David Fincher

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David Fincher
David Fincher (2012) 3.jpg
Fincher in 2011
David Andrew Leo Fincher

(1962-08-28) August 28, 1962 (age 57)
OccupationFilm and television director and producer
Years active1980–present
Donya Fiorentino
(m. 1990;div. 1995)

Ceán Chaffin
(m. 1996)

David Andrew Leo Fincher [1] [2] (born August 28, 1962) is an American film director, film producer, television director, television producer, and music video director. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director for The Curious Case of Benjamin Button (2008) and The Social Network (2010). For the latter, he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Director and the BAFTA Award for Best Direction.

Academy Award for Best Director Category of film award

The Academy Award for Best Director is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of a film director who has exhibited outstanding directing while working in the film industry.

<i>The Curious Case of Benjamin Button</i> (film) 2008 film by David Fincher

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button is a 2008 American fantasy romantic drama film directed by David Fincher. The storyline by Eric Roth and Robin Swicord is loosely based on the 1922 eponymous short story by F. Scott Fitzgerald. The film stars Brad Pitt as a man who ages in reverse and Cate Blanchett as the love interest throughout his life.

<i>The Social Network</i> 2010 film by David Fincher

The Social Network is a 2010 American biographical drama film directed by David Fincher and written by Aaron Sorkin. Adapted from Ben Mezrich's 2009 book The Accidental Billionaires, the film portrays the founding of social networking website Facebook and the resulting lawsuits. It stars Jesse Eisenberg as founder Mark Zuckerberg, along with Andrew Garfield as Eduardo Saverin, Justin Timberlake as Sean Parker, Armie Hammer as Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss, and Max Minghella as Divya Narendra. Neither Zuckerberg nor any other Facebook staff were involved with the project, although Saverin was a consultant for Mezrich's book. The film was released in the United States by Columbia Pictures on October 1, 2010.


He is also known for having directed Alien 3 in his directorial debut, and most known for films in the thriller genre, including Seven (1995), The Game (1997), Fight Club (1999), Panic Room (2002), Zodiac (2007), The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011) and Gone Girl (2014). He was also instrumental in the creation of the Netflix series House of Cards (2013–2018) and Mindhunter (2017–present) and has directed episodes of both series, winning the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series for the pilot episode of House of Cards.

<i>Alien 3</i> 1992 American science-fiction horror film by David Fincher

Alien 3 is a 1992 American science fiction action horror film directed by David Fincher and written by David Giler, Walter Hill and Larry Ferguson from a story by Vincent Ward. It stars Sigourney Weaver reprising her role as Ellen Ripley and is the third film installment in the Alien franchise, preceded by Aliens (1986) and succeeded by Alien Resurrection (1997).

Thriller film film genre

Thriller film, also known as suspense film or suspense thriller, is a broad film genre that evokes excitement and suspense in the audience. The suspense element, found in most films' plots, is particularly exploited by the filmmaker in this genre. Tension is created by delaying what the audience sees as inevitable, and is built through situations that are menacing or where escape seems impossible.

<i>Seven</i> (1995 film) 1995 film directed by David Fincher

Seven is a 1995 American neo-noir crime thriller film directed by David Fincher and written by Andrew Kevin Walker. It stars Brad Pitt, Morgan Freeman, Gwyneth Paltrow, John C. McGinley, R. Lee Ermey, and Kevin Spacey. It tells the story of David Mills, a detective who partners with the retiring William Somerset to track down a serial killer who uses the seven deadly sins as a motif in his murders.

His films Zodiac and The Social Network are ranked in BBC's 100 Greatest Films of the 21st Century. [3]

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London, and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total, 16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed-contract staff are included.

The 100 Greatest Films of the 21st Century is a list compiled in August 2016 by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), chosen by a voting poll of 177 film critics from around the world. It was compiled by collating the top ten films submitted by the critics who were asked to list the best films released since the year 2000.

Early life

Fincher was born on August 28, 1962 in Denver, Colorado, [4] the son of Claire Mae (née Boettcher), a mental health nurse from South Dakota who worked in drug addiction programs, and Howard Kelly "Jack" Fincher, an author from Oklahoma who worked as a reporter and bureau chief for Life . [5] [6] Howard died of cancer in April 2003. [1] [7] Fincher knew from a young age he wanted to go into filmmaking. When Fincher was two years old, the family moved to San Anselmo, California, where filmmaker George Lucas was one of his neighbors. [6]

Denver capital city of the state of Colorado, United States; consolidated city and county

Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado. Denver is located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The Denver downtown district is immediately east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River, approximately 12 mi (19 km) east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is named after James W. Denver, a governor of the Kansas Territory. It is nicknamed the Mile High City because its official elevation is exactly one mile above sea level. The 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the longitudinal reference for the Mountain Time Zone, passes directly through Denver Union Station.

Colorado U.S. state in the United States

Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census.

A Mental Health Nurse (MHN) refers to a psychiatric nurse in the UK, who specialises in the care of patients with mental health issues.

Fincher moved to Ashland, Oregon in his teens, where he graduated from Ashland High School. During high school, he directed plays and designed sets and lighting after school, and was a non-union projectionist at a second-run movie theater, production assistant at the local television news station KOBI in Medford, Oregon, and took on other odd jobs such as fry cook, busboy, and dishwasher. [6] [8] Inspired by Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), Fincher began making movies at age eight with an 8mm camera. [6] [4]

Ashland, Oregon City in Oregon, United States

Ashland is a city in Jackson County, Oregon, United States. It lies along Interstate 5 approximately 16 miles (26 km) north of the California border and near the south end of the Rogue Valley. The city's population was 20,078 at the 2010 census and was estimated to be 21,263 as of 2019.

Ashland High School (Oregon)

Ashland High School (AHS) is a public high school in Ashland, Oregon, United States, near the Southern Oregon University campus.

KOBI, virtual and VHF digital channel 5, is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Medford, Oregon, United States. The station's owner, California Oregon Broadcasting, Inc., is the longest continuously independent broadcast group in the Western United States and one of the three oldest in the country. KOBI's studios are located on South Fir Street in downtown Medford, and its transmitter is located atop King Mountain, 28 miles (45 km) northwest of the city.


Early career

Fincher was employed at Korty Films as a production head. He then moved up the ranks and became a visual effects producer, [6] working on the animated Twice Upon a Time (1983) under the direction of his former neighbor, George Lucas.[ citation needed ] He was hired by Industrial Light & Magic in 1983 as an assistant cameraman and matte photographer, [6] and worked on Return of the Jedi (1983) and Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984). [9] In 1984, he left ILM to direct a commercial for the American Cancer Society that depicted a fetus smoking a cigarette. [6] This quickly brought Fincher to the attention of producers in Los Angeles, and he was given the chance to direct the 1985 Rick Springfield documentary The Beat of the Live Drum. [10] Set on a directing career, Fincher co-founded video-production company Propaganda Films and started off directing music videos and commercials. [10]

John Korty is an American film director and animator, best known for the television film The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman and the documentary Who Are the DeBolts? And Where Did They Get Nineteen Kids?, as well as the theatrical animated feature Twice Upon a Time. He has won an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature and several other major awards. He is described by the film critic Leonard Maltin as "a principled filmmaker who has worked both outside and within the mainstream, attempting to find projects that support his humanistic beliefs".

<i>Twice Upon a Time</i> (1983 film) 1983 film by John Korty

Twice Upon a Time is a 1983 American animated fantasy comedy film directed by John Korty and Charles Swenson. It is the first animated film produced by George Lucas. The film uses a form of cutout animation which the filmmakers called "Lumage", involving prefabricated cut-out plastic pieces that the animators moved on a light table.

Like Fincher, directors such as Michael Bay, Antoine Fuqua, Michel Gondry, Spike Jonze, Alex Proyas, Paul Rachman, Mark Romanek, Zack Snyder, Gore Verbinski and others honed their talents at Propaganda Films before moving on to feature films. [11] Though he would continue to direct spots for Levi's, Converse, Nike, Pepsi, Revlon, Sony, Coca-Cola, Chanel, and other companies, [6] Fincher began to focus on music videos. He directed the video for 1986's "We Don't Have to Take Our Clothes Off", which was the biggest commercial success for pop/R&B singer Jermaine Stewart, [4] Michael Jackson's "Who Is It", Aerosmith's "Janie's Got A Gun" and worked extensively with Madonna, directing videos for "Express Yourself", "Oh Father", "Vogue" and "Bad Girl". [10] He also directed Billy Idol's "Cradle of Love" video. Fincher referred to the production of music videos as his own kind of film school, in which he learned how to work efficiently within a small budget and time frame. [12] [13]

1990s: Alien 3, Seven, The Game and Fight Club

20th Century Fox hired Fincher to replace Vincent Ward as the director of the science fiction horror film Alien 3 (1992), his feature directorial debut. [14] The third installment in the Alien franchise starring Sigourney Weaver, the film was released in May 1992 to a mixed reception from critics and was considered weaker than the preceding films in the franchise. [15] Film critic Roger Ebert, considered it to be "one of the best looking bad movies I’ve ever seen". [16] Fincher became involved with several disputes with 20th Century Fox over script and budget issues during the production. In Director's Cut: Picturing Hollywood in the 21st Century, he blames the producers for not putting the necessary trust in him. [17] He stated in an interview with The Guardian in 2009: "No one hated it more than me; to this day, no one hates it more than me." [18] It received an Academy Award nomination for Best Visual Effects. [19]

After directing the film, he retreated back into the world of commercial and music video directing, including the video for the Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video-winning song "Love Is Strong" by The Rolling Stones in 1994. [20] Following the difficult production of Alien 3, Fincher thought that he would "rather die of colon cancer than do another movie" and eschewed reading scripts. [21] Despite this, Fincher read Andrew Kevin Walker's screenplay for Seven (1995), which was actually Walker's original draft with the current ending, that was already removed by then attached director Jeremiah Chechik. Fincher expressed no interest in directing after reading the revised draft, until New Line Cinema agreed to keep the original ending. [22] [21] It stars Brad Pitt, Morgan Freeman, Gwyneth Paltrow, R. Lee Ermey, and Kevin Spacey, and tells the story of two detectives (played by Pitt and Freeman) tracking down a serial killer who bases his murders on the seven deadly sins. [23] Seven was one of the highest-earning films of 1995, grossing more than $320 million internationally and was positively received by film critics. [24] Writing for Sight and Sound , John Wrathall wrote that it "stands as the most complex and disturbing entry in the serial killer genre since Manhunter " and Roger Ebert opined that Seven is "one of the darkest and most merciless films ever made in the Hollywood mainstream." [25] [26]

After the success of Seven, Fincher went on to film a music video for "6th Avenue Heartache" by The Wallflowers [27] and the thriller The Game (1997) from a screenplay by the screenwriting duo John Brancato and Michael Ferris. [28] The story focuses on a San Franciscan investment banker (played by Michael Douglas) who receives an unusual gift from his younger brother (Sean Penn), in which he becomes involved in a "game" that integrates in strange ways with his everyday life, leading to frustration and uncertainty between the game and real life. [28] Fincher hired Seven screenwriter Andrew Kevin Walker to make contributions and polishes to the script. [29] The film had middling box office returns, despite being met with generally positive reviews, with specific praise for Fincher's direction and Douglas' performance. [30]

In August 1997, Fincher agreed to direct a screen adaptation of Chuck Palahniuk's 1996 novel Fight Club for 20th Century Fox, his second film with the studio after the troubled production of Alien 3. [31] The film stars Edward Norton, Brad Pitt, and Helena Bonham Carter and follows an insomniac office worker who is known simply as The Narrator, played by Norton, who opens up a club devoted exclusively to bare knuckle fighting for men with soap salesman Tyler Durden (Pitt). Fight Club was an early disappointment at the box office and initially received mixed reviews. In the years following its release, Fight Club received a reassessment from many critics. Entertainment Weekly , which had originally given the film a D-, [32] later ranked the DVD #1 on its list of 50 Essential DVDs. [33] The film's social commentary has been the source of much critical analysis from academics and film critics. Around the same period, Fincher was shortlisted by Columbia Pictures, as one of the potential directors for Spider-Man: a live-action adaptation of the fictional comic-book character of the same name. Fincher's concept for the project had a more mature, psychologically-rooted and less action-oriented take on the classic Spider-Man mythos, skipped the titular character's origin story, instead covering those events in a 10-minute title sequence, put an emphasis on the character's struggles with his post-high school life and his super-human abilities, along with his relationship with his girlfriend/love interest: Gwen Stacy, featured the classic Spider-Man villain: the Green Goblin, as the main antagonist and would have also served as an adaptation of the iconic comic-book storyline: "The Night Gwen Stacy Died", which featured the death of Gwen Stacy at the hands of the Goblin. However, Fincher's pitch was rejected by the studio, with Sam Raimi later being hired to helm the project.

2000s: Panic Room, hiatus, Zodiac and The Curious Case of Benjamin Button

In 2002, Fincher followed up with the thriller Panic Room . The film earned over $92 million at the U.S. box office. The story follows a single mother (Jodie Foster) and her daughter (Kristen Stewart) as they hide in a safe room of their new house, away from criminals (Forest Whitaker, Dwight Yoakam, and Fight Club collaborator Jared Leto) bent on finding a missing fortune. Fincher acknowledged Panic Room as a more mainstream thriller, describing the film, on the DVD's audio commentary, as "[basically] a date movie" and a "really good B movie" about "two people trapped in a closet".

Five years after Panic Room, Fincher returned on March 2, 2007 with Zodiac , an adaptation of Robert Graysmith's books about the hunt for the Zodiac Killer that starred Jake Gyllenhaal, Mark Ruffalo, Robert Downey, Jr., Anthony Edwards, and Brian Cox. The first of Fincher's films to be shot digitally, the majority of the film was recorded on a Thomson Viper FilmStream HD digital movie camera . However, high-speed film cameras were used for the Blue Rock Springs and Presidio Heights murder scenes for the slow-motion shots. [34] It was originally to be released in the fall of 2006 but was pushed back after Fincher refused to cut 20 minutes off the film.

Zodiac was one of the best-reviewed films of that year, with only two other 2007 films appearing on more top-10 lists ( No Country for Old Men and There Will Be Blood ). [35] However, the film struggled at the box office in the U.S., earning only $33 million, but did well overseas with a foreign gross of $51.7 million. Worldwide, Zodiac was a decent success. [36] Despite an aggressive campaign by the studio, expectations surrounding Robert Downey, Jr.'s supporting performance, Fincher's direction and Vanderbilt's adapted script, the film did not earn a single Oscar nomination. [37]

A story about life and death, The Curious Case of Benjamin Button is an adaptation of F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story of the same name. The film was Fincher's third with Brad Pitt. The film started shooting in November 2006 in New Orleans, before moving on to the Virgin Islands, Montreal, and L.A. Both Zodiac and this film are co-productions of Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros. The budget for the film was estimated at $150 million, partly due to the visual effects used to reverse the aging in Pitt's character. It received 13 nominations at the 81st Academy Awards, including Fincher's first nomination for Best Director. It won three Academy Awards for Best Art Direction, Best Makeup, and Best Visual Effects.

2010s: The Social Network, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, Gone Girl and television career

Fincher directed the 2010 film The Social Network , about the legal battles of Mark Zuckerberg and the founding of Facebook. The film features an Oscar-winning screenplay by Aaron Sorkin, adapted from the book The Accidental Billionaires . Filming started in October 2009 [38] and was released a year later, to critical acclaim. Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross created the Oscar-winning soundtrack for the film. The film went on to win many awards, including three Academy Awards for Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Original Score, and Best Film Editing. [39]

In 2011, Fincher directed the American version of The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo , based on the book by Stieg Larsson, with a script written by Steven Zaillian. The film was shot in Sweden, with Rooney Mara as Lisbeth Salander and Daniel Craig as Mikael Blomkvist. Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross composed the soundtrack for the film, collaborating with Fincher a second time. [40] The film received five Academy Award nominations, including Best Actress for Mara, and won the award for Best Film Editing.

Fincher is an executive producer of the Netflix television series House of Cards , of which he also directed the first two episodes. [41] The series has received positive reviews, earning nine Primetime Emmy nominations, including Outstanding Drama Series and winning Fincher the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series for the first episode. [42]

In 2014, Fincher directed the adaptation of Gillian Flynn's novel Gone Girl , which starred Ben Affleck and Rosamund Pike. [43] [44] The film earned Pike an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress, Fincher also received his third Golden Globe nomination.

In 2016, Fincher directed another Netflix series, Mindhunter , starring Holt McCallany and Jonathan Groff. The series, that is based on the book Mind Hunter: Inside the FBI's Elite Serial Crime Unit, debuted worldwide on October 13, 2017. [45] [46]

Upcoming projects

Unrealized projects

Approach and style

Fincher likes to map out camera movements with computer-generated imagery, commission intricate sets, get heavily involved in post-production, and re-shoot footage after the principal photography has wrapped. [66] He does not normally use hand-held cameras when he shoots a film, preferring cameras on a tripod. His most frequent use of a hand-held camera was for Seven , in which five scenes were shot that way.

Fincher's music videos very rarely tell a story, focusing instead on conveying the mood of the song. In order to achieve this, the editing, the pans and close-ups of the camera closely follow the rhythms of the music and the lyrics in precise synchrony. [12]

In a Blu-ray bonus featurette of The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo, Fincher stated: "I think people are perverts. I've maintained that. That's the foundation of my career." [67]

Personal life

Fincher married model–photographer Donya Fiorentino (born 1967) in 1990 and divorced in 1995. [68] They have a daughter, Phelix Imogen Fincher, born 1994. [69] Fincher is currently married to producer Ceán Chaffin. [70]




2013–2018 House of Cards Also executive producer;
Directed 2 episodes
2017–present Mindhunter Also executive producer;
Directed 7 episodes
2019 Love, Death & Robots Executive producer

Music videos

As a music video director, Fincher has won two Grammy Awards for Best Music Video, for his work in "Love Is Strong" by The Rolling Stones (1995) and "Suit & Tie" by Justin Timberlake and Jay-Z (2013), and three MTV Video Music Awards for Best Direction, being one of the most awarded directors in the category, alongside Spike Jonze. He also earned back-to-back MTV Video Music Awards for Best Direction in 1989 for Madonna's "Express Yourself" (1989) and for "Vogue" (1990). In 1990, he earned three of the four available nominations in the Best Direction category. "Who is it" Michael Jackson


Critical reception

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic
Alien3 42% (52 reviews) [71] 59 (20 reviews) [72]
Seven 81% (72 reviews) [73] 65 (22 reviews) [74]
The Game 73% (56 reviews) [75] 61 (19 reviews) [76]
Fight Club 79% (166 reviews) [77] 66 (35 reviews) [78]
Panic Room 75% (185 reviews) [79] 65 (36 reviews) [80]
Zodiac 80% (244 reviews) [81] 78 (40 reviews) [82]
The Curious Case of Benjamin Button 71% (246 reviews) [83] 70 (37 reviews) [84]
The Social Network 96% (307 reviews) [85] 95 (42 reviews) [86]
The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo 86% (237 reviews) [87] 71 (41 reviews) [88]
Gone Girl 87% (342 reviews) [89] 79 (49 reviews) [90]

Box office performance

FilmStudioRelease dateBox office grossBudget
North AmericaOther territoriesWorldwide
Alien3 20th Century Fox May 22, 1992$55,473,545$104,340,953$159,814,498$50 million [91]
Seven New Line Cinema September 22, 1995$100,125,643$227,186,216$327,311,859$33 million [92]
The Game PolyGram September 12, 1997$48,323,648$61,100,000$109,423,648$50 million [93]
Fight Club20th Century FoxOctober 15, 1999$37,030,102$63,823,651$100,853,753$63 million [94]
Panic Room Columbia March 29, 2002$96,397,334$100,000,081$196,397,415$48 million [95]
Zodiac Paramount / Warner Bros. March 2, 2007$33,080,084$51,705,830$84,785,914$65 million [96]
The Curious Case of Benjamin ButtonDecember 25, 2008$127,509,326$206,422,757$333,932,083$150 million [97]
The Social NetworkColumbiaOctober 1, 2010$96,962,694$127,957,621$224,920,315$40 million [98]
The Girl with the Dragon TattooColumbia / Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer December 20, 2011$102,068,888$130,101,637$232,617,430$90 million [99]
Gone Girl20th Century FoxOctober 3, 2014$167,238,510$199,700,000$366,938,510$61 million [100]
Total$858,764,264$1,246,038,476$2,136,548,250$650 million


YearFilmAcademy AwardsBAFTA AwardsGolden Globe Awards
1992 Alien 3 11
1995 Seven 11
1999 Fight Club 1
2008 The Curious Case of Benjamin Button 1331135
2010 The Social Network 837364
2011 The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo 5122
2014 Gone Girl 124

Fincher, alongside Joshua Donen and Eric Roth, won a Peabody Award for their work on House of Cards. [101]

His films Zodiac and The Social Network are ranked in the BBC's 100 Greatest Films of the 21st Century list. [102]

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Jake Gyllenhaal is an American actor and film producer who has appeared in over 35 motion pictures, three television programs, one commercial, and four music videos. He made his film debut in 1991 with a minor role in the comedy-drama City Slickers. In 1993, he appeared in A Dangerous Woman, a motion picture adaptation directed by Gyllenhaal's father Stephen Gyllenhaal and co-written by his mother Naomi Foner that was based on the novel of the same name by Mary McGarry Morris. In the following year, he portrayed Robin Williams' son in an episode of the police procedural television series Homicide: Life on the Street; the episode was directed by his father. In 1999, Gyllenhaal starred in the Joe Johnston-directed drama October Sky; the film was received warmly by critics, and Gyllenhaal's portrayal of the NASA engineer Homer Hickam was praised.

<i>The Club</i> (2015 film) 2015 film

The Club is a 2015 Chilean drama film directed, co-produced and co-written by Pablo Larraín. It was screened in the main competition of the 65th Berlin International Film Festival where it won the Jury Grand Prix. It was selected as the Chilean entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 88th Academy Awards but it was not nominated.

<i>Hitchcock/Truffaut</i> (film) 2015 film

Hitchcock/Truffaut is a 2015 French-American documentary film directed by Kent Jones about François Truffaut's book on Alfred Hitchcock, Hitchcock/Truffaut, and its impact on cinema.

The 38th Golden Raspberry Awards, or Razzies, was an awards ceremony that honored the worst the film industry had to offer in 2017. The Golden Raspberry Awards were awarded based on votes from members of the Golden Raspberry Foundation. The nominees were announced on January 22, 2018 and the winners were announced on March 3, 2018.


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Further reading

Awards and achievements
National Board of Review
Preceded by
Tim Burton
for Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street
Best Director
for The Curious Case of Benjamin Button

Succeeded by
Clint Eastwood
for Invictus
National Board of Review
Preceded by
Clint Eastwood
for Invictus
Best Director
for The Social Network

Succeeded by
Martin Scorsese
for Hugo