Video game publisher

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A video game publisher is a company that publishes video games that have been developed either internally by the publisher or externally by a video game developer.

Publishing Process of production and dissemination of literature, music, or information

Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information. It is the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display their content. "Publisher" can refer both to an individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint and to an individual who owns/heads a magazine.

Video game electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an increasingly important part of the entertainment industry, and whether they are also a form of art is a matter of dispute.

A video game developer is a software developer that specializes in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games. A game developer can range from one person who undertakes all tasks to a large business with employee responsibilities split between individual disciplines, such as programming, design, art, testing, etc. Most game development companies have video game publisher financial and usually marketing support. Self-funded developers are known as independent or indie developers and usually make indie games.

Contents

They often finance the development, sometimes by paying a video game developer (the publisher calls this external development) and sometimes by paying an internal staff of developers called a studio. The large video game publishers also distribute the games they publish, while some smaller publishers instead hire distribution companies (or larger video game publishers) to distribute the games they publish. Other functions usually performed by the publisher include deciding on and paying for any licenses used by the game; paying for localization; layout, printing, and possibly the writing of the user manual; and the creation of graphic design elements such as the box design. Some large publishers with vertical structure also own publishing subsidiaries (labels).

A license or licence is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something.

Internationalization and localization process in which software is made accessible to people in different areas of the world

In computing, internationalization and localization (AmE) or internationalisation and localisation (BrE) are means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional peculiarities and technical requirements of a target locale. Internationalization is the process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes. Localization is the process of adapting internationalized software for a specific region or language by translating text and adding locale-specific components. Localization uses the infrastructure or flexibility provided by internationalization.

Large publishers may also attempt to boost efficiency across all internal and external development teams by providing services such as sound design and code packages for commonly needed functionality.

Because the publisher often finances development, it usually tries to manage development risk with a staff of producers or project managers to monitor the progress of the developer, critique ongoing development, and assist as necessary. Most video games created by an external video game developer are paid for with periodic advances on royalties. These advances are paid when the developer reaches certain stages of development, called milestones.

Project management is the practice of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at the specified time.The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints. This information is usually described in project documentation, created at the beginning of the development process. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and apply them to meet pre-defined objectives.

Business risks

Video game publishing is associated with high risk:

Risk is the potential for uncontrolled loss of something of value. Values can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen. Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty. Uncertainty is a potential, unpredictable, and uncontrollable outcome; risk is an aspect of action taken in spite of uncertainty.

Christmas holiday originating in Christianity, usually celebrated on December 25 (in the Gregorian or Julian calendars)

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which historically in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night; in some traditions, Christmastide includes an octave. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated religiously by a majority of Christians, as well as culturally by many non-Christians, and forms an integral part of the holiday season centered around it.

Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships. Marketing is the business process of creating relationships with and satisfying customers. With its focus on the customer, marketing is one of the primary components of business management.

id Software American video game development company

id Software LLC is an American video game developer based in Dallas, Texas. The company was founded on February 1, 1991, by four members of the computer company Softdisk, programmers John Carmack and John Romero, game designer Tom Hall, and artist Adrian Carmack. Business manager Jay Wilbur was also involved. id Software made important technological developments in video game technologies for the PC, including work done for the Wolfenstein, Doom, and Quake franchises. id's work was particularly important in 3D computer graphics technology and in game engines that are used throughout the video game industry. The company was involved in the creation of the first-person shooter (FPS) genre. Wolfenstein 3D is often considered to be the first true FPS, Doom is a game that popularized the genre and PC gaming in general, and Quake was id's first true 3D FPS.

  • Contrasting with the big budget titles increased expense of "front-line" console games is the casual game market, in which smaller, simpler games are published for PCs and as downloadable console games. Also, Nintendo's Wii console, though debuting in the same generation as the PlayStation 3 [8] and the Xbox 360, [9] requires a smaller development budget, as innovation on the Wii is centered around the use of the Wii Remote and not around the graphics pipeline.

Investor interest

Numerous video game publishers are traded publicly on stock markets. As a group, they have had mixed performance. At present, Electronic Arts is the only third-party publisher present in the S&P 500 diversified list of large U.S. corporations; in April 2010, it entered the Fortune 500 for the first time. [10]

Hype over video game publisher stocks has been breathless at two points:

Rankings

Major publishers

Below are the largest publishers in general according to their revenue in billions of dollars as of 2017. [11]

2017Name of PublisherRevenue in $bn
1 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Tencent Games 18.2
2 Flag of the United States.svg Sony Interactive Entertainment [12] 10.5
3 Flag of the United States.svg Apple 8.0
4 Flag of the United States.svg Xbox Game Studios 7.1
5 Flag of the United States.svg Activision Blizzard 6.5

Below are the largest publishers in general according to their revenue in billions of euros as of 2015. [13]

2015Name of PublisherRevenue in €bn
1 Flag of the United States.svg Sony Interactive Entertainment [14] 9.89
2 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Tencent Games 7.73
3 Flag of the United States.svg Xbox Game Studios 7.25
4 Flag of Japan.svg Nintendo 3.92
5 Flag of the United States.svg Activision Blizzard 3.32
6 Flag of the United States.svg Electronic Arts 3.25
7 Flag of Japan.svg Bandai Namco Entertainment 2.05
8 Flag of Malta.svg King 1.7
9 Flag of South Korea.svg Nexon 1.55
10 Flag of France.svg Ubisoft 1.46

In 2016, the largest public companies by game revenue were Tencent, with US$10.2 billion, followed by Sony, with US$7.8 billion, and Activision Blizzard, with US$6.6 billion, according to Newzoo. [15]

Mid-size publishers

Below are the top AA (midsize) video game publishers, ranked by Metacritic in January 2014 based on game quality according to reviews. [16] These lists are based on the ranking by best to worst publishers according to metacritic's website. Note that two major publishers, Take-Two Interactive and Sega fell to mid-size and one, Square Enix, jumped from mid-size to major. Three mid-size publishers ranked in 2013 were dropped from 2014 chart, namely Xseed Games and Kalypso Media. Note also that iOS games were not included in the figures.

2014 PositionName of Publisher2013 Position
1 Flag of the United States.svg Telltale Games N/A
2 Flag of Sweden.svg Paradox Interactive 4
3 Flag of Japan.svg Capcom 2
4 Flag of the United States.svg Take-Two Interactive N/A [note 1]
5 Flag of Japan.svg Sega N/A [note 2]
6 Flag of Hungary.svg Zen Studios N/A
7 Flag of the United States.svg Devolver Digital N/A
8 Flag of Japan.svg Konami 1
9 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Slitherine Strategies N/A
10 Flag of the United States.svg NIS America 8
11 Flag of the United States.svg Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment 3
12 Flag of Japan.svg Koei Tecmo 7
13 Flag of Japan.svg Atlus 6
14 Flag of Italy.svg 505 Games 5
15 Flag of Japan.svg Aksys Games N/A
16 Flag of Sweden.svg THQ Nordic AB 9
17 Flag of France.svg Focus Home Interactive 10
  1. Was #1 as a major publisher
  2. Was #7 as a major publisher


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Video game development is the process of creating a video game. The effort is undertaken by a developer, ranging from a single person to an international team dispersed across the globe. Development of traditional commercial PC and console games is normally funded by a publisher, and can take several years to reach completion. Indie games usually take less time and money and can be produced by individuals and smaller developers. The independent game industry has been on the rise, facilitated by the growth of accessible game development software such as Unity platform and Unreal Engine and new online distribution systems such as Steam and Uplay, as well as the mobile game market for Android and iOS devices.

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