Ron Howard

Last updated

Ron Howard
RonHoward2023.jpg
Howard after recording an episode of "Here's Looking at Yul, Kid" in 2023
Born
Ronald William Howard

(1954-03-01) March 1, 1954 (age 70)
Education University of Southern California
Occupations
  • Director
  • producer
  • screenwriter
  • actor
Years active1959–present
Spouse
Cheryl Alley
(m. 1975)
Children4, including Bryce Dallas and Paige
Parents
Relatives Clint Howard (brother)
Awards Full list

Ronald William Howard (born March 1, 1954) is an American director, producer, screenwriter, and actor. Howard started his career as a child actor before transitioning to directing films. Over his six decade career, Howard has received two Academy Awards, four Emmy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, and a Grammy Award. He was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 2003 and was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 2013. [1] [2] Howard has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions in film and television. [3]

Contents

Howard first came to prominence as a child actor, acting in several television series before gaining national attention for playing young Opie Taylor, the son of Sheriff Andy Taylor (played by Andy Griffith) in the sitcom The Andy Griffith Show from 1960 through 1968. During this time, he also appeared in the musical film The Music Man (1962), a critical and commercial success. Howard was cast in one of the lead roles in the influential coming-of-age film American Graffiti (1973), and became a household name for playing Richie Cunningham in the sitcom Happy Days (1974–1980). [4] He starred in the films The Spikes Gang (1974), The Shootist (1976), and Grand Theft Auto (1977), the later being his directorial film debut.

In 1980, Howard left Happy Days to focus on directing, producing, and sometimes writing a variety of films and television series. His films included the comedies Night Shift (1982), Splash (1984), and Cocoon (1985) as well as the fantasy Willow (1988), the thriller Backdraft (1991), and the newspaper comedy-drama film The Paper (1994). Howard went on to win the Academy Award for Best Director and Academy Award for Best Picture for A Beautiful Mind (2001) and was nominated again for the same awards for Frost/Nixon (2008). [5] [6] Howard also directed other historical dramas such as Apollo 13 (1995), Cinderella Man (2005), Rush (2013), In the Heart of the Sea (2015) and Thirteen Lives (2022).

He also directed the children's fantasy film How the Grinch Stole Christmas (2000), the comedy The Dilemma (2011), and Solo: A Star Wars Story (2018), as well as the Robert Langdon film series: The Da Vinci Code (2006), Angels & Demons (2009), Inferno (2016). Howard has gained recognition for directing numerous documentary films such as The Beatles: Eight Days a Week (2016), Pavarotti (2019), and We Feed People (2022).

Early life

Ron Howard was born on March 1, 1954, in Duncan, Oklahoma, the elder son of Jean Speegle, an actress, and Rance Howard, a director, writer, and actor. [7] He is of German, English, Scottish, Irish, and Dutch ancestry. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] His father was born with the surname "Beckenholdt" and took the stage name "Howard" in 1948 for his acting career. [13] [14] Rance Howard was serving three years in the United States Air Force at the time of Ron's birth. [15] [16]

Howard was tutored at Desilu Studios in his younger years but continued his schooling at Robert Louis Stevenson Elementary and David Starr Jordan Junior High when not working in television, eventually graduating from John Burroughs High School. He later attended the University of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts but did not graduate. [17] [18] Howard has said he knew from a young age he might want to go into directing, thanks to his early experience as an actor. [19] [20]

Acting career

With Cara Williams in Pete and Gladys (1960) Cara Williams Ron Howard Pete and Gladys 1960.JPG
With Cara Williams in Pete and Gladys (1960)
With Andy Griffith as Opie in a publicity photo for The Andy Griffith Show (1961) Andy Griffith Ron Howard Andy Griffith Show 1961.JPG
With Andy Griffith as Opie in a publicity photo for The Andy Griffith Show (1961)

In 1959, Howard had his first credited film role in The Journey. He appeared in June Allyson's CBS anthology series The DuPont Show with June Allyson in the episode "Child Lost"; in The Twilight Zone episode "Walking Distance"; a few episodes of the first season of the sitcom Dennis the Menace , as Stewart, one of Dennis's friends; and several first- and second-season episodes of The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis . Howard played "Timmy" (uncredited) in "Counterfeit Gun", Season 4, Episode 2 (1960) of the TV series, The Cheyenne Show .

The Andy Griffith Show (1960–1968)

In 1960, Howard was cast as Opie Taylor in The Andy Griffith Show . Credited as "Ronny Howard," he portrayed the son of the main character (played by Andy Griffith) for all eight seasons of the show. Recalling his experiences as a child actor on set, he commented

I was five years old. And I was preoccupied with the prop that was in my hand, because it was a toy turtle. But I had to pretend it was a real turtle that the audience just wasn't seeing, and it was dead, so I was supposed to be crying and very emotional, and I remember him looking at that little turtle and talking to me about how it was kind of funny to have to pretend that was dead. So I recall just a very relaxed first impression. [21]

The sitcom was known for its old-fashioned wholesome quality. Even though it was set in a contemporary time period it evoked a mood of a different era from that of the 1960s. The series also starred Don Knotts, Frances Bavier and Jim Nabors. It received numerous nominations for the Primetime Emmy Awards including three Outstanding Comedy Series nominations which it lost to The Jack Benny Show in 1961, The Bob Newhart Show in 1962, and The Monkees in 1967.

Happy Days (1974–1984)

Richie (Ron Howard) takes a turn on Fonzie's (Henry Winkler) motorcycle in a scene from Happy Days Happy days motorcycle richie fonzie 1977.JPG
Richie (Ron Howard) takes a turn on Fonzie's (Henry Winkler) motorcycle in a scene from Happy Days

A role in an installment of series Love, American Style , titled "Love and the Television Set", [22] led to his being cast as Richie Cunningham in the TV series Happy Days (for syndication, the segment was re-titled "Love and the Happy Days"). Beginning in 1974, he played the likable "buttoned-down" boy, in contrast to Henry Winkler's "greaser" Arthur "Fonzie"/"The Fonz" Fonzarelli. On the Happy Days set, he developed an on- and off-screen chemistry with Winkler. [23] Howard left Happy Days to become a film director just before the start of its eighth season in 1980, but returned for guest appearances in the show's eleventh season (1983-1984). [23] [24]

Additional acting roles

In the 1962 film version of The Music Man , Howard played Winthrop Paroo, the child with the lisp; the film starred Robert Preston, Shirley Jones, and Buddy Hackett. The film was based on the 1957 musical of the same name by Meredith Willson. The film was directed by Morton DaCosta who previously helmed the 1958 film Auntie Mame starring Rosalind Russell. The film was a critical and commercial success becoming the third highest-grossing film of that year. The film went on to receive six Academy Award nominations including for Best Picture.

He also starred in the 1963 film The Courtship of Eddie's Father with Glenn Ford and Jones. He guest-starred as Tommy in the twelfth episode of the first season of The Big Valley and he appeared as Barry Stewart on The Eleventh Hour in 1965; on I Spy in the 1966 episode "Little Boy Lost"; as Henry Fonda's son in an ABC series, The Smith Family , in 1968; as Jodah in Land of the Giants in 1969; as a boy whose father was shot on Daniel Boone in 1971–72; and as an underage Marine on M*A*S*H in the episode "Sometimes You Hear the Bullet" in 1973. In the 1970s, he appeared in at least one episode of The Bold Ones , as a teenage tennis player with an illness.

Howard appeared on the 1969 Disneyland Records album The Story and Song from the Haunted Mansion. It featured the story of two teenagers, Mike (Howard) and Karen (Robie Lester), who get trapped inside the Haunted Mansion. Thurl Ravenscroft plays the Narrator, Pete Reneday plays the Ghost Host, and Eleanor Audley plays Madame Leota. Some of the effects and ideas that were planned but never permanently made it to the attraction are mentioned here: the Raven speaks in the Stretching Room, and the Hatbox Ghost is mentioned during the Attic scene. It was reissued in 1998 as a cassette tape titled A Spooky Night in Disney's Haunted Mansion and on CD in 2009.

Howard played Steve Bolander in George Lucas's coming-of-age film American Graffiti in 1973, [4] which was the inspiration for the sitcom Happy Days starring Howard. Howard starred in the film alongside Richard Dreyfus, Charles Martin Smith, and Harrison Ford. Critic Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times praised the film in his four star review writing, "American Graffiti is not only a great movie but a brilliant work of historical fiction; no sociological treatise could duplicate the movie’s success in remembering exactly how it was to be alive at that cultural instant." [25] Howard reprised his role in the sequel More American Graffiti (1979).

In 1974, Howard guest-starred as Seth Turner, the best friend of Jason Walton (Jon Walmsley), in The Waltons episode, "The Gift". Featured in the cast as Dr. McIvers is Ron Howard's father Rance Howard. [26] In 1976, Howard starred alongside John Wayne and Lauren Bacall in Don Siegel's The Shootist , the story of a Western gunfighter dying of cancer. (The movie was Wayne's last.)

Directing

1977–1992: Rise to prominence

Before leaving Happy Days in 1980, Howard made his directing debut with the 1977 low-budget comedy/action film Grand Theft Auto , based on a script he co-wrote with his father, Rance. [4] This came after cutting a deal with Roger Corman, wherein Corman let Howard direct a film in exchange for Howard starring in Eat My Dust! , with Christopher Norris. [4] Howard went on to direct several TV movies for NBC between 1978 and 1982, including the 1980 TV movie, Skyward , starring Bette Davis. [4] His big directorial break came in 1982, with Night Shift , featuring Michael Keaton, Shelley Long, and Howard's Happy Days co-star Henry Winkler. [4]

Following Night Shift, Howard directed a number of major films, including the fantasy romantic comedy Splash (1984) starring Tom Hanks, Daryl Hannah, Eugene Levy, and John Candy. The film was a box office and critical success. He also directed the science fiction comedy drama Cocoon (1985) starring Don Ameche, Hume Cronyn, Wilford Brimley, and Brian Dennehy. This film was also a critical and financial hit and won a Best Supporting Actor award for Don Ameche. In 1988, he reunited with George Lucas on the high fantasy adventure film Willow starring Val Kilmer and Warwick Davis. Howard's final work as a director for the 1980s was the family comedy film Parenthood (1989) starring an ensemble cast that includes Steve Martin, Tom Hulce, Rick Moranis, Martha Plimpton, Joaquin Phoenix, Keanu Reeves, Jason Robards, Mary Steenburgen, and Dianne Wiest. The film opened at #1 in its opening weekend, earning $10 million. It eventually grossed over $100 million domestically and $126 million worldwide. [27] The film was a critical hit and received two Academy Award nominations.

Howard (right) with Tom Hanks and the production crew of Apollo 13 (1995) Apollo 13 filming at KSC (KSC-94pc1510).jpg
Howard (right) with Tom Hanks and the production crew of Apollo 13 (1995)

Howard continued directing through the 1990s, including the American drama Backdraft revolving around firefighters. The film starred Kurt Russell, Donald Sutherland, and Robert De Niro. Film critics Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune [28] and Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film a positive review. [29] In 1992, he directed the western film epic Far and Away starring Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman. Despite receiving mixed reviews from critics the film was a financial success earning 137 million against its budget of 60 million. In 1994, Howard directed the newspaper comedy drama The Paper with an ensemble starring Michael Keaton, Glenn Close, Marisa Tomei, Jason Alexander, Jason Robards, and Robert Duvall. The film received rave reviews with many praising Keaton's leading performance.

1995–2008: Historical dramas and acclaim

Howard's direction for the 1995 docudrama film Apollo 13 received praise from critics. [30] [31] [32] [33] The film stars Tom Hanks, Kevin Bacon, and Bill Paxton as the three astronauts members of the Apollo 13 flight crew, with supporting performances from Gary Sinise, Ed Harris, and Kathleen Quinlan. The film was a massive financial success earning $335 million off a budget of $52 million. The film received widespread critical acclaim with Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times praising the film in his review saying: "A powerful story, one of the year's best films, told with great clarity and remarkable technical detail, and acted without pumped-up histrionics." [34] The film went on to receive nine Academy Award nominations including Best Picture.

In 2000, he directed the live action children's fantasy film, How the Grinch Stole Christmas based on the Dr. Seuss children's book. The film starred Jim Carrey as the titular character and featured performances from Jeffrey Tambor, Christine Baranski, and Molly Shannon, with Anthony Hopkins serving as the film's narrator. Despite the film receiving mixed reviews from critics, it was a financial success and earned $345 million at the box office. Howard's followup film was the biographical drama film A Beautiful Mind starring Russell Crowe as the American mathematician John Nash who struggled with paranoid schizophrenia. The film featured performances from Jennifer Connelly, Ed Harris, Josh Lucas, and Christopher Plummer. The film received positive reviews from critics who praised Crowe's and Connelly's performances. The film went on to receive eight Academy Award nominations including a win for Best Picture and a nomination and win for Howard as Best Director. Howard was nominated alongside Robert Altman, David Lynch, Ridley Scott, and Peter Jackson.

Howard directed Frost/Nixon (2008) based on the conversations between David Frost and Richard Nixon Frost-Nixon-Real.jpg
Howard directed Frost/Nixon (2008) based on the conversations between David Frost and Richard Nixon

In 2005, Howard directed the biographical sports drama Cinderella Man based on the true story of heavyweight boxing champion James J. Braddock played by Russell Crowe. The film also starred Renée Zellweger as his wife Mae Braddock, and Paul Giamatti as his trainer Joe Gould. Rotten Tomatoes gave it an approval rating of 80% based on reviews from 214 critics with an average score of 7.4/10. Its consensus states, "With grittiness and an evocative sense of time and place, Cinderella Man is a powerful underdog story. And Ron Howard and Russell Crowe prove to be a solid combination." [35] Howard is also known for directing the Robert Langdon films. The series began with The Da Vinci Code (2006) with Tom Hanks as Langdon, featuring performances by Audrey Tautou, Ian McKellen, and Alfred Molina. The sequel was Angels & Demons (2009) with Hanks reprising his role and performances by Ewan McGregor and Stellan Skarsgård. In 2016, Inferno was released with Hanks continuing the role with performances by Felicity Jones, Irrfan Khan, and Omar Sy. All three films received mixed reviews but were popular among audiences.

Howard showcased the world premiere of his historical drama film Frost/Nixon at the London Film Festival in October 2008. [36] The film is based on the taped conversations known as the Frost/Nixon interviews between former United States President Richard Nixon and British talk show host David Frost. Frank Langella portrayed Nixon opposite Michael Sheen as Frost. The film was based on the play of the same name by Peter Morgan. The film also featured performances from Mathew Macfadyen, Sam Rockwell, Rebecca Hall, Oliver Platt, Toby Jones, and Kevin Bacon. Despite losing money at the box office, the film was a critical success with website Rotten Tomatoes giving the film an approval rating of 93% with the critical consensus reading, "Frost/Nixon is weighty and eloquent; a cross between a boxing match and a ballet with Oscar worthy performances." [37] Metacritic gives the film an average score of 80 out of 100, based on 38 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". [38] The film received five Academy Award nominations with Howard receiving a nomination for Best Director. The Guardian praised the film declaring, "Frost/Nixon is a riveting film, sharper, more intense than the play". Howard was the recipient of the Austin Film Festival's 2009 Extraordinary Contribution to Filmmaking Award. Michael Keaton presented him the Award.

2009–present

In 2013, Howard directed sports drama Rush , based on the Hunt–Lauda rivalry between two Formula One drivers, the British James Hunt and the Austrian Niki Lauda during the 1976 Formula 1 motor-racing season. It was written by Peter Morgan and starred Chris Hemsworth as Hunt, Daniel Brühl as Lauda, and Olivia Wilde as Suzy Miller. The film premiered at the 2013 Toronto International Film Festival and received positive reviews from critics. In 2015, Howard directed the film In the Heart of the Sea about the sinking of the American whaling ship Essex in 1820, an event that inspired Herman Melville's 1851 novel Moby-Dick . The film featured performances by Chris Hemsworth, Cillian Murphy, Tom Holland, Ben Whishaw, and Brendan Gleeson. The film was a financial failure and received mixed reviews.

Howard (second from right) and the cast at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival Cannes 2018 Star Wars 2.jpg
Howard (second from right) and the cast at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival

Howard took over directing duties on Solo: A Star Wars Story , a film featuring Star Wars character Han Solo in his younger years. The film was released on May 23, 2018. Howard officially replaced directors Phil Lord and Christopher Miller on June 22, 2017; they were let go from their position two days earlier, reportedly due to their refusal to compromise with Lucasfilm over the direction of the film; reportedly the directors encouraged significant improvisations by the actors, which was believed by some at Lucasfilm to be "shifting the story off-course". [39] At the time, the film was nearly completed, with three and a half weeks left to film and another five weeks of reshoots scheduled. [39] Howard posted on Twitter, "I'm beyond grateful to add my voice to the Star Wars Universe after being a fan since 5/25/77. I hope to honor the great work already done & help deliver on the promise of a Han Solo film." [40]

In November 2017, Howard announced that he would be teaching his first directing class. [41] On November 24, 2020, Howard's drama film Hillbilly Elegy was released on Netflix. The film is based on the memoir of the same name by J. D. Vance and was adapted for the screen by Vanessa Taylor. The film stars Academy Award nominees Glenn Close and Amy Adams. The film has received widespread negative reception from critics. [42] [43]

In March 2021, Howard began filming the survival drama Thirteen Lives , a film based on the Tham Luang cave rescue in 2018. [44] [45] [46] It was released in select theaters on July 29, 2022, by United Artists Releasing, and began streaming on Prime Video on August 5, 2022. The film received generally positive reviews from critics. In 2022, Netflix acquired from Paramount Pictures The Shrinking of Treehorn , which will mark Howard's first time directing an animated feature. [47] and survival thriller Eden starting Jude Law and Ana de Amas. [48]

Imagine Entertainment

Howard is a co-chairman, with Brian Grazer, of Imagine Entertainment, a film and television production company. Imagine has produced several films including Friday Night Lights, 8 Mile, and Inside Deep Throat, as well as the television series 24, Felicity, The PJs, and Arrested Development which Howard also narrated and later appeared in as himself.

In July 2012, it was announced that Imagine had put into development Conquest for Showtime, a period drama based on the 16th century conquest of the Aztecs by Spanish Conquistadors. To be directed by Howard, the series was originally planned as a feature film before it was decided that the project was more suited to television. [49]

As part of Imagine Entertainment, he appeared in a 1997 print ad for Milk - Where's your mustache?, in which he wore a cap for Imagine Entertainment and sported a milk mustache. Earlier versions show a younger Ronny Howard on the other side.

In 2009, he appeared in the Jamie Foxx music video "Blame It."

Personal life

Howard married Cheryl Alley (born December 23, 1953) on June 7, 1975. [50] [51] [52] They have four children: daughters Bryce Dallas (b. March 2, 1981), twins Jocelyn Carlyle and Paige Carlyle (b. February 5, 1985), and son Reed Cross (b. April 13, 1987).

Filmography

Directed features
YearTitleDistribution
1977 Grand Theft Auto New World Pictures
1982 Night Shift Warner Bros.
1984 Splash Buena Vista Distribution
1985 Cocoon 20th Century Fox
1986 Gung Ho Paramount Pictures
1988 Willow MGM/UA Distribution Co.
1989 Parenthood Universal Pictures
1991 Backdraft
1992 Far and Away
1994 The Paper
1995 Apollo 13
1996 Ransom Buena Vista Distribution
1999 EDtv Universal Pictures
2000 How the Grinch Stole Christmas
2001 A Beautiful Mind Universal Pictures / DreamWorks Pictures
2003 The Missing Sony Pictures Releasing
2005 Cinderella Man Universal Pictures / Buena Vista International
2006 The Da Vinci Code Sony Pictures Releasing
2008 Frost/Nixon Universal Pictures
2009 Angels & Demons Sony Pictures Releasing
2011 The Dilemma Universal Pictures
2013 Rush
2015 In the Heart of the Sea Warner Bros. Pictures
2016 Inferno Sony Pictures Releasing
2018 Solo: A Star Wars Story Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures
2020 Hillbilly Elegy Netflix
2022 Thirteen Lives United Artists Releasing / Amazon Studios
TBA The Shrinking of Treehorn Netflix
Eden TBA

Awards and nominations

YearTitleAcademy AwardsBAFTA AwardsGolden Globe Awards
NominationsWinsNominationsWinsNominationsWins
1982 Night Shift 1
1984 Splash 11
1985 Cocoon 221
1988 Willow 2
1989 Parenthood 21
1991 Backdraft 31
1994 The Paper 1
1995 Apollo 13 92524
1996 Ransom 1
2000 How the Grinch Stole Christmas 31111
2001 A Beautiful Mind 845264
2005 Cinderella Man 312
2006 The Da Vinci Code 1
2008 Frost/Nixon 565
2013 Rush 412
2018 Solo: A Star Wars Story 1
2020 Hillbilly Elegy 211
Total419246274

Directed Academy Award performances

YearPerformerFilmResult
Academy Award for Best Actor
2001 Russell Crowe A Beautiful Mind Nominated
2008 Frank Langella Frost/Nixon Nominated
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
1985 Don Ameche Cocoon Won
1995 Ed Harris Apollo 13 Nominated
2005 Paul Giamatti Cinderella Man Nominated
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
1989 Dianne Wiest Parenthood Nominated
1995 Kathleen Quinlan Apollo 13Nominated
2001 Jennifer Connelly A Beautiful MindWon
2020 Glenn Close Hillbilly Elegy Nominated

See also

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References

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  3. "Ron Howard receives rare 2nd star on Hollywood Walk of Fame". Los Angeles Daily News . City News Service. December 11, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
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  22. fmsteinberg (September 21, 2009). ""Love, American Style" Love and the Happy Days/Love and the Newscasters (TV Episode 1972)". IMDb.
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  31. McCarthy, Todd (June 23, 1995). "Apollo 13". Variety . Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved October 26, 2020. Howard makes all the complicated action clear to the viewer, a feat in itself.
  32. Gleiberman, Owen (June 30, 1995). "Apollo 13". Entertainment Weekly . Meredith Corporation. Retrieved October 26, 2020. One might have expected a director like Howard to play this story at full inspirational throttle. But no, he has made a true docudrama, maintaining fealty to the tiniest facts.
  33. Brown, Joe (June 30, 1995). "Apollo 13". The Washington Post . Retrieved October 26, 2020. Director Ron Howard takes what could have been a claustrophobic's nightmare movie—the basically static scenario of three guys trapped in a can—and makes it ring with action, anxiety and emotion...
  34. "Apollo 13: Roger Ebert". Chicago Sun-Times . June 30, 1995. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
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  37. "Frost/Nixon". Rotten Tomatoes . Retrieved November 13, 2010.
  38. "Frost/Nixon (2008):Reviews". Metacritic . Retrieved April 21, 2009.
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  40. Burlingame, Russ (June 22, 2017). "Ron Howard Comments on Taking Over The Han Solo Movie". Comicbook.com. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
  41. Dry, Jude (November 16, 2017). "Ron Howard Will Teach You Directing, In Case There's a 'Star Wars' in Your Future – Watch". IndieWire . Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  42. "Hillbilly Elegy". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
  43. "Netflix's 'Hillbilly Elegy' Is Getting Destroyed by Critics". PopCulture. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
  44. Ron Howard’s Thai Cave Rescue Film ‘Thirteen Lives’ Heads To Australia For March Shoot
  45. Thirteen Lives
  46. 'Thirteen Lives' starts shooting [ permanent dead link ]
  47. Grobar, Matt (May 16, 2022). "Ron Howard's First Animated Film 'The Shrinking Of Treehorn' Heading To Netflix". Deadline Hollywood . Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  48. "Vanessa Kirby & Sydney Sweeney Join Jude Law, Ana De Armas & Daniel Brühl In Ron Howard's Renamed Survival Thriller 'Eden' Ahead Of November Shoot; Hans Zimmer To Score For Imagine & AGC — AFM". Deadline. October 30, 2023. Archived from the original on October 30, 2023. Retrieved October 31, 2023.
  49. Nellie Andreeva (July 30, 2012). "Showtime & Imagine Team For Aztec Drama Directed By Ron Howard & Penned By Jose Rivera". Deadline.
  50. "Cheryl Howard Crew - The Official Site". cherylhowardcrew.com.
  51. Cheryl Howard Crew: To the Pier, Intrepidly, The New York Times, April 24, 2005.
  52. Gray 2003, p. 76-77.

Bibliography