King (company)

Last updated Limited
Type Subsidiary
Industry Video games
FoundedAugust 2003;17 years ago (2003-08) in Stockholm, Sweden
Number of locations
11 studios (2019)
Area served
Key people
Products Candy Crush Saga
Number of employees
2,000 (2017)
Parent Activision Blizzard (2016–present)
Website Limited, trading as King and also known as King Digital Entertainment, is a video game developer based in St. Julian's, Malta that specialises in social games. King gained fame after releasing the cross-platform title Candy Crush Saga in 2012, considered one of the most financially successful games utilising the freemium model. King was acquired by Activision Blizzard in February 2016 for US$5.9 billion, and operates as its own entity within that company. King is led by Riccardo Zacconi, who has served in the role of chief executive officer since co-founding the company in 2003. [1] Gerhard Florin took over Melvyn Morris's role as chairman in November 2014. As of 2017, King employs 2,000 people. [2]




Prior to founding King, Riccardo Zacconi and Toby Rowland, the latter of who is the only son of British businessman Tiny Rowland, had worked together on, a dating website created by Melvyn Morris which, by 2003, was the second-largest such site in the world. [3] Morris opted to sell the site to the leading dating website (a subsidiary of IAC) for $150 million in 2003. [3] [4] Zacconi and Rowland joined with Thomas Hartwig, Sebastian Knutsson, Lars Markgren and Patrik Stymne, all of whom had worked previously with Zacconi at the failed dot-com web portal Spray, to create a new company with angel investment provided by Morris, who became the company's chairman. [3] The company was initially based out of Stockholm, Sweden, and started with the development of browser-based video games. [5] [6] The site,, was then launched in August of that year. [7]

Initially, was not profitable, and nearly went bankrupt until a cash infusion from Morris on Christmas Eve of 2003 helped to finance the company. [1] By 2005, the company had been able to turn a profit. [1] During this year, the company raised $43 million by selling a large stake to Apax Partners and Index Ventures. [6] This investment was the last one that the company received before its initial public offering in 2014. [8] was rebranded in November 2005. [7] continued to develop games for its web portal, which it would also share to other web portals like Yahoo! [9] Overall, King had developed about 200 games for their portal. [2] By 2009, the company was making about $60 million annually. [10] Rowland departed the company in 2008 to found Mangahigh, a web portal aimed for educational math games, [11] and sold his stake back to the company for $3 million in 2011. [4] Angel investor and former board member Klaus Hommels sold his similar stake at the same time. [6]

Transition to social gaming

Around 2009, social network games on Facebook began to gain popularity, led primarily through games developed by Zynga. saw a significant drop in players on their portal games as a result, and started to develop their own Facebook-based games using the games already developed on the portal, with their first such game released in 2010. used their web portal as a testing grounds for new game ideas and determine which ones to bring to Facebook, as well as determining how to implement various microtransactions for tournament-style play into the Facebook games. [12] Their first cross-platform web portal/Facebook game, Miner Speed, which allowed sharing of player information between platforms, was released in 2011, and was a simple match-3 tile game inspired by Bejeweled . [13]

Following this model, in October 2011, the company released Bubble Witch Saga to both platforms. Bubble Witch Saga introduced the nature of a "saga" game, that instead of playing the same gameboard for as long as the player could continue to match matches, that instead the game offered individual levels that would challenge the player to complete certain goals in a limited number of turns. These saga elements allowed for the basics of social gameplay, but did not require the time investment that then-popular titles like Zynga's Farmville required; players could play just for a few minutes each day through the saga model. [14] The formula proved extremely successful, and January 2012, Bubble Witch Saga had over 10 million players and was one of the most-played Facebook games. [15] By April 2012, had the second largest player count, around 30 million unique users, [6] second only to Zynga on the Facebook platform. [9] Facebook's director of games partnerships Sean Ryan described's growth on the platform as "They were not a flash in the pan – they've been around seven years. But they came out of no where in an area that was unexpected." [16] next released Candy Crush Saga in April 2012, based on the popularity of its Candy Crush web-portal game and following the saga model from Bubble Witch Saga. [17] The game attracted more than 4 million players within a few weeks. [18]

The popularity of Bubble Witch Saga and Candy Crush Saga led to start a new strategy into developing for the growing mobile game market, in a manner that would allow players to synchronise with the Facebook platform. Zacconi said that "As consumers and the industry focus more on games for mobile devices, launching a truly cross-platform Facebook game has been a top priority for" [19] A mobile version for iOS device of Bubble Witch Saga was released in July 2012, [19] while the iOS mobile version of Candy Crush Saga was released in October 2012. [20] Both games saw boosts in the number of unique players with the mobile introduction; saw that previously-declining player counts for Bubble Witch Saga become steady with the mobile version's release, while Candy Crush Saga saw more than 5.2 million unique players on Facebook in November 2012 and which were continuing to climb. Additionally, in-game advertising, which factored into about 15% of's revenues, had increased ten-fold from 2011 into 2012. [21] Users jumped to 408 million by the end of 2013. [6] Revenues for increased from a little over $62 million in 2011 to $1.88 billion in 2013. [6]

In March 2013, on the ten-year anniversary of its founding, the company announced it was dropping the ".com" part of its branding and would continue on as just "King". [22]

Initial public offering

In mid-2013, had considered filing an initial public offering (IPO) in the United States. Zacconi had said that "The IPO is an option...We are building the company and part of that is investigating options." [23] The company applied for IPO in September 2013. Its filing was made using allowances in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act to keep details of the IPO secret until it was to be offered. The IPO was backed by Bank of America, Merrill Lynch, Credit Suisse Group AG and JPMorgan Chase & Co. The IPO gained great interest, as it followed Zynga's $1 billion IPO in 2011 and Twitter's IPO earlier in the month. [8]

King completed its IPO on 26 March 2014. Priced at $22.50 a share, the middle of its projected price range, the IPO valued the company at US$7.08 billion. About $500 million was raised through the sale of 22.2 million shares. Of that, 15.3 million shares came from the company and the rest from Apax and other stakeholders. It was the largest ever IPO for a mobile/social gaming company in the US, eclipsing Zynga's 2011 offering. [1] To celebrate the debut, Candy Crush mascots took to the New York Stock Exchange. [4] Morris was the company's largest shareholder with approximately 35.6 million shares valued at $821 million. [3] [4] The company began trading under the "KING" symbol on the New York Stock Exchange. [1]

Shares of King fell 15.6% on the first day of trading, closing at $19. [4] By June, the company's valuation had dropped by $2 billion, though otherwise was still profitable. Zacconi noted that their strategy from this point was not to find another "mega-hit" like Candy Crush Saga, but to "build a portfolio of games", carrying King's game design approach to other genres. [10] Revenue following the IPO were over $2.6 billion in 2014, with Candy Crush Saga generating nearly half of that amount. [24]

King acquired Seattle-based mobile studio Z2Live in February 2015. [25]

Acquisition by Activision Blizzard

In November 2015, Activision Blizzard announced its plans to acquire King for $5.9 billion. Upon announcement of the news, USA Today reported that the deal "gives Activision immediate access to the growing mobile gaming audience, the fastest-rising sector in video games". [5] On 23 February 2016, Activision Blizzard closed its acquisition of King for a deal of $5.9 billion. [26] Activision Blizzard as a result operates the world's largest game network, [27] reaching around 500 million users [27] in 196 countries. [28] About the King acquisition, the CEO of Activision Blizzard explained that "we see great opportunities to create new ways for audiences to experience their favorite franchises, from Candy Crush to World of Warcraft to Call of Duty and more, across mobile devices, consoles and personal computers." [27]

In January 2019, Humam Sakhnini was installed as president of King, reporting directly to Zacconi. [29] As part of a large workforce reduction announced in February 2019 across the whole of Activision Blizzard, King's Z2Live studio in Seattle was shuttered. [30] Zacconi stepped down as CEO on 1 July 2019, remaining as chairman until August 2020, when he left the company entirely. [29] [31]

Revenue model

King's games, prior to June 2013, made revenue for the company through a combination of in-game advertising and microtransactions. These microtransactions allow for players to use funds to purchase in-game booster items that could be used to help clear certain levels, additional lives, and immediate access to new levels instead of having to wait for a few days.

In June 2013, the company opted to remove all in-game advertising from their games, relying solely on microtransactions. The company stated that due to their "focus around delivering an uninterrupted entertainment experience for our network of loyal players across web, tablet and mobile has unfortunately led to the difficult decision of removing advertising as a core element of King's overall strategy". [32] Advertising revenue had only made up 10% of the company's earnings in 2012, and only 1% within 2013; the company in its IPO files stated they do not anticipate any further earnings from advertising revenue. [33] While King relies heavily on in-game purchases, it is estimated that only single-digit percentages of all players of their games have spent money on their titles. In Q4 2014, King had 356 million monthly unique users, with 8.3 million of them spending money. The 2.3% that pay spent an average of $23.42 a month within the games. [24] King stated that their model is aimed to continue to draw existing and new players to all of their games: "If the cost to acquire players is greater than the revenue we generate over time from those players and if we cannot successfully migrate our current players to new games and new platforms as we have historically done so, our business and operating results will be harmed". [33]


King games offer asynchronous play, enabling users to connect to their Facebook account whilst playing on their smartphone or tablet device. This means that the user's progress is updated across all platforms, allowing the player to switch from smartphone, to tablet, to Facebook without losing their progress in the game. [34] [35]

Bubble Witch Saga was King's first mobile game, released in July 2012 after its launch on Facebook in September 2011. [36] [37] Papa Pear Saga was released in March 2013 on Facebook, it is a Peggle variation. [38]

Around 2012, Pyramid Solitaire Saga was soft launched on Facebook. It was released on mobile in May 2014. [39] In late 2012 Pet Rescue Saga was launched on Facebook, then on iOS and Android In June 2013, Candy Crush Soda Saga was soft launched on Facebook and mobile [40] and Bubble Witch 2 Saga was widely released for Android and iOS devices. [41] In November 2014, Candy Crush Soda Saga was widely released on Android and iOS. [42] Alpha Betty Saga launched on Facebook in April 2015. This game is a variation of Bookworm.

In 2013, King acquired the Defold game engine, developed by Ragnar Svensson and Christian Murray in 2007 as a lightweight 2D game engine. The two had offered the engine to King as well as their services as contractors to support it, and later bought the engine, using it first for the game Blossom Blast Saga. [43] In March 2016, King released the Defold engine as a free development tool for any user, [44] and by May 2020, it ceded control of the engine to the Defold Foundation, which made the engine open source with plans to continue to support it with additional investment from King. [45]

King announced in April 2017 that they will be developing a mobile Call of Duty game, a property owned by Activision; the game would be one of the first ones outside of the casual mobile space for the company. [46]

King's most popular game is Candy Crush Saga , which was launched on King's website in March 2011, which is a tile-matching game. It launched on Facebook in April 2012 and quickly gained popularity. Following its success on Facebook, King launched Candy Crush Saga on mobile (iOS and Android) in November 2012. The game was downloaded over 10 million times in its first month. [47] In January 2013, it became the number one most played game on Facebook. [48] [49] It had over 45 million monthly users in March 2013. By January 2014, it had over 150 million monthly users. [50]

While King continues to release other titles, the company's principle focus as of November 2017 are on its four most popular series: Candy Crush Saga, Bubble Witch Saga, Pet Rescue Saga, and Farm Heroes Saga. [51]

2011 Bubble Saga DiscontinuedSimilar to Bubble Shooteer , players aim coloured bubbles at a field, clearing bubbles whenever they make three or more interconnecting matches.
2011 Bubble Witch Saga DiscontinuedSimilar to Puzzle Bobble , players aim coloured bubbles at a field, clearing bubbles whenever they make three or more interconnecting matches.
2012 Pyramid Solitaire Saga AvailableBased on the solitaire card game Pyramid, players attempt to clear a board of cards by selecting cards that have are the next highest or lowest value of the card they just selected or dealt themselves.
Candy Crush Saga AvailableA match-3 swapping tile game but includes special candy tiles that can be created from matches, and unique goals.
Pet Rescue Saga AvailableBased on SameGame where the player selects matching adjacent boxes of the same colour to clear the game board, freeing animals atop the boxes once they reach the bottom.
2013 Papa Pear Saga AvailableA variation of Peggle where the player shoots projectiles onto a game board to clear various pegs and land the projectiles into scoring containers at the bottom of the game board.
Farm Heroes Saga AvailableA match-3 swapping tile game to collect various crops to meet each puzzle's quote.
Pepper Panic Saga DiscontinuedA match-3 swapping tile game to collect hot peppers, where matches are based on both colour and size, and a successful match leaves behind a pepper of a larger size.
2014 Bubble Witch 2 Saga AvailableA sequel to Bubble Witch Saga, following primarily the same gameplay mechanics but adding new level types.
Diamond Digger Saga AvailableAnother variation of SameGame, but where matching groups of same-coloured tiles clears out dirt and rock to create a route for water to flow between the level's entrance and exit.
Candy Crush Soda Saga AvailableExpanding on Candy Crush Saga by adding additional candy tile types, soda-filling levels that causes candy tiles to float instead of sink, and other puzzle objectives.
2015 AlphaBetty Saga AvailableA tile-matching game following the concept of Boggle and Bookworm where the player attempts to make words from adjacent letter tiles.
Scrubby Dubby Saga DiscontinuedA tile-matching game similar to Chuzzle where instead of swapping titles, the player slides a row or column to make matches.
Paradise BayDiscontinuedA village simulation game in the nature of Farmville , developed by Z2, a studio acquired by King. This game was permanently discontinued on 17 May 2019. [52]
Blossom Blast Saga AvailableA variant of Talismania , flowers of various colours are placed on a hex grid, and the player traces a line of similar-coloured flowers to match them up and make them bloom. Fully bloomed flowers then expand and "pop", clearing the flowers around them.
2016 Candy Crush Jelly Saga AvailableExpanding on Candy Crush Saga and Candy Crush Soda Saga, with many levels requiring players to spread jelly across the game board, and adding boss battles with a computer opponent. [53]
Farm Heroes Super Saga AvailableExpanding on Farm Heroes Saga, players must help the squirrel to get the nuts by moving the squares on the board however each move you take the wind blows in that direction moving the couloirs on the board.
Shuffle CatsDiscontinuedA game like rummy where the object is to meld a number of cards before the opponent does.
2017Bubble Witch 3 SagaAvailableA sequel in the Bubble Witch Saga series.
Legend of Solgard AvailableDeveloped by Snowprint Studios and published by King (now published by Snowprint Studios), a role-playing game with match-3 gameplay mechanics. [54]
2018Diamond Diaries SagaAvailableA match-3 linking game title, Create precious items of jewelry by linking 3 or more charms of the same color and complete the goal before you run out of moves!
Candy Crush Friends Saga AvailableA sequel in the Candy Crush Saga series. [55]
2019Pet Rescue Puzzle SagaDiscontinuedA sequel in the Pet Rescue Saga series. [56]
KnighthoodAvailableDeveloped by Midoki, A Mobile RPG game Create your own character and customize your Knight as you collect legendary new gear. In this medieval chaos, your battle rage is your strongest weapon! Travel the world of Astellan and challenge enemies in epic turn-based duels to power up your gauntlet and summon mythical heroes.
2021 Crash Bandicoot: On the Run! AvailableAn auto-runner game based on Activision's Crash Bandicoot series. [57]

Trademark and cloning disputes

In January 2014, King attracted controversy after attempting to trademark the words "Candy" and "Saga" in game titles. [58] This directly impacted Stoic's trademark request for The Banner Saga , to which King filed an opposition, calling the name "deceptively similar" to King games. [58] Stoic said that the dispute hindered work on a planned sequel to their game. [59] On 17 April 2014, it was reported that King has settled its disputes with Stoic Studio and Runsome Apps. [60]

Also in January 2014, game developer Matthew Cox accused King of ripping off his game Scamperghost, saying King's Pac-Avoid was a clone of it. According to Cox, he was in talks with King about licensing Scamperghost, but when the deal fell through the company released the game Pac-Avoid. Cox said Epicshadows, the developer of Pac-Avoid, told him that King had approached them to "clone the game very quickly". [61] King removed the game from its website, but denied the cloning allegation, stating that they were removing the game "for the avoidance of doubt". [62]

Related Research Articles

Blizzard Entertainment American video game publisher and developer

Blizzard Entertainment, Inc. is an American video game developer and publisher based in Irvine, California. A subsidiary of Activision Blizzard, the company was founded on February 8, 1991, under the name Silicon & Synapse, Inc. by three graduates of the University of California, Los Angeles: Michael Morhaime, Frank Pearce and Allen Adham. The company originally concentrated on the creation of game ports for other studios' games before beginning development of their own software in 1993 with games like Rock n' Roll Racing and The Lost Vikings. In 1994, the company became Chaos Studios, Inc., and eventually Blizzard Entertainment after being acquired by distributor Davidson & Associates. Shortly thereafter, Blizzard released Warcraft: Orcs & Humans.

Activision American video game publisher

Activision Publishing, Inc. is an American video game publisher based in Santa Monica, California. It currently serves as the publishing business for its parent company, Activision Blizzard, and consists of several subsidiary studios. Activision is one of the largest third-party video game publishers in the world and was the top United States publisher in 2016.

<i>World of Warcraft</i> Massively multiplayer online role-playing video game by Blizzard Entertainment

World of Warcraft (WoW) is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) released in 2004 by Blizzard Entertainment. Set in the Warcraft fantasy universe, World of Warcraft takes place within the world of Azeroth, approximately four years after the events of the previous game in the series, Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne. The game was announced in 2001, and was released for the 10th anniversary of the Warcraft franchise on November 23, 2004. Since launch, World of Warcraft has had eight major expansion packs: The Burning Crusade (2007), Wrath of the Lich King (2008), Cataclysm (2010), Mists of Pandaria (2012), Warlords of Draenor (2014), Legion (2016), Battle for Azeroth (2018), and Shadowlands (2020).

Major League Gaming Professional esports organization

Major League Gaming Corp. (MLG) is a professional esports organization. MLG is headquartered in New York City, New York and was founded in 2002 by Sundance DiGiovanni and Mike Sepso. MLG has held official video game tournaments throughout the United States and Canada. The Boost Mobile MLG Pro Circuit was a television broadcast of Halo 2 MLG tournaments in 2006 and 2007,, and other broadband sites. The company has also been involved in television production, and game development. MLG's aim is to elevate computer and console game tournaments to viable competitive and spectator events.

Call of Duty is a first-person shooter video game franchise published by Activision. Starting out in 2003, it first focused on games set in World War II. Over time, the series has seen games set in the midst of the Cold War, futuristic worlds, and outer space. The games were first developed by Infinity Ward, then also by Treyarch and Sledgehammer Games. Several spin-off and handheld games were made by other developers. The most recent title, Call of Duty: Black Ops Cold War, was released on November 13, 2020.

Activision Blizzard American video game company

Activision Blizzard, Inc. is an American video game holding company based in Santa Monica, California. The company was founded in July 2008 through the merger of Activision, Inc. and Vivendi Games. The company is traded on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbol ATVI, and since 2015 has been one of the stocks that make up the S&P 500. Activision Blizzard currently includes five business units: Activision Publishing, Blizzard Entertainment, King, Major League Gaming, and Activision Blizzard Studios.

Bobby Kotick American businessman and CEO of Activision Blizzard

Robert A. Kotick is an American businessman who currently serves as the chief executive officer (CEO) of Activision Blizzard. He was the head of several technology companies early in his career. He purchased a stake in Activision in 1990 and became CEO the next year. Kotick engineered the Activision Blizzard merger, and he became CEO of the combined company in 2008. He is on several company boards. From 2003 until 2008, he was a director at Yahoo!. In February 2012, he became a non-executive director of The Coca-Cola Company. He has also served on the board of the Call of Duty Endowment (CODE) since he co-founded the organization in 2009.

The 2010s was the fifth decade in the industry's history. The decade was notable for producing the first truly "3D" games and consoles, introducing cloud gaming and virtual reality to consumers, and the rising influence of tablet-based and mobile casual games. The industry remained heavily dominated by the actions of Nintendo, Sony, and Microsoft, but it remains unforeseen how their dominance will be affected by cloud gaming and the growing smartphone and tablet market.


Wooga is a mobile-first game developer in Berlin, Germany. The company develops free-to-play mobile and social games for mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets and social networks like Facebook. It is the world's 5th-biggest game developer on the Facebook platform as of March 2014.

Kabam is an interactive entertainment company founded in 2006 and headquartered in Vancouver, BC. with offices in San Francisco, CA and Austin, Texas. The company creates, develops and publishes massively multiplayer social games (MMSG’s) such as Marvel Contest of Champions and Transformers: Forged to Fight for mobile devices. Before expanding into gaming, Kabam established itself as a social applications developer with entertainment and sports communities totaling more than 60 million users. Kabam markets freemium games for mobile devices, and social networking services,. The company's previous investors included Alibaba, Canaan Partners, Google, MGM, Intel, Pinnacle Ventures, Redpoint Ventures, Warner Bros. and others.

Tile-matching video game Type of puzzle video game

A tile-matching video game is a type of video game where the player manipulates tiles in order to make them disappear according to a matching criterion. In many tile-matching games, that criterion is to place a given number of tiles of the same type so that they adjoin each other. That number is often three, and these games are called match-three games.

The year 2014 saw a number of events in the video game industry. No new major consoles were released, but updates and upgrades were: the New Nintendo 3DS was released in Japan and Oceania, and Sony released new model 2000 PS Vita systems in Europe & North America. In video game-related corporate acquisitions, Amazon purchased the online video game streaming service Twitch, and Facebook acquired the virtual reality company and product Oculus. Nintendo released Amiibo in 2014, companion figurines that could be scanned by the 3DS and WiiU systems. On Twitter and other Internet social media, the Gamergate controversy began.

Z2 was an American video game developer based in Seattle that focused on the creation of mobile games. In 2015, the company was acquired by King, which is a subsidiary of Activision Blizzard. It was shuttered in early 2019 with the closing of King's Seattle mobile game studio.

<i>Candy Crush Saga</i> 2012 free-to-play match-three puzzle video game

Candy Crush Saga is a free-to-play match-three puzzle video game released by King on April 12, 2012, for Facebook; other versions for iOS, Android, Windows Phone, and Windows 10 followed. It is a variation of their browser game Candy Crush.

Riccardo Zacconi, is an Italian businessman, best known as CEO of King, a company he founded in 2003. King is the developer of the popular mobile game app Candy Crush Saga. On May 26, 2019, Zacconi announced he was stepping down as CEO of King.

Melvyn Morris CBE is an English businessman, who currently owns Championship football club, Derby County F.C. He gained a large part of his fortune through his backing of King, the firm behind the mobile game Candy Crush Saga.

History of mobile games

The popularisation of mobile games began as early as 1997 with the introduction of Snake preloaded on Nokia feature phones, demonstrating the practicality of games on these devices. Several mobile device manufacturers included preloaded games in the wake of Snake's success. By the early 2000s, the technical specifications of handsets had matured to the point where downloadable applications could be supported, however mainstream adoption continued to be hampered by market fragmentation between different devices, operating environments, and distributors.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Candy Crush maker King Digital valued at more than $7 bln in IPO". Reuters. 25 March 2014. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  2. 1 2 Takahashi, Dean (17 November 2017). "Candy Crush Saga: 2.73 billion downloads in five years and still counting". Venture Beat . Archived from the original on 18 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Garside, Juliette (25 March 2014). "Who are the Candy Crush millionaires?". The Guardian . Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Ryan Mac (26 March 2014). "Sour Candy: Weak King.Com IPO Robs Chairman And CEO Of Billionaire Status". Forbes. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  5. 1 2 Molina, Brett (3 November 2015). "Activision Blizzard scoops up 'Candy Crush' maker for $5.9B". USA Today . Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ryan Mac (18 March 2014). "Candy Blush: Cofounder And Investor Gave Up Billions With Early Share Sale". Forbes. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  7. 1 2 Dredge, Stuart (25 January 2014). "Candy Crush Saga maker King's parent company reveals 2012 financial results". The Guardian . Archived from the original on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  8. 1 2 "Mobile gaming firm sets sights on U.S. IPO: source". Reuters . 30 September 2013. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  9. 1 2 Pham, Alex (17 April 2012). "Games publisher topples EA, Wooga on Facebook, for now". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  10. 1 2 Garside, Juliette (6 June 2014). "How King Digital Entertainment's CEO conquered the gaming world". The Guardian . Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  11. Takahashi, Dean (10 December 2009). "MangaHigh launches U.S. web site for math-based kids games". Venture Beat . Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  12. O'Brien, Chris (15 November 2012). "If social games on Facebook are dying, why is booming?". San Jose Mercury News . Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  13. Takahashi, Dean (28 April 2011). " launches its first cross-platform mobile game". Venture Beat . Archived from the original on 13 September 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  14. Takhashi, Dean (12 April 2012). "At 2.5B games played a month, reaps benefits from its casual Saga titles on Facebook". Venture Beat . Archived from the original on 29 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  15. Caoili, Eric (10 January 2012). "Fastest-growing Facebook games: From Tetris Battle to Words With Friends". Gamasutra . Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  16. Tam, Donna (20 October 2012). "Facebook 'Likes''s new mobile puzzle game". CNet . Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  17. Takihashi, Dean (18 August 2014). "Lessons from a game guru: Candy Crush Saga creator once survived six months without pay". Venture Beat . Archived from the original on 29 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  18. Caoili, Eric (1 May 2012). "Candy Crush Saga highlighted in this week's fastest-growing Facebook games". Gamasutra . Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  19. 1 2 Valdes, Giancarlo (26 July 2012). "Bubble Witch Saga for iOS is the first mobile game to sync player progress with Facebook". Venture Beat . Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  20. Takahashi, Dean (30 October 2012). " launches mobile game as part of strategy shift". Venture Beat . Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  21. Thompson, Mike (15 November 2012). "Candy Crush Saga goes mobile, Bubble Witch Saga is coming to Android and video ads now make up 15 percent of's revenue". Adweek . Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  22. Yeong, Ken (26 March 2013). "'Candy Crush' maker releases two new Facebook games as it tops 108M monthly players". The Next Web. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  23. Rushton, Katherine (19 June 2013). "Games maker eyes US flotation". The Daily Telegraph . Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  24. 1 2 Dredge, Stuart (13 February 2015). "Candy Crush Saga players spent £865m on the game in 2014 alone". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2016 via
  25. Jordan, Jon; Editor, Contributing. "Expanding into new genres, King buys Z2Live for up to $150 million". Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  26. "Activision Blizzard Becomes "Largest Game Network in the World" With Candy Crush Dev Buyout". GameSpot. 23 February 2016. Archived from the original on 26 February 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  27. 1 2 3 "Activision Blizzard Completes King Acquisition Becomes the Largest Game Network in the World with over 500 Million Users". Activision Blizzard. 23 February 2016. Archived from the original on 27 February 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  28. "Activision Blizzard Announces Agreement to Acquire King Digital Entertainment and Better-Than-Expected Third Quarter 2015 Financial Results". Activision Blizzard. 2 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  29. 1 2 Handrahan, Matthew (29 May 2019). "Riccardo Zacconi to step down as CEO of King". . Archived from the original on 29 August 2020. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  30. Axon, Samuel (12 February 2019). "Activision-Blizzard lays off 775 people after "record results in 2018"". Ars Technica . Archived from the original on 12 February 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  31. Valentine, Rebekah (28 August 2020). "Riccardo Zacconi departs King after 17 years". . Archived from the original on 30 August 2020. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  32. Shaul, Brandy (11 June 2013). " Dumps Advertising on its Games". Adweek . Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  33. 1 2 Peterson, Tim (18 February 2014). "How Advertising Drove's $500 Million IPO". Advertising Age . Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  34. Dredge, Stuart (24 September 2012). " hails mainstream potential of mobile gaming". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  35. " bringing Facebook-synchronised version of Bubble Witch Saga to iOS |Bubble Witch Saga news | iPhone". Pocket Gamer. 4 July 2012. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  36. " is going mobile with Bubble Witch Saga". USA Today. 26 July 2012. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  37. "Bubble Witch Saga is going mobile". Gamezebo. 27 June 2012. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  38. " rebrands as King, launches 2 new Facebook games". Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  39. "Play cards the Egyptian way with Pyramid Solitaire Saga". Archived from the original on 10 July 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  40. "King Soft Launches 'Candy Crush Soda Saga', the Sequel to the Mega-Popular 'Candy Crush Saga'". Touch Arcade. 10 June 2014. Archived from the original on 14 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  41. Dredge, Stuart (4 June 2014). "Will Candy Crush fans find a new fix with Bubble Witch Saga 2?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2016 via
  42. "Candy Crush Maker Launches Sequel to Hit Mobile Game". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 25 November 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2017. Retrieved on 15 November 2014.
  43. Pearson, Dan (10 June 2016). "The King Maker". . Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  44. Kerr, Chris (23 March 2016). "King's Defold game engine is now available for free". Gamasutra . Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  45. Kerr, Chris (19 May 2020). "King has open sourced and relinquished control of the Defold game engine". Gamasutra . Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  46. Webster, Andrew (6 April 2017). "The studio behind Candy Crush is making a Call of Duty mobile game". The Verge . Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  47. " releases new Candy Crush Saga highlights". 29 January 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  48. Yeung, Ken (17 January 2013). "'s Candy Crush Saga Ousts Farmville 2 As Top Facebook Game". Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  49. Noah Long. "King's Candy Crush Saga Is Now The Number One Facebook Game". Archived from the original on 13 June 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  50. "So What is King's Contribution to the Games Industry, Anyway?". Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  51. Kamen, Matt (14 November 2017). "Five years on, how does Candy Crush keep on crushing it?". Wired UK . Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  52. Cook, John (6 August 2015). "Z2 launches first title under King Digital, a new simulation game dubbed Paradise Bay". GeekWire . Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  53. Kamen, Matt (6 January 2016). "Candy Crush Jelly Saga coming to Android, iOS, and Windows Store". Wired UK . Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  54. Carter, Chris (15 August 2018). "The creators of Candy Crush's next project: Legend of Solgard, a Ragnarok themed RPG". Destructoid . Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  55. Crecente, Brian (11 October 2018). "'Candy Crush Friends Saga': Biggest Game From King in Four Years". Forbes . Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  56. Takahashi, Dean (13 March 2019). "King launches Pet Rescue Puzzle Saga for iOS and Android". Venture Beat . Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  57. Cryer, Hirun (9 July 2020). "After Many Leaks, Crash Bandicoot: On the Run is Revealed for Mobile". USGamer . Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  58. 1 2 Geigner, Timothy (24 January 2014). "King Cries Trademark Over The Banner Saga". Archived from the original on 26 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  59. Lien, Tracey (22 January 2014). "Stoic: Candy Crush creator is hindering Banner Saga sequel". Archived from the original on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  60. Lien, Tracey (17 April 2014). "Candy Crush maker King settles trademark disputes with The Banner Saga developer". Polygon . Vox Media. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  61. Lien, Tracey (23 January 2014). "Indie developer accuses King of double standard, alleges game was cloned". Archived from the original on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  62. Geigner, Timothy (24 January 2014). "King denies cloning games, takes down Pac-Avoid". Archived from the original on 27 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.