Psychological thriller

Last updated

Psychological thriller is a genre combining the thriller and psychological fiction genres. It is commonly used to describe literature or films that deal with psychological narratives in a thriller or thrilling setting.


In terms of context and convention, it is a subgenre of the broader ranging thriller narrative structure, [1] with similarities to Gothic and detective fiction in the sense of sometimes having a "dissolving sense of reality". It is often told through the viewpoint of psychologically stressed characters, revealing their distorted mental perceptions and focusing on the complex and often tortured relationships between obsessive and pathological characters. [2] Psychological thrillers often incorporate elements of mystery, drama, action, and paranoia. The genre is closely related to and sometimes overlaps with the psychological drama and psychological horror genres, the latter generally involving more horror and terror elements and themes and more disturbing or frightening scenarios. [3]


Peter Hutchings states varied films have been labeled psychological thrillers, but it usually refers to "narratives with domesticated settings in which action is suppressed and where thrills are provided instead via investigations of the psychologies of the principal characters." [4] A distinguishing characteristic of a psychological thriller is it emphasizes the mental states of its characters: their perceptions, thoughts, distortions, and general struggle to grasp reality. [5]

According to director John Madden, psychological thrillers focus on story, character development, choice, and moral conflict; fear and anxiety drive the psychological tension in unpredictable ways. Madden stated their lack of spectacle and strong emphasis on character led to their decline in Hollywood popularity. [6] Psychological thrillers are suspenseful by exploiting uncertainty over characters' motives, honesty, and how they see the world. [7] Films can also cause discomfort in audiences by privileging them with information they wish to share with the characters; guilty characters may suffer similar distress by virtue of their knowledge. [5]

However, James N. Frey defines psychological thrillers as a style, rather than a subgenre; Frey states good thrillers focus on the psychology of their antagonists and build suspense slowly through ambiguity. [8] Creators and/or film distributors or publishers who seek to distance themselves from the negative connotations of horror often categorize their work as a psychological thriller. [9] The same situation can occur when critics label a work to be a psychological thriller in order to elevate its perceived literary value. [8]

Literary devices and techniques


Many psychological thrillers have emerged over the past years, all in various media (film, literature, radio, etc.). Despite these very different forms of representation, general trends have appeared throughout the narratives. Some of these consistent themes include: [5]

In psychological thrillers, characters often have to battle an inner struggle. Amnesia is a common plot device used to explore these questions. Character may be threatened with death, be forced to deal with the deaths of others, or fake their own deaths. [5] Psychological thrillers can be complex, and reviewers may recommend a second or third viewing to "decipher its secrets." [13] Common elements may include stock characters, such as a hardboiled detective and serial killer, involved in a cat and mouse game. [14] Sensation novels, examples of early psychological thrillers, were considered to be socially irresponsible due to their themes of sex and violence. These novels, among others, were inspired by the exploits of real-life detective Jack Whicher. [15] Water, especially floods, is frequently used to represent the unconscious mind, such as in What Lies Beneath and In Dreams . [16] Psychological thrillers may not always be concerned with plausibility. Peter Hutchings defines the giallo, an Italian subgenre of psychological thrillers, as violent murder mysteries that focus on style and spectacle over rationality. [17] According to Peter B. Flint of The New York Times , detractors of Alfred Hitchcock accused him of "relying on slick tricks, illogical story lines and wild coincidences". [18]


Screenwriters and directors




Anime and manga

Video games

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Action film</span> Film genre

Action film is a film genre in which the protagonist is thrust into a series of events that typically involve violence and physical feats. The genre tends to feature a mostly resourceful hero struggling against incredible odds, which include life-threatening situations, a dangerous villain, or a pursuit which usually concludes in victory for the hero.

<i>Les Diaboliques</i> (film) 1955 film by Henri-Georges Clouzot

Les Diaboliques is a 1955 French psychological horror thriller film directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot, starring Simone Signoret, Véra Clouzot, Paul Meurisse and Charles Vanel. It is based on the novel She Who Was No More by Pierre Boileau and Thomas Narcejac.

A slasher film is a genre of horror films involving a killer stalking and murdering a group of people, usually by use of bladed or sharp tools like knife, chainsaw, scalpel, etc. Although the term "slasher" may occasionally be used informally as a generic term for any horror film involving murder, film analysts cite an established set of characteristics which set slasher films apart from other horror subgenres, such as monster movies, splatter films, supernatural and psychological horror films.

Thriller is a genre of fiction with numerous, often overlapping, subgenres, including crime, horror and detective fiction. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the moods they elicit, giving their audiences heightened feelings of suspense, excitement, surprise, anticipation and anxiety. This genre is well-suited to film and television.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Survival horror</span> Video game subgenre

Survival horror is a subgenre of horror and survival games. Although combat can be part of the gameplay, the player is made to feel less in control than in typical action games through limited ammunition or weapons, health, speed and vision, or through various obstructions of the player's interaction with the game mechanics. The player is also challenged to find items that unlock the path to new areas and solve puzzles to proceed in the game. Games make use of strong horror themes, like dark mazelike environments and unexpected attacks from enemies.

Psychological horror is a subgenre of horror and psychological fiction with a particular focus on mental, emotional, and psychological states to frighten, disturb, or unsettle its audience. The subgenre frequently overlaps with the related subgenre of psychological thriller, and often uses mystery elements and characters with unstable, unreliable, or disturbed psychological states to enhance the suspense, drama, action, and paranoia of the setting and plot and to provide an overall creepy, unpleasant, unsettling, or distressing atmosphere.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scream queen</span> Actress known for her work in horror films

A scream queen is an actress who is prominent and influential in horror films, either through a notable appearance or recurring roles. A scream king is the male equivalent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jodelle Ferland</span> Canadian actress

Jodelle Micah Ferland is a Canadian actress. She debuted as a child actress at the age of four in the television film Mermaid (2000) for which she won a Young Artist Award and received a Daytime Emmy Award nomination, making her the youngest nominee in Emmy history. Her career progressed with roles in the television film Carrie (2002), the horror films They (2002), Tideland (2005), Silent Hill (2006) and Case 39 (2009), and the comedy film Good Luck Chuck (2007). She also led the television series Kingdom Hospital (2004).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Park Bo-young</span> South Korean actress

Park Bo-young is a South Korean actress. She is best known for her leading roles in the hit films Scandal Makers (2008), A Werewolf Boy (2012) and On Your Wedding Day (2018), and the television series Oh My Ghost (2015), Strong Girl Bong-soon (2017), Abyss (2019), and Doom at Your Service (2021).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Synthwave</span> Genre of electronic music influenced by 1980s film soundtracks and video games

Synthwave is an electronic music microgenre that is based predominantly on the music associated with action, science-fiction, and horror film soundtracks of the 1980s. Other influences are drawn from the decade's art and video games. Synthwave musicians often espouse nostalgia for 1980s culture and attempt to capture the era's atmosphere and celebrate it.

A one-shot film is a full-length movie filmed in one long take by a single camera, or manufactured to give the impression it was.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">XYZ Films</span> American motion picture company

XYZ Films is an American film production and sales company founded in 2008 by Aram Tertzakian, Nate Bolotin and Nick Spicer, and is based in Los Angeles. It focuses on international genre films, including The Raid: Redemption, The Raid 2 and On the Job.

<i>Be My Cat: A Film for Anne</i> 2015 English-language Romanian found footage horror feature film directed by Adrian Țofei

Be My Cat: A Film for Anne is a 2015 Romanian found footage psychological horror feature film directed, produced, written by, and starring Adrian Țofei, about an aspiring filmmaker who goes to extremes to convince actress Anne Hathaway to star in his film. It is the first entry in Adrian Țofei's planned indie trilogy which includes We Put the World to Sleep and Pure. It is also Adrian Țofei's first film and Romania's first found footage horror movie.

Timo Tjahjanto is an Indonesian film director, producer, and screenwriter known for his works on the horror and action genres. Tjahjanto owns the film production company Merah Production.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Art horror</span> Film genre

Art horror or arthouse horror is a sub-genre of both horror films and art-films. It explores and experiments with the artistic uses of horror.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Science fiction podcast</span> Genre of media

A Science fiction podcast is a podcast belonging to the science fiction genre, which focuses on futuristic and imaginative advances in science and technology while exploring the impact of these imagined innovations. Characters in these stories often encounter scenarios that involve space exploration, extraterrestrials, time travel, parallel universes, artificial intelligence, robots, and human cloning. Despite the focus on fictional settings and time periods, science fiction podcasts regularly contain or reference locations, events, or people from the real world. The intended audience of a science fiction podcast can vary from young children to adults. Science fiction podcasts developed out of radio dramas. Science fiction podcasts are a subgenre of fiction podcasts and are distinguished from fantasy podcasts and horror podcasts by the absence of magical or macabre themes, respectively, though these subgenres regularly overlap. Science fiction podcasts have often been adapted into television programs, graphic novels, and comics.

Psychological drama or psychodrama is a sub-genre of drama that places emphasis on psychological elements. It often overlaps with other genres such as crime, fantasy, black comedy, and science fiction, and it is closely related with the psychological horror and psychological thriller genres. Psychological dramas use these genres' tropes to focus on the human condition and psychological effects, usually in a mature and serious tone.


  1., definition, psychological thriller (definition) [ permanent dead link ], Accessed November 3, 2013, "...a suspenseful movie or book emphasizing the psychology of its characters rather than the plot; this subgenre of thriller movie or book – Example: In a psychological thriller, the characters are exposed to danger on a mental level rather than a physical one....",
  2. Christopher Pittard, Blackwell Reference, Psychological Thrillers, Accessed November 3, 2013, "...characteristics of the genre as 'a dissolving sense of reality; reticence in moral pronouncements; obsessive, pathological characters; the narrative privileging of complex, tortured relationships' ( Munt 1994)..."
  3. "Defining the Thriller Genre in Movies and TV". 5 November 2020.
  4. Hutchings, Peter (2009). The A to Z of Horror. Scarecrow Press. p. 253. ISBN   9780810870505.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Packer, Sharon (2007). Movies and the Modern Psyche. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 87–90. ISBN   9780275993597.
  6. Bowie-Sell, Daisy (2012-01-23). "John Madden on Psychological Thrillers" . Daily Telegraph . Archived from the original on 2022-01-11. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
  7. Whitney, Erin (2012-11-15). "Gretchen Mol Returns to the Stage in 'The Good Mother'". Backstage . Retrieved 2013-08-21. element of a psychological thriller because ... suspenseful feeling of who did what, who's being honest ... about perception...
  8. 1 2 Frey, James N. (2010). How to Write a Damn Good Thriller. Macmillan Publishers. pp. 15–19. ISBN   9781429913638.
  9. Barton, Steve (2008-05-27). "Six Things that Still Drive Me Psycho". DreadCentral . Retrieved 2013-11-01.
  10. 1 2 Taylor, Andrew (2009-01-16). "The DNA of detection". BBC . Retrieved 2013-10-31.
  11. Santoski, Teresa (2012-08-13). "The Week in Preview: "I am a typed director. If I made Cinderella, the audience would immediately be looking for a body in the coach." – Alfred Hitchcock". The Nashua Telegraph . Retrieved 2013-11-10.
  12. "Red Herring". 2020.
  13. Holden, Stephen (2011-04-14). "Romance or Film Noir? Both, and a Thriller". The New York Times . Retrieved 2013-08-21.
  14. Wright, Chris (2011-07-31). "Your Psychological Thriller". Boston Globe . Retrieved 2013-10-31.
  15. Summerscale, Kate (2008-04-04). "The Prince of Sleuths". The Guardian . Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  16. Indick, William (2004). Movies and the Mind. McFarland & Company. p. 70. ISBN   9780786480920.
  17. Hutchings, Peter (2009). The A to Z of Horror Cinema. Scarecrow Press. pp. 141–143. ISBN   9780810870505.
  18. Flint, Peter B. (1980-04-30). "Alfred Hitchcock Dies; A Master of Suspense". The New York Times . Retrieved 2014-03-23.
  19. Anderton, Ethan (2010-05-14). "Brad Anderson Helming an Amnesiac Serial Killer Film 'Jack". Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  20. Hutchings, Peter (2003). "The Argento Effect". In Jancovich, Mark; Reboll, Antionio Lázaro; Stringer, Julian; Willis, Andy (eds.). Defining Cult Movies: the Cultural Politics of Oppositional Taste. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 128–132. ISBN   978-0-7190-6631-3.
  21. Vilkomerson, Sara (2010-12-10). "Darren Aronofsky: The Swan King". Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  22. Morgan, Jason (2008-04-08). "Aronofsky Thrilled by Psychology". Cinema Blend. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  23. French, Philip (2013-03-02). "Stoker – review" . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  24. French, Philip (2012-02-11). "A Dangerous Method – review". The Guardian . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  25. Canby, Vincent (2004). "Dressed to Kill". In Nichols, Peter M.; Scott, A.O. (eds.). The New York Times Guide to the Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made. Macmillan Publishers. ISBN   9780312326111.
  26. Crowther, Bosley (1941-11-21). "Suspicion a Hitchcock Thriller at Radio City". The New York Times . Retrieved 2013-08-21.
  27. de Semlyen, Phil (2010-08-27). "Satoshi Kon Dies At 46". Empire . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  28. Jensen, Jeff (2006-12-01). "David Lynch wants to get in your bloodstream". Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  29. Breznican, Anthony (2010-07-16). "With 'Inception,' Chris Nolan's head games continue". USA Today . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  30. Johnston, Sheila (1995-04-13). "Great Minds Share a Cesspool". The Independent . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  31. "Martin Scorsese". Psychological Thrillers. Retrieved 2021-06-27.
  32. Breznican, Anthony (2005-08-11). "This Shocking Twist Is ... Secret". USA Today . Retrieved 2013-10-31.
  33. "The 25 Best Psychological Thrillers of All Time". Collider. 2021-01-02. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
  34. Ahmed, Nafees (2018-08-13). "American Psycho Explained". High On Films. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  35. Taylor, Jasmin. "Black Mirror: Bandersnatch, an attempt at innovation or a total fail?". The Standard. Retrieved 2021-06-27.
  36. "The Many Faces of 'Black Swan,' Deconstructed". 2011-02-10.
  37. "The Brave One". 2007-09-30.
  38. "New Haruki Murakami Adaptation 'Burning' Is A Feverish Psychological Thriller". Adelaide Film Festival. 2018-10-09. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  39. "Cape Fear". 1991-11-15.
  40. Bean, Travis. "Exploring The Meaning Of Gaspar Noe's 'Climax'". Forbes. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  41. TheHaughtyCulturist (2020-04-19). "The Conversation (1974) and the art of betrayal". The Haughty Culturist. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  42. "Dead Ringers | Synopsis & Analysis". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
  43. "Why Donnie Darko Was So Ubiquitous In The Early 00s". Creepy Catalog. 2020-04-15. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  44. "'Don't Worry Darling' is a psychological journey for the modern thriller fan". 2022-09-27. Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  45. Enemy , retrieved 2021-09-27
  46. Kronberg, Joe. ""Eraserhead" – a surreal and psychological thriller that will keep you guessing". The Black & White. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  47. Frazer, Bryant (1999-10-19). "Fight Club". Deep Focus | Movie Reviews for the Internet. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  48. Evangelista, Chris. "David Fincher's "The Game" Turns 20 | Features | Roger Ebert". Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  49. Leydon, Joe (25 September 2017). "Film Review: Gerald's Game".
  50. "'Get Out' an outstanding, twisted psychological thriller". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  51. Ebiri, Bilge. "The Gift Lives Up to the Term 'Psychological Thriller'". Vulture. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  52. "Gone Girl: what makes Gillian Flynn's psychological thriller so popular?". the Guardian. 2013-03-19. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  53. Sims, David (2016-10-21). "'The Handmaiden' Is a True Cinematic Masterpiece". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  54. Hagen, Kate (2019-10-30). "Essential Psychological Thrillers: Mallika Pal on HEREDITARY". Medium. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  55. Variety Staff (December 31, 1988). "Hider in the House". Variety . Retrieved February 5, 2023.
  56. "Horse Girl Explained - What really happened". This Is Barry. Retrieved 2023-01-09.
  57. Kohn, Eric (2020-09-04). "Charlie Kaufman's Guide to 'I'm Thinking of Ending Things': The Director Explains Its Mysteries". IndieWire. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  58. "Inception: Making Christopher Nolan's Psychological Action Epic". Empire. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  59. Ebert, Roger. "Insomnia movie review & film summary (2002) | Roger Ebert". Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  60. Ebert, Roger. "Jacob's Ladder movie review & film summary (1990) | Roger Ebert". Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  61. Randi Altman (2019-11-25). "Director Robert Eggers talks about his psychological thriller The Lighthouse". postPerspective. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  62. Oksenhorn, Stewart. "'The Machinist': a haunting psychological thriller". Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  63. "Martha Marcy May Marlene – review". the Guardian. 2012-02-05. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  64. "Film Advent Calendar: Memento is a psychological thriller that finds the perfect way to tell its story | The Northern Quota". 22 December 2018. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  65. "Mulholland Drive at 20: David Lynch's audacious puzzle remains a mystery". the Guardian. 2021-10-12. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  66. Gelbart, Bryn (2021-08-13). "Movies Like Nightcrawler Psychological Thriller Fans Need To See". Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  67. "Nocturnal Animals - Understanding That Ending". This Is Barry. Retrieved 2023-01-09.
  68. cinephiliabeyond (2016-05-02). "'Obsession': When De Palma Stepped Out of Hitchcock's Shadow • Cinephilia & Beyond". Cinephilia & Beyond. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  69. La, Christina (2020-10-21). "4 Korean Psychological Thriller Movies To Watch This Spooky Season". KPOP Foods. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  70. Stringfellow, Jonathan. "Parasite: Home Invasion on a New Psychological Level". The Uproar. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  71. Kurland, Daniel (2021-11-06). "Perfect Blue: 10 Ways It's Still The Perfect Psychological Horror Movie". CBR. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  72. cinephiliabeyond (2017-01-19). "'Persona': Ingmar Bergman's Psychological Masterpiece as the White Whale of Critical Analysis • Cinephilia & Beyond". Cinephilia & Beyond. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  73. Rutherford, James (2019-06-08). "'Pi': A Brilliant Psychological Thriller From the Mind of Darren Aronofsky". brooklynfilmfanatic. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  74. "How Alfred Hitchcock film 'Psycho' changed horror forever". 2021-06-16. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  75. cinephiliabeyond (2016-05-11). "'Rear Window': Hitchcock's Cinematic Exploration of Voyeurism Disguised as a Top-Notch Thriller • Cinephilia & Beyond". Cinephilia & Beyond. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  76. "Repulsion". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  77. "Jared Leto Was Never The Same After Requiem For A Dream". Slash Film. 21 March 2022. Retrieved 2022-09-05.
  78. "Seven (Se7en)". Psychological Thrillers. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  79. "Why 'The Shining' is the best psychological horror film". Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  80. Goyal, Sarthak (2016-07-09). "'The Silence of the Lambs': The Quintessential Psychological Thriller". The Cinemaholic. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  81. Rickey, Carrie. "Sisters: Psycho-Thriller, Qu'est-ce Que C'est?". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  82. "The Sixth Sense". Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  83. Meyer, Joshua (2021-09-17). "Shutter Island Ending Explained: Scorsese's Psychological Thriller Delivers A Masterful Twist". Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  84. "Spider : Production Notes". Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  85. "Stoker: A Tale of Female Maturescence with a Tinge of Hitchcock | Re:Views Magazine". 12 December 2018. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  86. "Taxi Driver". Psychological Thrillers. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  87. Greene, Vincent (2020-03-25). "The Thing (1982): Suspense-filled, Psychological Horror at Its Savage Best | 25YL". Horror Obsessive. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  88. "Why you should watch: 'Tom at the Farm'". SBS Movies. 2018-04-03. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  89. Emma (2019-03-22). ""Us" Review: A Terrifying Awesome Psychological Thriller". FanBolt. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  90. Tomastik, Joseph (2022-04-03). "Vertigo (Review): Hitchcock's Perfect Descent into Madness". Loud And Clear Reviews. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  91. McNamara, Mary (2007-07-24). "This lawyer earns her fee". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  92. Barney, Chuck (2008-02-15). "There will be blood on CBS via 'Dexter'". San Jose Mercury News . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  93. "Fox takes chances with Fringe, Dollhouse". 2008-07-14. Archived from the original on 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  94. "Exile, BBC One, final episode, preview" . Daily Telegraph . 2011-05-03. Archived from the original on 2022-01-11. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  95. Ng, Philiana (2013-01-21). "'The Following': Natalie Zea Previews Fox's Psychological Thriller From Kevin Williamson". The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  96. Levin, Gary (2011-09-29). "At heart of 'Homeland' is a psychological thriller". USA Today . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  97. Boone, John (2015-11-20). "Everything You Need to Know Before Binge-Watching Marvel and Netflix's 'Jessica Jones'". Entertainment Tonight . Retrieved 2016-02-13.
  98. de la Fuente, Anna Marie (2011-08-31). "DirecTV Latin America nabs 'Mad Dogs'" . Retrieved 2013-11-03.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  99. Eyerly, Alan (2015-05-29). "TV Preview Wealth disparity, hackers and cyber threats in 'Mr. Robot'". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 2016-02-13.
  100. "Netflix Thriller 'You' Is Part Gone Girl, Part American Psycho And It's Back For A Second Season". GQ . January 14, 2019. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  101. Feroze, Towheed (2012-07-28). "The night of eternal stars is yours . . ". The Daily Star . Retrieved 2015-11-24.
  102. Unsworth, Cathi (2011-07-13). "Blue Monday by Nicci French – review". The Guardian . Retrieved 2013-10-31.
  103. "Patricia Highsmith; U.S. Mystery Novelist". Los Angeles Times . Reuters. 1995-02-05. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  104. Korbren, Gerri (1992-01-26). "Private Eyes". Baltimore Sun . Retrieved 2013-10-31.
  105. Levesque, John (2002-01-24). "Stephen King's miniseries makes about as much sense as our traffic". Seattle Post-Intelligencer . Retrieved 2013-10-29.
  106. Cogdill, Oline H. (1997-03-23). "Homeless, Home to Die". Sun-Sentinel . Retrieved 2013-11-01.
  107. jeager32 (2014-04-02). "Death Note: Gold Standard for Psychological Thriller Anime". Comp Stomp. Retrieved 2021-06-27.
  108. "Madoka Magica: Beginnings May Be Better Than the Series". Kotaku . October 9, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2017.
  109. Han, Karen (2021-08-13). "Why Neon Genesis Evangelion Is One of the Greatest Anime Ever Made". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  110. Brei, Elizabeth (2020-05-28). "Paprika: 5 Reasons Why It's The Perfect Psychological-Thriller Anime (& 5 Better Alternatives)". CBR. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  111. Lammers, Dirk (2010-06-01). "'Alan Wake' combines psychological thriller with shooter". North Jersey Media Group . Associated Press . Retrieved 2013-10-29.
  112. John, Tracey (2009-12-29). "Choose Your Own Adventure in Psychological Thriller 'Heavy Rain'". Time . Retrieved 2013-10-31.
  113. "'Hotline Miami' takes players on an acid trip into a realm of depravity". PopOptiq. 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2021-06-27.