that during the filming of one take, Harvey Keitel became so irritated by Pryor's lengthy improvisations that he flung the contents of an ashtray into the camera lens, ruining the take. Pryor and his bodyguard responded by pinning Keitel to the floor and pummeling him with their fists.
Jack Nitzsche's blues-flavored score includes "Hard Workin' Man", a collaboration with Captain Beefheart.
Blue Collar was universally praised by critics. The film holds a 100% "Fresh" rating on the review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes.Both Roger Ebert and Gene Siskel lauded the film; Ebert awarded the film four stars and Siskel placed the film fourth on his list of the ten best of 1978.
Filmmaker Spike Lee included the film on his essential film list "Films All Aspiring Filmmakers Must See".The New York Times placed the film on its Best 1000 Movies Ever list.
In his autobiography Born to Run , Bruce Springsteen names Blue Collar and Taxi Driver as two of his favorite films of the 1970s.
Nothing but a Man is a 1964 American independent drama film starring Ivan Dixon and Abbey Lincoln, and directed by Michael Roemer, who also co-wrote the film with Robert M. Young. The film tells the story of Duff Anderson, an African-American railroad worker in the early 1960s who tries to maintain his respect in a racist small town near Birmingham, Alabama, after he marries the local preacher's daughter. In addition to dealing with oppression and discrimination, Anderson must also come to terms with his troubled relationship with his own father, a drunk who abandoned and rejected him.
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Wholly Moses! is a 1980 American Biblical spoof film written by Guy Thomas. Dudley Moore plays Old Testament-era idol maker Herschel, whose life and adventures seem to parallel that of the more famous Moses, all the while being misled to think he is the prophet of God. The film also stars Laraine Newman, James Coco, Paul Sand, Jack Gilford, Dom DeLuise, John Houseman, Madeline Kahn, David Lander, Richard Pryor, and John Ritter.
Mad Dog Time is a 1996 American ensemble crime comedy film written and directed by Larry Bishop and starring Ellen Barkin, Gabriel Byrne, Richard Dreyfuss, Jeff Goldblum and Diane Lane. The film is notable for the various cameo appearances, including the first, and final film appearance by Christopher Jones in over a quarter-century.
The Star Chamber is a 1983 American crime thriller film starring Michael Douglas, Hal Holbrook, Yaphet Kotto, Sharon Gless, James B. Sikking, and Joe Regalbuto. The film was written by Roderick Taylor and Peter Hyams and directed by Hyams. Its title is taken from the name of the Star Chamber, the notorious 15th−17th-century English court.
Leonard Schrader was an American screenwriter and director, most notable for his ability to write Japanese language films and for his many collaborations with his brother, Paul Schrader. He earned an Academy Award nomination for the screenplay he wrote for the film Kiss of the Spider Woman.
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