Shooter game

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Shooter games are a subgenre of action game, which often test the player's speed and reaction time. It includes many subgenres that have the commonality of focusing on the actions of the avatar using some sort of weapons. Usually this weapon is a gun or some other long-range weapon. A common resource found in many shooter games is ammunition. Most commonly, the purpose of a shooter game is to shoot opponents and proceed through missions without the player character being killed or dying. A shooting game is a genre of video game where the player has limited spatial control of his or her character, and the focus is almost entirely on the defeat of the character's enemies using long-range weaponry.

The action game is a video game genre that emphasizes physical challenges, including hand–eye coordination and reaction-time. The genre includes a large variety of sub-genres, such as fighting games, beat 'em ups, shooter games and platform games. Some multiplayer online battle arena and real-time strategy games are also considered action games.

Avatar (computing) graphical representation of the user or the users alter ego or character

In computing, an avatar is the graphical representation of the user or the user's alter ego or character. An icon or figure representing a particular person in a video game, Internet forum, etc. It may take either a three-dimensional form, as in games or virtual worlds, or a two-dimensional form as an icon in Internet forums and other online communities. Avatar images have also been referred to as "picons" in the past, though the usage of this term is uncommon now. It can also refer to a text construct found on early systems such as MUDs. The term "avatar" can also refer to the personality connected with the screen name, or handle, of an Internet user.

Gun weapon designed to discharge projectiles or other material

A gun is a ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles that are solid but can also be liquid or even charged particles and may be free-flying or tethered.

Contents

Subgenres

Shoot 'em up

Shoot 'em ups are a specific subgenre of shooters wherein the player may move up and down and left and right around the screen, typically firing straight forward.

Shoot 'em ups share common gameplay, but are often categorized by viewpoint. This includes fixed shooters on fixed screens, such as Space Invaders and Galaxian ; scrolling shooters that mainly scroll in a single direction, such as Xevious and Darius ; top-down shooters (sometimes referred to as twin-stick shooters) where the levels are controlled from an overhead viewpoint, such as Bosconian and Time Pilot ; rail shooters where player movement is automatically guided down a fixed forward-scrolling "rail", such as Buck Rogers: Planet of Zoom and Space Harrier ; and isometric shooters which use an isometric perspective, such as Zaxxon and Viewpoint . This genre also includes "run and gun" games which emphasize greater maneuvering or even jumping, such as Thexder , Contra and Metal Slug . [1] [2] [ citation needed ]

<i>Space Invaders</i> 1978 video game

Space Invaders is an arcade game created by Tomohiro Nishikado and released in 1978. It was manufactured and sold by Taito in Japan, and licensed in the United States by the Midway division of Bally. Space Invaders is one of the earliest shoot 'em ups and the first fixed shooter. The aim is to defeat waves of aliens with a laser to earn as many points as possible.

<i>Galaxian</i> 1979 video game

Galaxian is an arcade game that was developed by Namco and released in October 1979. It was published by Namco in Japan and imported to North America by Midway that December. A fixed shooter in which the player controls a spaceship at the bottom of the screen, and shoots enemies descending in various directions, it was designed to compete with Taito Corporation's successful earlier game Space Invaders.

Scrolling demo effect

In computer displays, filmmaking, television production, and other kinetic displays, scrolling is sliding text, images or video across a monitor or display, vertically or horizontally. "Scrolling", as such, does not change the layout of the text or pictures, but moves the user's view across what is apparently a larger image that is not wholly seen. A common television and movie special effect is to scroll credits, while leaving the background stationary. Scrolling may take place completely without user intervention or, on an interactive device, be triggered by touchscreen or a keypress and continue without further intervention until a further user action, or be entirely controlled by input devices.

Shooting gallery games include light gun games, although many can also be played using a regular joypad and an on-screen cursor to signify where the bullets are being aimed. When these debuted, they were typically played from a first-person perspective, with enemy fire that occurred anywhere on the screen damaging or killing the player. As they evolved away from the use of light guns, the player came to be represented by an on-screen avatar, usually someone on the bottom of the screen, who could move and avoid enemy attacks while returning fire. These sorts of shooters almost always utilize horizontal scrolling to the right to indicate level progression, with enemies appearing in waves from predestined locations in the background or from the sides. One of the earliest examples is the 1985 arcade game Shootout produced by Data East.

Light gun pointing device

A light gun is a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games, typically shaped to resemble a pistol. In aviation and shipping, it can also be a directional signal lamp.

Gamepad type of game controller held in two hands and where fingers provide input

A gamepad, joypad, or simply controller is a type of game controller held in two hands, where the fingers are used to provide input. They are typically the main input device for video game consoles.

<i>Shootout</i> (1985 video game)

Shootout (シュートアウト) is a 1985 shooting gallery-style arcade game developed and published by Data East in October 1985.

A specific subgenre of this type of game is the Cabal shooter, named for the game Cabal , in which the player controls an on-screen avatar that can run and often jump around the screen in addition to being able to aim their gun. Other games in this subgenre include Blood Bros. , Dynamite Duke , NAM-1975 , Wild Guns , and Sin and Punishment .

<i>Blood Bros.</i> 1990 arcade game

Blood Bros. is a 1990 arcade game developed and published by TAD Corporation in Japan and Europe, while it was later published in North America by Fabtek. It is a spiritual sequel to Cabal, with almost identical mechanics. A bootleg of this game is known as West Story.

<i>Dynamite Duke</i> 1990 video game

Dynamite Duke is a 1989 action arcade game developed by Seibu Kaihatsu. It was later ported to the Master System, Mega Drive/Genesis and X68000. Being a Cabal-based shooter, it can be considered a follow-up to Seibu's Empire City: 1931 and Dead Angle.

<i>NAM-1975</i> video game

NAM-1975 is a war shooting gallery arcade video game developed and originally published by SNK on April 26, 1990. It was one of the launch titles for both the Neo Geo MVS (arcade) and Neo Geo AES (home) platforms, in addition of being the only title in the system that does not feature the Neo Geo boot screen in its attract mode.

As light gun games became more prevalent and started to make use of fully 3D backgrounds, such as the Time Crisis or House of the Dead series, these sorts of games fell out of popular production, but many like Blood Bros. still have their fanbase today. Other notable games of this category include Operation Wolf and Laser Invasion .

<i>Time Crisis</i> video game series

Time Crisis is a first-person on-rails light gun shooter series of arcade video games by Namco. The first installment of the series was released in the arcades in 1995 and later ported to the PlayStation consoles.

<i>Operation Wolf</i> arcade video game

Operation Wolf is a one-player shooter video game made by Taito in 1987. It spawned three sequels: Operation Thunderbolt (1988), Operation Wolf 3 (1994) and Operation Tiger (1998).

<i>Laser Invasion</i> 1991 video game

Laser Invasion, released as Gun Sight (ガンサイト) in Japan, is a multi-genre first-person action game released by Konami for the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1991. The player takes control of a military operative who pilots an attack helicopter in order to infiltrate various enemy bases and fulfill his mission. The game supports the standard NES controller, as well as the NES Zapper light gun and the LaserScope, a voice-activated headset controller Konami released for the NES that was compatible with all light gun games released for the system. The American version of the game featured a rebate for the LaserScope in the instruction booklet.

Light gun shooter

Light gun shooters are shooting gallery games that use a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games. The first light guns appeared in the 1930s, following the development of light-sensing vacuum tubes. It was not long before the technology began appearing in arcade shooting games, beginning with the Seeburg Ray-O-Lite in 1936. These early light gun games used small targets (usually moving) onto which a light-sensing tube was mounted; the player used a gun (usually a rifle) that emitted a beam of light when the trigger was pulled. If the beam struck the target, a "hit" was scored. Modern screen-based light guns work on the opposite principle—the sensor is built into the gun itself, and the on-screen target(s) emit light rather than the gun. The first light gun of this type was used on the MIT Whirlwind computer, which used a similar light pen. Like rail shooters, movement is typically limited in light-gun games.

Pointing device input device

A pointing device is an input interface that allows a user to input spatial data to a computer. CAD systems and graphical user interfaces (GUI) allow the user to control and provide data to the computer using physical gestures by moving a hand-held mouse or similar device across the surface of the physical desktop and activating switches on the mouse. Movements of the pointing device are echoed on the screen by movements of the pointer and other visual changes. Common gestures are point and click and drag and drop.

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system, and peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system. This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster.

Game controller device used with games or entertainment systems

A game controller is a device used with games or entertainment systems to provide input to a video game, typically to control an object or character in the game. Before the seventh generation of video game consoles, plugging in a controller into one of a console's controller ports were the primary means of using a game controller, although since then they have been replaced by wireless controllers, which do not require controller ports on the console but are battery-powered. USB game controllers could also be connected to a computer with a USB port. Input devices that have been classified as game controllers include keyboards, mouses, gamepads, joysticks, etc. Special purpose devices, such as steering wheels for driving games and light guns for shooting games, are also game controllers.

Notable games of this category include the 1974 and 1984 versions of Wild Gunman , Duck Hunt for the NES, the Virtua Cop series, Time Crisis series, House of the Dead series, and Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles & Darkside Chronicles .

First-person shooters

Doom , one of the early games that defined the first-person shooter genre Doom ingame 2.png
Doom , one of the early games that defined the first-person shooter genre

First-person shooters are characterized by an on-screen view that simulates the in-game character's point of view. While many rail shooters and light-gun shooters also use a first-person perspective, they are generally not included in this category.

Notable examples of the genre include Doom , Quake , Half-Life , Counter-Strike , GoldenEye 007 , Battlefield , Medal of Honor, Unreal , Call of Duty , Killzone , TimeSplitters , Team Fortress 2 and Halo .

Third-person shooters

Third-person shooters are characterized by a third-person camera view that fully displays the player character in his/her surroundings. Notable examples of the genre include the Tomb Raider series, Syphon Filter , Max Payne , SOCOM , Star Wars: Battlefront , Resident Evil 4 , Gears of War , and Splatoon . Third person shooter mechanics are often incorporated into open-world adventure and sandbox games, including the Elder Scrolls series and the Grand Theft Auto franchise.

Hero shooters

Hero shooters are a variation of multiplayer first- or third-person arena-based shooters, where players, split among two or more teams, select from pre-designed "hero" characters that each possess unique attributes, skills, weapons, and other activated abilities; players may gain abilities to customize the appearance of these characters, but these changes are usually cosmetic only and do not alter the game's balance. Hero shooters strongly encourage teamwork between players on a team, guiding players to select effective combinations of hero characters and coordinate the use of hero abilities during a match. Such games are inspired by multiplayer online battle arena games. A popular hero shooter is Team Fortress 2 , considered one of the first, along with other games such as Outtrigger , Gunslinger Stratos , Overwatch , Gigantic , Paladins , and Quake Champions . Hero shooters have been considered to have strong potential as esports games. [3] [4]

Tactical shooters

Tactical shooters are shooters that generally simulate realistic squad-based or man-to-man skirmishes. Notable examples of the genre include Ubisoft's Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six and Ghost Recon series and Bohemia Software's Operation Flashpoint .

Other

Additionally, artillery games have been described as a type of "shooting game", [5] though they are more frequently classified as a type of strategy game.[ citation needed ]

Controversy

Shooter games have been accused of glorifying and promoting violence and several games have been the cause of notable video game controversies. After school shootings in Erfurt, Emsdetten and Winnenden, German conservative politicians accused violent shooter games, most notably Counter Strike , to incite young gamers to run amok. [6] Several attempts were made to banish the so-called "Killerspiele" (killing games) in Germany and the European Union. [7] [8] Shooter games were further criticised when Anders Breivik, perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, claimed that he developed target acquisition skills by playing Call of Duty: Modern Warfare . [9]

Related Research Articles

Platform game video game genre

Platform games, or platformers, are a video game genre and subgenre of action game. In a platformer the player controlled character must jump and climb between suspended platforms while avoiding obstacles. Environments often feature uneven terrain of varying height that must be traversed. The player often has some control over the height and distance of jumps to avoid letting their character fall to their death or miss necessary jumps. The most common unifying element of games of this genre is the jump button, but now there are other alternatives like swiping a touchscreen. Other acrobatic maneuvers may factor into the gameplay as well, such as swinging from objects such as vines or grappling hooks, as in Ristar or Bionic Commando, or bouncing from springboards or trampolines, as in Alpha Waves. These mechanics, even in the context of other genres, are commonly called platforming, a verbification of platform. Games where jumping is automated completely, such as 3D games in The Legend of Zelda series, fall outside of the genre.

A tactical shooter is a subgenre of shooter game that covers both first-person shooters and third-person shooters genres. These games simulate realistic combat, thus making tactics and caution more important than quick reflexes in other action games. Tactical shooters involving military combat are sometimes known as "soldier sims".

Shoot 'em up is a subgenre of the shooter genre of video games. There is no consensus as to which design elements compose a shoot 'em up. Some restrict the definition to games featuring spacecraft and certain types of character movement; others allow a broader definition including characters on foot and a variety of perspectives.

Survival horror is a subgenre of video games inspired by horror fiction that focuses on survival of the character as the game tries to frighten players with either horror graphics or scary ambience. Although combat can be part of the gameplay, the player is made to feel less in control than in typical action games through limited ammunition, health, speed and vision, or through various obstructions of the player's interaction with the game mechanics. The player is also challenged to find items that unlock the path to new areas and solve puzzles to proceed in the game. Games make use of strong horror themes, like dark maze-like environments and unexpected attacks from enemies.

Action-adventure is a video game genre that combine core elements from both the action game and adventure game genres.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to video games:

In video gaming, the HUD or status bar is the method by which information is visually relayed to the player as part of a game's user interface. It takes its name from the head-up displays used in modern aircraft.

<i>Resident Evil Survivor</i> video game

Resident Evil Survivor, known in Japan as Biohazard Gun Survivor, is a light gun shooter video game developed by Tose and published by Capcom. It was released on the PlayStation in Japan on January 27, 2000, in Europe on March 31, 2000 and in North America on August 30, 2000. It is a spin-off to the Resident Evil video game series. A Microsoft Windows version was released only in China and Taiwan.

Side-scrolling video game video game genre

A side-scrolling game, side-scroller or 2D is a video game in which the gameplay action is viewed from a side-view camera angle, and the onscreen characters can generally only move to the left or right. These games make use of scrolling computer display technology. The move from single-screen or flip-screen graphics to scrolling graphics, during the golden age of video arcade games and during third-generation consoles, would prove to be a pivotal leap in game design, comparable to the move to 3D graphics during the fifth generation. Although side-scrolling games have been supplanted by 3D games, they continue to be produced, particularly for handheld devices or for digital-only releases.

In video games, first person is any graphical perspective rendered from the viewpoint of the player's character, or a viewpoint from the cockpit or front seat of a vehicle driven by the character. Many genres incorporate first-person perspectives, among them adventure games, driving, sailing, and flight simulators. Most notable is the first-person shooter, in which the graphical perspective is an integral component of the gameplay.

<i>Space Gun</i> (video game) 1992 video game

Space Gun is a first-person, shoot 'em up arcade game released by Taito in 1990. It was later distributed for various home games consoles in 1992, and in 2005, it was included as part of the compilation Taito Legends on the PlayStation 2, PC and Xbox. It is set aboard a crippled space station that has been overrun by hostile alien creatures; there are human crew members that the player must attempt to rescue while destroying the alien creatures. Space Gun features simulated gore, giving the player the ability to shoot limbs off the creatures while blood splatters appear on screen. Various weapon upgrades can be found during gameplay. The music from the game is featured on several commercially released compact discs. It was fairly well received by critics both in arcades and when released for home systems. It was one of only a few games that supported a light gun peripheral for some of the home systems releases.

<i>G.I. Joe</i> (arcade game) 1992 arcade video game

G.I. Joe is a third-person rail shooter video game produced by Konami and released in 1992 for video arcades. It is based on the cartoon series G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero and stars four characters from the show: Duke, Snake Eyes, Scarlett, and Roadblock.

A variety of computer graphic techniques have been used to display video game content throughout the history of video games. The predominance of individual techniques have evolved over time, primarily due to hardware advances and restrictions such as the processing power of central or graphics processing units.

Third-person shooter (TPS) is a subgenre of 3D shooter games in which the player character is visible on-screen during gaming, and the gameplay consists primarily of shooting.

First-person shooter video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective

First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist. The genre shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn makes it fall under the heading action game. Since the genre's inception, advanced 3D and pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, and multiplayer gaming has been integral.

A cover system is a video game gameplay mechanic that allows a virtual avatar to hide from and avoid dangers, usually in a three-dimensional world. This method is a digital adaptation of the real-life military tactic of taking cover behind obstacles, for purposes of attaining protection from enemy ranged or area effect attacks, such as gunfire or explosions.

This is a glossary of video game terms which lists the general terms as commonly used in Wikipedia articles related to video games and its industry.

References

  1. Provo, Frank, Bloody Wolf, GameSpot, July 7, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
  2. Dunham, Jeremy, First Look: Alien Hominid, IGN, July 27, 2004. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  3. Wawro, Alex (May 6, 2016). "Hero Shooters: Charting the (re)birth of a genre". Gamasutra . Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  4. Molina, Brett (June 17, 2016). "5 big video game trends from E3 2016". USA Today . Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  5. Barton, Matt. "Scorched Parabolas: A History of the Artillery Game" . Retrieved 2007-11-25.
  6. "German Past Haunts Gamers' Future". Wired. February 5, 2007.
  7. "EU may regulate development and sale of violent video games".
  8. Meller, Paul. "Germany seeks common EU rules on violent video games".
  9. Pidd, Helen (19 April 2012). "Anders Breivik 'trained' for shooting attacks by playing Call of Duty". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 December 2017.