Shooter game

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Shooter games are a subgenre of action video game, which often test the player's spatial awareness, reflexes, and speed in both isolated single player or networked multiplayer environments. Shooter games encompass many subgenres that have the commonality of focusing on the actions of the avatar engaging in combat with a weapon against both code-driven NPC enemies or other avatars controlled by other players.

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Usually this weapon is a firearm or some other long-range weapon, and can be used in combination with other tools such as grenades for indirect offense, armor for additional defense, or accessories such as telescopic sights to modify the behavior of the weapons. A common resource found in many shooter games is ammunition, armor or health, or upgrades which augment the player character's weapons.

Most commonly, the purpose of a shooter game is to shoot opponents and proceed through missions without the player character being killed or dying as a result of the player's actions. A shooting game is a genre of video game where the focus is almost entirely on the defeat of the character's enemies using the weapons given to the player.

Subgenres

Shoot 'em up

Shoot 'em ups are a specific subgenre of shooters wherein the player may move up and down and left and right around the screen, typically firing straight forward.

Shoot 'em ups share common gameplay, but are often categorized by viewpoint. This includes fixed shooters on fixed screens, such as Space Invaders and Galaxian ; scrolling shooters that mainly scroll in a single direction, such as Xevious and Darius ; top-down shooters (sometimes referred to as twin-stick shooters) where the levels are controlled from an overhead viewpoint, such as Bosconian and Time Pilot ; rail shooters where player movement is automatically guided down a fixed forward-scrolling "rail", such as Buck Rogers: Planet of Zoom and Space Harrier ; and isometric shooters which use an isometric perspective, such as Zaxxon and Viewpoint . This genre also includes "run and gun" games which emphasize greater maneuvering or even jumping, such as Thexder , Contra and Metal Slug . [1] [2] [ citation needed ]

Shooting gallery games include light gun games, although many can also be played using a regular joypad and an on-screen cursor to signify where the bullets are being aimed. When these debuted, they were typically played from a first-person perspective, with enemy fire that occurred anywhere on the screen damaging or killing the player. As they evolved away from the use of light guns, the player came to be represented by an on-screen avatar, usually someone on the bottom of the screen, who could move and avoid enemy attacks while returning fire. These sorts of shooters almost always utilize horizontal scrolling to the right to indicate level progression, with enemies appearing in waves from predestined locations in the background or from the sides. One of the earliest examples is the 1985 arcade game Shootout produced by Data East.

A specific subgenre of this type of game is the Cabal shooter, named for the game Cabal , in which the player controls an on-screen avatar that can run and often jump around the screen in addition to being able to aim their gun. Other games in this subgenre include Blood Bros. , Dynamite Duke , NAM-1975 , Wild Guns , and Sin and Punishment .

As light gun games became more prevalent and started to make use of fully 3D backgrounds, such as the Time Crisis or House of the Dead series, these sorts of games fell out of popular production, but many like Blood Bros. still have their fanbase today. Other notable games of this category include Operation Wolf and Laser Invasion .

Light gun shooter

Light gun shooters are shooting gallery games that use a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games. The first light guns appeared in the 1930s, following the development of light-sensing vacuum tubes. It was not long before the technology began appearing in arcade shooting games, beginning with the Seeburg Ray-O-Lite in 1936. These early light gun games used small targets (usually moving) onto which a light-sensing tube was mounted; the player used a gun (usually a rifle) that emitted a beam of light when the trigger was pulled. If the beam struck the target, a "hit" was scored. Modern screen-based light guns work on the opposite principle—the sensor is built into the gun itself, and the on-screen target(s) emit light rather than the gun. The first light gun of this type was used on the MIT Whirlwind computer, which used a similar light pen. Like rail shooters, movement is typically limited in light-gun games.

Notable games of this category include the 1974 and 1984 versions of Wild Gunman , Duck Hunt for the NES, the Virtua Cop series, Time Crisis series, House of the Dead series, and Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles & Darkside Chronicles .

First-person shooters

Doom, one of the early games that defined the first-person shooter genre Doom ingame 2.png
Doom , one of the early games that defined the first-person shooter genre

First-person shooters are characterized by an on-screen view that simulates the in-game character's point of view. While many rail shooters and light-gun shooters also use a first-person perspective, they are generally not included in this category.

Notable examples of the genre include Doom , Quake , Half-Life , Counter-Strike , GoldenEye 007 , Battlefield , Medal of Honor, Unreal , Call of Duty , Killzone , TimeSplitters , Team Fortress 2 and Halo .

Third-person shooters

Third-person shooters are characterized by a third-person camera view that fully displays the player character in his/her surroundings. Notable examples of the genre include the Tomb Raider series, Syphon Filter , Max Payne , SOCOM , Star Wars: Battlefront , Gears of War , and Splatoon . Third person shooter mechanics are often incorporated into open-world adventure and sandbox games, including the Elder Scrolls series and the Grand Theft Auto franchise.

Arena shooters

Arena shooters are multiplayer shooters that feature fast pace gameplay that emphasizes quick speed and agile movement. These games will usually feature weapons that don't require to reload with continuous ammo, floaty gravity and jumps, and very fast character movement. Examples of these include the Quake and Unreal series, more specifically Quake III Arena and Unreal Tournament which first pioneered the genre. These games are also characterized by their focus on multiplayer only with most titles not even featuring a single player mode. [3] While the genre hits its peak in popularity in the late 90s and early 2000s, they have become less popular in recent times with other shooter genres rising to prominence with many of the newest arena shooters being released and developed by indie studios like Reflex Arena. [4]

Hero shooters

Hero shooters are a variation of multiplayer first- or third-person arena-based shooters, where players, split among two or more teams, select from pre-designed "hero" characters that each possess unique attributes, skills, weapons, and other passive and active abilities; players may have the ability to customize the appearance of these characters, but these changes are usually cosmetic only and do not alter the game's balance or the behavior of the "hero". Hero shooters strongly encourage teamwork between players on a team, guiding players to select effective combinations of hero characters and coordinate the use of hero abilities during a match. Hero shooters take many of their design elements both from older class-based shooters and multiplayer online battle arena games. The class-based shooter Team Fortress 2 is considered to be the codifier of the hero shooter genre. Popular hero shooters include Overwatch , Apex Legends , and Paladins: Champions of the Realm . Hero shooters have been considered to have strong potential as esports games as a large degree of skill and coordination arises from the importance of teamwork. [5] [6]

Tactical shooters

Tactical shooters are shooters that generally simulate realistic squad-based or man-to-man skirmishes. Notable examples of the genre include Ubisoft's Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six and Ghost Recon series and Bohemia Software's Operation Flashpoint . A common feature of tactical shooters that is not present in many other shooters is the ability for the player character to lean out of cover, increasing the granularity of a player's movement and stance options to enhance the realism of the game. Tactical shooters also commonly feature more extensive equipment management, more complex healing systems, and greater depth of simulation compared to other shooters. As a result of this, many tactical shooters are commonly played from the first person perspective. Tactical shooters may combine elements from other shooter genres, such as Rainbow Six Siege and Valorant , which combine the traditional tactical shooter style with the class-based gameplay of hero shooters.

Loot shooters

Loot shooters are shooter games where the player's overarching goal is the accumulation of loot; weapons, equipment, armor, accessories and resources. To achieve this players complete tasks framed as quests, missions or campaigns and are rewarded with better weapons, gear and accessories as a result, with the qualities, attributes and perks of such gear generated randomly following certain rarity scales (also known as loot tables). The better gear allows players to take on more difficult missions with potentially more powerful rewards, forming the game's compulsion loop. [7] Loot shooters are inspired by similar loot-based action role-playing games like Diablo . Examples of loot shooters include the Borderlands franchise, Warframe , Destiny and its sequel, Tom Clancy's The Division and its sequel, and Anthem . [8] [9]

Other

Additionally, artillery games have been described as a type of "shooting game", [10] though they are more frequently classified as a type of strategy game.[ citation needed ]

Controversy

Shooter games have been accused of glorifying and promoting violence and several games in the genre have been the cause of notable video game controversies. After school shootings in Erfurt, Emsdetten and Winnenden, German conservative politicians accused violent shooter games, most notably Counter Strike , to incite young gamers to run amok. [11] Several attempts were made to banish the so-called "Killerspiele" (killing games) in Germany and the European Union. [12] [13] Shooter games were further criticised when Anders Behring Breivik, perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, claimed that he developed target acquisition skills by playing Call of Duty: Modern Warfare . [14]

Related Research Articles

Deathmatch, also known as free-for-all, is a widely used gameplay mode integrated into many shooters, including first-person shooter (FPS), and real-time strategy (RTS) video games. Normally the goal of a deathmatch game is to kill as many other players as possible until a certain condition or limit is reached, commonly a frag limit or a time limit. Once one of the conditions is met, the match is over, and the winner is the player that accumulated the greatest number of frags.

Tactical shooter video game genre

A tactical shooter is a subgenre of shooter games that cover both the first-person shooter and third-person shooter genres. These games simulate realistic combat, thus making tactics and caution more important than quick reflexes in other action games. Tactical shooters involving military combat are sometimes known as "soldier sims".

Shoot em up Subgenre of shooter game

Shoot 'em up is a subgenre of video games within the shooter subgenre in the action genre. There is no consensus as to which design elements compose a shoot 'em up. Some restrict the definition to games featuring spacecraft and certain types of character movement; others allow a broader definition including characters on foot and a variety of perspectives.

Action game video game genre

An action game is a video game genre that emphasizes physical challenges, including hand–eye coordination and reaction-time. The genre includes a large variety of sub-genres, such as fighting games, beat 'em ups, shooter games and platform games. Multiplayer online battle arena and some real-time strategy games are also considered action games.

Action-adventure game Video game genre

Action-adventure is a video game genre that combines core elements from both the action game and adventure game genres.

An online game is a video game that is either partially or primarily played through the Internet or any other computer network available. Online games are ubiquitous on modern gaming platforms, including PCs, consoles and mobile devices, and span many genres, including first-person shooters, strategy games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG). In 2019, revenue in the online games segment reached $16.9 billion, with $4.2 billion generated by China and $3.5 billion in the United States.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to video games:

Cooperative gameplay is a feature in games that allows players to work together as teammates, usually against one or more non-player character opponents. In the case of video games, commonly specific reference to multiple users on separate systems entering the game of a single host user.

Action role-playing game subgenre of role-playing and action video games

Action role-playing is a subgenre of video games that combines core elements from both the action game and of role-playing video games.

<i>Red Orchestra: Ostfront 41-45</i> video game

Red Orchestra: Ostfront 41-45 is a tactical first-person shooter video game based on its predecessor Red Orchestra: Combined Arms. After winning the Make Something Unreal contest, the team behind the original Red Orchestra started the game studio Tripwire Interactive and developed Red Orchestra: Ostfront 41-45 as their first project.

In video games, first person is any graphical perspective rendered from the viewpoint of the player's character, or a viewpoint from the cockpit or front seat of a vehicle driven by the character. Many genres incorporate first-person perspectives, among them adventure games, driving, sailing, and flight simulators. The most notable is the first-person shooter, in which the graphical perspective is an integral component of the gameplay.

A strategy video game is a video game genre that focuses on skillful thinking and planning to achieve victory. It emphasizes strategic, tactical, and sometimes logistical challenges. Many games also offer economic challenges and exploration. They are generally categorized into four sub-types, depending on whether the game is turn-based or real-time, and whether the game focuses on strategy or tactics.

A variety of computer graphic techniques have been used to display video game content throughout the history of video games. The predominance of individual techniques have evolved over time, primarily due to hardware advances and restrictions such as the processing power of central or graphics processing units.

Third-person shooter type of action video game where player can see the avatar on-screen in a third-person view

Third-person shooter (TPS) is a subgenre of 3D shooter games in which the player character is visible on-screen during gaming, and the gameplay consists primarily of shooting.

First-person shooter Action video game genre

First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered on gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist. The genre shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn makes it fall under the heading action game. Since the genre's inception, advanced 3D and pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, and multiplayer gaming has been integral.

Cover system video game gameplay mechanic

A cover system is a video game gameplay mechanic that allows a virtual avatar to hide from and avoid dangers, usually in a three-dimensional world. This method is a digital adaptation of the real-life military tactic of taking cover behind obstacles, for purposes of attaining protection from enemy ranged or area effect attacks, such as gunfire or explosions.

Gun Buster, also known as Gunbuster (ガンバスター) and released in North America as Operation Gunbuster, is a first-person shooter video game developed by Taito and released for arcades in 1992. In contrast to on-rail light gun shooters at the time, this was one of the first arcade games to feature free-roaming FPS gameplay, the same year Wolfenstein 3D was released on personal computers.

This list includes terms used in video games and the video game industry, as well as slang used by players.

References

  1. Provo, Frank, Bloody Wolf, GameSpot, July 7, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
  2. Dunham, Jeremy, First Look: Alien Hominid, IGN, July 27, 2004. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  3. https://levelskip.com/first-person-shooters/What-is-an-Arena-Shooter
  4. https://gameluster.com/reflex-arena-launches/
  5. Wawro, Alex (May 6, 2016). "Hero Shooters: Charting the (re)birth of a genre". Gamasutra . Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  6. Molina, Brett (June 17, 2016). "5 big video game trends from E3 2016". USA Today . Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  7. Park, Gene (December 12, 2019). "Godfall, a new loot grind with melee combat, is coming to PlayStation 5 and PC". The Washington Post . Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  8. "The top six looter shooters of all time". Games Radar . June 29, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  9. "Investigating the Origin of the Looter Shooter". PC Gamer . June 29, 2019. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  10. Barton, Matt. "Scorched Parabolas: A History of the Artillery Game" . Retrieved 2007-11-25.
  11. "German Past Haunts Gamers' Future". Wired. February 5, 2007.
  12. "EU may regulate development and sale of violent video games".
  13. Meller, Paul. "Germany seeks common EU rules on violent video games".
  14. Pidd, Helen (19 April 2012). "Anders Breivik 'trained' for shooting attacks by playing Call of Duty". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 December 2017.