Diablo (video game)

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Diablo
Diablo Coverart.png
Cover art
Developer(s) Blizzard North
Publisher(s) Microsoft Windows, Classic Mac OS
Blizzard Entertainment
PlayStation
Producer(s) Bill Roper
Designer(s) David Brevik
Erich Schaefer
Max Schaefer
Eric Sexton
Kenneth Williams
Programmer(s) David Brevik
Artist(s) Michio Okamura
Writer(s) Chris Metzen
Bill Roper
Eric Sexton
Erich Schaefer
Composer(s) Matt Uelmen
Series Diablo
Platform(s) Microsoft Windows, Classic Mac OS, PlayStation
ReleaseMicrosoft Windows
Classic Mac OS
  • NA: May 8, 1998
PlayStation
Genre(s) Action role-playing, hack and slash
Mode(s) Single-player, multiplayer

Diablo is an action role-playing hack and slash video game developed by Blizzard North and released by Blizzard Entertainment on December 31, 1996. [1] [3]

Action role-playing video games are a subgenre of role-playing video games. The games emphasize real-time combat where the player has direct control over the characters as opposed to turn or menu-based combat. These games often use action game combat systems similar to hack and slash or shooter games. Action role-playing games may also incorporate action-adventure games, which include a mission system and RPG mechanics, or massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with real-time combat systems.

Hack and slash or hack and slay refers to a type of gameplay that emphasizes combat.

Video game electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an increasingly important part of the entertainment industry, and whether they are also a form of art is a matter of dispute.

Contents

Set in the fictional Kingdom of Khanduras in the mortal realm, Diablo makes the player take control of a lone hero battling to rid the world of Diablo, the Lord of Terror. Beneath the fictional town of Tristram, the player journeys through sixteen randomly generated dungeon levels, ultimately entering Hell itself in order to face Diablo.

Devil supernatural entity that is the personification of evil and the enemy of god and humankind

A devil is the personification of evil as it is conceived in many and various cultures and religious traditions. It is seen as the objectification of a hostile and destructive force.

Hell Afterlife location in which souls are subjected to punitive suffering, often torture

In religion and folklore, Hell is an afterlife location in which evil souls are subjected to punitive suffering, often torture as eternal punishment after death. Religions with a linear divine history often depict hells as eternal destinations, the biggest examples of which are Christianity and Islam, whereas religions with reincarnation usually depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations, as is the case in the dharmic religions. Religions typically locate hell in another dimension or under Earth's surface. Other afterlife destinations include Heaven, Paradise, Purgatory, Limbo, and the underworld.

An expansion pack entitled Diablo: Hellfire was released in 1997 by Sierra Entertainment. In 1998, Electronic Arts released Diablo for the Sony PlayStation. [5] This version, developed by Climax Studios, featured direct control of the main character's direction, as opposed to point-and-click movement, using the PlayStation controller. A Sega Saturn version was considered by Electronic Arts but never released. [6] The game's level of success led to two sequels: Diablo II in 2000 and Diablo III in 2012. Five years later, to celebrate Diablo's 20th anniversary, "The Darkening of Tristram" quest was added to Diablo III in early 2017. [7]

<i>Diablo: Hellfire</i> video game

Diablo: Hellfire is the expansion pack for the video game Diablo, developed by Synergistic Software, a Sierra division, and published by Sierra On-Line in 1997. Hellfire was re-released alongside Diablo in 1998 in a bundle called Diablo + Hellfire. Despite Blizzard Entertainment's objections, the game was produced without their blessing, due to the parent company at the time Davidson & Associates. It was released digitally by Blizzard Entertainment on June 5, 2019 as a free add-on with every purchase of the original Diablo on GOG.com.

1997 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as GoldenEye 007, Star Fox 64, Turok: Dinosaur Hunter, Mortal Kombat 4, Diddy Kong Racing, Grand Theft Auto, Blast Corps and Castlevania: Symphony of the Night.

Sierra Entertainment, Inc. was an American video game developer and publisher. Founded in 1979 as On-Line Systems, by Ken and Roberta Williams, Sierra was known primarily for their graphic adventure game series such as King's Quest, Space Quest, Police Quest, Gabriel Knight, and Quest for Glory.

Gameplay

Diablo is an action role-playing hack and slash video game. The player moves and interacts with the environment primarily by way of a mouse. [8] Other actions, such as casting a spell, are performed in response to keyboard inputs. [8] The player can acquire items, learn spells, defeat enemies, and interact with non-player characters (NPC)s throughout the game.

A non-player character (NPC) is any character in a game which is not controlled by a player. The term originated in traditional tabletop role-playing games, where it applies to characters controlled by the gamemaster or referee, rather than another player. In video games, this usually means a character controlled by the computer via algorithmic, predetermined or responsive behavior, but not necessarily true artificial intelligence.

The dungeon levels are randomly generated, although they follow parameters according to their type; for instance the catacombs tend to have long corridors and closed rooms, while the caves are more non-linear. The players are assigned a random number of quests from several tiers; these quests are optional but help to level up the character and/or reveal more of the backstory. The final two quests, however, are mandatory in order to finish the game.

Classes

A warrior engages in combat with a ghoul enemy. A "Level Up" button indicates the character has attribute points available to distribute. The icon at the lower right indicates that the character's head protection is damaged and in danger of breaking. Diabloscreen.jpg
A warrior engages in combat with a ghoul enemy. A "Level Up" button indicates the character has attribute points available to distribute. The icon at the lower right indicates that the character's head protection is damaged and in danger of breaking.

Diablo has three character classes: the Warrior, the Rogue, and the Sorcerer. Each class has a different level of assigned attributes along with a unique skill. Each class is capable of using almost all of the same items and spells, in contrast to later titles in the Diablo series which have class-specific items and spells. However, the limitations in the attributes for each class reward play that utilizes them efficiently; for instance the Warrior's low maximum level of Magic prevents him from learning the higher levels of powerful spells like the Sorcerer, instead the Warrior is best suited to melee with a faster weapon swing plus a "critical strike" for bonus damage.

In the expansion set, Diablo: Hellfire , the Monk was added. The Monk was meant to be proficient at melee combat with the staff, and is not related to the Monk class in Diablo III. Two other classes, the Bard and Barbarian, were unfinished but remained hidden characters in Diablo: Hellfire, and could be enabled using a hack. Using the in-game sprites of the Rogue and Warrior, respectively, the Bard is capable of dual-wielding weapons while the Barbarian was a two-handed axe specialist. [9]

Items

Many items have attribute minimums to be used effectively. White-colored items are normal items, blue-colored items are magic items and gold-colored items are unique items. Any items that are not white in color must be identified to make use of their magical effects, however, characters can use unidentified items as they would the base item. Items wear down through use and only have a certain amount of durability. When an item's durability is zero, it is destroyed. Players can return to the town and pay a fee to an NPC, Griswold the Blacksmith, to have the items restored, while the Warrior can repair objects in his possession at the cost of overall durability. [8]

Bows are the ranged weapon of the game, best used by rogues. Staves, while capable of physical attacks, are mainly used for the spell charges that they contain, as casting from a staff does not require the player to learn the spell or use mana. A staff's spell can only be cast a certain number of times before it requires a recharge. Swords are typically one-handed (though two-handed varieties also exist), while axes are all two-handed. Maces and clubs add a 50% damage bonus against the undead. Shields, when paired with single-handed weapons, allow attacks to be blocked. There are three classifications of armor: light, medium and heavy. Characters are also allowed to wear a helmet, two rings, and one amulet. [8]

Books contain spell formulas. Spell books cannot be used more than once, but multiple books of the same spell will increase the spell level, up to a maximum of 15. Scrolls allow use of both spells not yet learned, and spells not available in book form. They vanish after one use. Many potions are available for use, including health and mana restoration, and elixirs that increase statistics. [8]

Multiplayer

Multiplayer can be done with up to four players. Multiplayer characters' states are saved periodically. Players can either be aggressive towards, or play co-operatively with, other players. Players can connect by one of the following: direct connection, modem connection, Battle.net connection or IPX network connection. The game lacks the stronger anti-cheating methods of Blizzard's later games and as a result, many characters online have been altered in various ways by common third-party programs known as trainers and/or game editing programs such as Cheat Engine. [8] [10]

Plot

Setting

The setting of Diablo includes the mortal realm which is the world of Man as well as the High Heavens and the Burning Hells. [8] :61, 62, 64 & 72 After eons of war between angels and demons, the ascension of man prompted the three Lords of Hell (including Diablo himself) to seek victory through influence, prompting their exile into the mortal realm. There, they sowed chaos, distrust, and hatred among the humans of Sanctuary until a group of magi, called the Horadrim, trapped them in enchanted crystals called "Soulstones". Diablo's soulstone was buried deep in the earth and a monastery was built over the site.

Generations passed and the purpose of the monastery was forgotten. A small town named Tristram sprang up next to the monastery's ruins. When King Leoric rebuilt the monastery as a cathedral, Diablo manipulated its archbishop, Lazarus, to destroy his soulstone prison. Diablo subsequently possessed the king, sending out his knights and priests to battle against peaceful kingdoms, and then possessed the king's son, Prince Albrecht, filling the caves and catacombs beneath the cathedral with creatures formed from the young boy's nightmares.

Tristram became a town of fear and horror, where people were abducted in the night. With no king, no law, and no army left to defend them, many villagers fled. [8]

Story

The game starts when the player's character arrives in Tristram. Several of the remaining townsfolk assist the player such as Deckard Cain the Elder. [11] The labyrinth under the Cathedral descends from the dungeon/church, to the catacombs, followed by the caves, and finally Hell itself, each with a mixture of the undead, animals, and demons. Leoric has been re-animated as the Skeleton King.

Late in the game, the hero must fight Archbishop Lazarus, and eventually Diablo himself. At the end of the game, the hero kills Diablo's mortal form. [12] The hero then takes the Soulstone out of Diablo's forehead after which Diablo transforms into a lifeless Prince Albrecht. [12] The hero then drives the Soulstone into his/her own forehead, and he or she contains the essence of Diablo within himself or herself. [12]

Development

One of the things that we were trying to get with Diablo was ease of gaming. The NHL series was really good at this, where you just click and you're in the game. Before Diablo, when you created a character, you had to answer 53 questions about this that and the other; you had to name it, give it a backstory and so on. We just wanted to get in and start smashing things.

David Brevik on the creation of Diablo [13]

Diablo was conceived by David Brevik during the development of the fighting game Justice League Task Force (1995), developed by Japanese studio Sunsoft with two American studios, Condor Games (later Blizzard North) on the Sega Genesis version and Silicon & Synapse (soon renamed Blizzard Entertainment) on the SNES version. [14] Condor, Brevik's studio, was initially unaware of the SNES version, but eventually became acquainted with that version's co-developer Blizzard, who they found to have a similar interest in PC gaming. Condor's proposal for Diablo, then a turn-based role-playing video game, was turned down by other publishers on the grounds that "RPGs are dead" before Blizzard took an interest after the idea was pitched to them in January 1995. Blizzard, coming off the success of real-time strategy Warcraft: Orcs & Humans (1994), requested two major changes, to make it real-time and to have multiplayer. Brevik also designed a "modern and cool" interface intended to bring the quick directness of console games as well as Doom (1993) to computer RPGs. During development, Condor was eventually renamed Blizzard North. [15] The basis of Diablo was the 1980s roguelike game Moria ; [16] Bill Roper later said that the team's "initial pitch, in a nutshell, was to take the excitement and randomness of games like Moria, Nethack, and Rogue, and bring them into the 1990s with fantastic graphics and sound". The switch from turn-based to real-time gameplay occurred roughly six months into production. [17]

According to Matt Barton, the game Telengard , released by Avalon Hill in 1982, influenced the development of Diablo. [18] Barton and Bill Loguidice also cite The Legend of Zelda series as an influence on Diablo, particularly its move towards real-time action, away from the stat-heavy, turn-based gameplay of earlier computer RPGs. [19]

At first, Diablo was a turn-based role-playing game, but later in development, also influenced by the previous success of Warcraft: Orcs & Humans, they decided to make it a real-time action game. The game was also originally conceived to be made in claymation (much like ClayFighter ), but they decided to have a 3D isometric style instead. [20] [21] [22]

Music

The music of Diablo was composed by Matt Uelmen. The soundtrack consists of six tracks. It was released after 15 years, in 2011.

Release

Diablo normally requires the original CD to play, however also included on the disk is a shareware version of the software that could be played without the CD called Diablo Spawn. This version of the game allows access to the first two areas of the dungeon, and locks out two of the three playable classes and many of the NPC townsfolk. It is playable in both single- and multi-player with those restrictions. The demo is also downloadable.

In 2019 Diablo was released digitally on GOG.com with minor enhancements. [23]

Reception

Sales

According to Max Schaefer, Blizzard's initial sales estimates for Diablo were modest. He remarked, "We were thinking that if everything went well, we would sell 100,000 copies." Following the game's positive press coverage before its release, estimates by the team were increased to roughly 500,000 copies, David Brevik later said. [24] Pre-orders had surpassed 450,000 units globally by December 17, at which point the game was set to launch with a shipment of 500,000 units staggered across its initial days on shelves. [25] Diablo debuted at #1 on PC Data's monthly computer game sales chart for January 1997. [26] It held the position for another three months, [27] [28] [29] before being displaced to #2 by X-Wing vs. TIE Fighter in May. [30] Diablo remained in second place until September, when it dropped to fifth. [31] [32] [33] [34] It exited the top 10 that October. [35]

In the United States, the game was the highest-selling computer title of the first six months of 1997. [36] Its worldwide sales surpassed 500,000 units by April, [37] 750,000 by June and 1 million by late November. [38] [39] By the end of 1997, Diablo had sold 670,155 copies in the United States alone. It was declared the country's fourth-best-selling computer game of the year by PC Data. [40] Schaefer attributed the game's success in part to its December 27 shipment date, and noted that "there weren't any other games released after Christmas, so we were the only game in town for a long time." [24]

After being absent from PC Data's charts during the final months of 1997, [41] [42] Diablo took 13th place in the rankings for February 1998. It remained in the top 20 for another month, [43] dropped out in April and reappeared in June. [44] [45] It returned to the top 10 from July through October, [45] [46] [47] [48] rising to #3 in August. [46] For the first half of 1998, it was the United States' 14th-best-selling computer release. At the time, Jason Ocampo of Computer Games Strategy Plus called Diablo one of the charts' " 'perennial' inhabitants", and compared its longevity to that of Myst and NASCAR Racing 2 . [49] The game's average sale price during the January–June period was $36; [49] by October, it had fallen to $26. [48] Diablo finished 11th for the year in the United States, with sales of 354,961 units and revenues of $9.57 million in the region. [50] In August 1998, Diablo received a "Gold" sales award from the Verband der Unterhaltungssoftware Deutschland (VUD), [51] indicating sales of at least 100,000 units across Germany, Austria and Switzerland. [52]

Diablo's global sales reached almost 2 million units by September 1998. [53] One year later, its sales in the United States alone had grown to 1.17 million copies, which made it the country's seventh-highest computer game seller since January 1993. [54] This number rose to 1.3 million copies by March 2000. Remarking upon these sales, GameSpot's writer Desslock hailed Diablo as an "undisputed commercial blockbuster". [55] The game returned in 2000 to PC Data's annual top 20 for the United States, with 260,020 copies sold. [56]

Worldwide, Diablo broke 2 million sales by mid-2000 and reached 2.3 million by January of the next year. [57] [58] Ultimately, the game sold over 2.5 million units by mid-2001. [59]

Critical reviews

Reception
Aggregate scores
AggregatorScore
GameRankings PC: 89% [60]
PS: 80% [61]
Metacritic PC: 94/100 [62]
Review scores
PublicationScore
CGW Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar half.svg [63]
GameSpot PC: 9.6/10 [64]
PS: 8.3/10 [65]
Next Generation PC: Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg [66]
PS: Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svg [67]
PC Gamer (US) 90% [68]
PC Zone 88/100 [69]
Macworld Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar half.svg [70]
Computer Games Strategy Plus Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svg [71]
PC Magazine Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg [72]
PC Games PC: A [73]

Diablo has received critical acclaim, with an average rating of 94/100 on Metacritic. [62] Most praised the game's addictive gameplay, [64] [71] [66] [74] randomly generated dungeons, [64] [71] [66] [74] superior graphics, [71] [66] [74] moody musical score, [64] and great variety of possible magic items, enemies, levels, and quests. [64] [71] [74] This last aspect was noted by GameSpot editor Trent Ward in his review: "Similarly, although a set number of monsters is included, only a few will be seen during each full game. This means that players going back for their second or third shot at the game will very likely fight opponents they haven't seen before. Talk about replay value." [64]

Reviewers commonly cited the online multiplayer aspect as one of the strongest points of the game, with it being described as greatly extending its replay value. [64] [71] [66] Columnist Bernard Yee commented that compared to contemporary online multiplayer games such as Quake , Diablo gives newcomers a much better chance of enjoying themselves, as they can either cooperate with other players or build their character so that they can hold their own against hostile players. [75] Computer Games Magazine 's Cindy Yans said that "weapons, armor and items are so numerous that you're always acquiring something new to try... not to mention the game's multiplayer universe"; she went on to say that "for anyone who enjoys a good multiplayer dungeon crawl, Diablo can't be beat". Yans finished her review, "Despite the rather pale storyline, [...] watered-down quests and a fair amount of necessary repetition, Diablo is a must for anyone interested in 'just plain fun.'" [71] Ward stated: "Diablo is the best game to come out in the past year, and you should own a copy. Period." [64]

Macworld 's Michael Gowan wrote, "The only downside to this role-playing game is that the adventure ends too soon." [70] Steve Klett's review for PC Games, which was reprinted in sister magazine GamePro , commented that "Diablo's definitely not your typical dungeon hackfest. ... In fact, its closest rivals are games like Gauntlet and Loaded on the PlayStation, but they really don't compare." [74] A Next Generation critic similarly remarked that Diablo is more of a modern incarnation of Gauntlet than an RPG, "but with enough changes and improvements to make it a completely new experience, and one of the best titles so far this year." [66]

Next Generation reviewed the PlayStation version of the game, rating it four stars out of five, and stated that "If you were addicted to the PC version, you can experience it all over again on PlayStation. And if you haven't played Diablo at all, check this one out." [67]

Diablo won the overall "Game of the Year" awards of Computer Gaming World , GameSpot and Computer Game Entertainment for 1996, [76] [77] [78] and was a runner-up for Computer Games Strategy Plus 's award in this category. [79] The editors of Computer Gaming World wrote, "For this year, Diablo is the game that everyone will remember." [77] It was also named 1996's best computer role-playing game by GameSpot, Computer Game Entertainment and Computer Games. [76] [78] [79] While it was nominated for Computer Gaming World's "Role-Playing Game of the Year" award, the publication gave the honor to The Elder Scrolls II: Daggerfall . [77]

Legacy

In 1998, PC Gamer declared it the 42nd-best computer game ever released, and the editors called it "a nearly flawless gaming experience". [80]

In 2005 GameSpot chose Diablo as one of "The Greatest Games of All Time". [81] It was placed at No. 20 on Game Informer's "Top 100 RPGs Of All Time" list. [82]

The expansion pack made for Diablo is Diablo: Hellfire , released in 1997. It was produced by Sierra Entertainment rather than an in-house Blizzard North development team. The multiplayer feature of the expansion pack was disabled with version 1.01. The added content included two additional dungeon segments located within a new side storyline, several unique items and magical item properties, spells, and a fourth class, the Monk. There are also two unfinished "test" classes (the Bard and Barbarian) and two quests which could be accessed through a configuration file modification.

Blizzard sold exclusive worldwide rights to develop, publish, and distribute console versions of the game to Electronic Arts in 1996. [83] In 1998, a PlayStation version of Diablo was released, developed by Climax Studios and published by Electronic Arts. The game lacked online play, but featured a two-player cooperative mode. Notable differences to the PC version include the auto-aiming for range weapons and spells and an option for increased game speed. It features an option to learn the story through a narrator without having to find the books in the game. The European PAL version is translated and dubbed into French, German and Swedish in addition to the original English. The PlayStation version was infamous because of its need for 10 blocks on a PlayStation memory card; the standard size of memory cards for the platform was 15 blocks.

The game was re-released alongside Hellfire in a 1998 bundle, called Diablo + Hellfire. 1998's Blizzard's Game of the Year Collection contained copies of Diablo, StarCraft and Warcraft II: Tides of Darkness . The Blizzard Anthology (2000) contained Diablo, StarCraft, StarCraft: Brood War and WarCraft II: Battle.net Edition. The Diablo Gift Pack (2000) contained Diablo and Diablo II , but no expansions. The Diablo: Battle Chest (2001) contained Diablo, Diablo II and Diablo II's expansion, Lord of Destruction . Later releases of the Diablo: Battle Chest also have a strategy guide for Diablo II and Lord of Destruction, [84] though subsequent releases do not include the original game, instead featuring Diablo II, its expansion, and their respective strategy guides.

For Diablo's 20th anniversary, it was announced during BlizzCon 2016 that Diablo III would receive a free patch called The Darkening of Tristram that recreates the original game. The patch contains a 16-level dungeon, four main bosses from the 1996 version and special graphics filters and 8-directions limited movement like the original game. The test patch was released on November 11, 2016 on the Public Test Realm server. [85] [86]

In March 2019, Diablo was made available for sale on GOG.com, which marked the first time Blizzard had released the game on a digital distribution platform. [87] The release featured two versions of the game: The original 1996 version and a new DirectX-based version built in-house by GOG that features additional display and graphical options. [87]

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Diablo II: Lord of Destruction is an expansion pack for the hack and slash action role-playing game Diablo II. Unlike the original Diablo's expansion pack, Diablo: Hellfire, it is a first-party expansion developed by Blizzard North.

<i>Diablo III</i> action role-playing video game developed and published by Blizzard Entertainment

Diablo III is a dungeon crawler hack-and-slash action role-playing game developed and published by Blizzard Entertainment as the third installment in the Diablo franchise. It was released for Microsoft Windows and OS X in May 2012, the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in September 2013, the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One in August 2014, and the Nintendo Switch in November 2018. In the game, players choose to play as one of seven character classes – Barbarian, Crusader, Demon Hunter, Monk, Necromancer, Witch Doctor, or Wizard – and are tasked with defeating the Lord of Terror, Diablo, as in previous games in the series.

<i>Age of Empires</i> (video game) 1997 real-time strategy video game

Age of Empires (AoE) is a history-based real-time strategy video game developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft, and the first game in the Age of Empires series. The game uses the Genie Engine, a 2D sprite-based game engine. The game allows the user to act as the leader of an ancient civilization by advancing it through four ages, gaining access to new and improved units with each advance.

<i>Warcraft II: Tides of Darkness</i> fantasy-themed real-time strategy game published by Blizzard Entertainment

Warcraft II: Tides of Darkness is a fantasy real-time strategy computer game developed by Blizzard Entertainment and released for DOS in 1995 and Mac OS in 1996. The game was met with positive reviews and won most of the major PC gaming awards in 1996. In 1996, Blizzard released an expansion pack, Warcraft II: Beyond the Dark Portal, for DOS and Mac OS, and a compilation, Warcraft II: The Dark Saga, for the PlayStation and Sega Saturn. The Battle.net edition, released in 1999, provided Blizzard's online gaming service, and replaced the MS-DOS version with a Windows one.

Multiplayer online battle arena Subgenre of strategy video games

Multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA), also known as action real-time strategy (ARTS), is a subgenre of strategy video games that originated as a subgenre of real-time strategy, in which a player controls a single character in a team who compete versus another team of players. Often the objective is to destroy the opposing team's main structure with the assistance of periodically-spawned computer-controlled units that march forward along set paths; MOBA games can have other goals, like defeating every player on the enemy team. Player characters typically have abilities that improve over the course of a game and that contribute to a team's overall strategy. MOBAs are a fusion of action games, role-playing games and real-time strategy games, though MOBA players usually do not construct buildings or units and there are examples of MOBA games that cannot be considered RTS at all.

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