Feminist aesthetics

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Feminist aesthetics first emerged in the 1970s [1] and refers not to a particular aesthetic or style but to perspectives that question assumptions in art and aesthetics concerning gender-role stereotypes, or gender. [2] Feminist aesthetics has a relationship to philosophy. The historical philosophical views of what beauty, the arts, and sensory experiences are, relate to the idea of aesthetics. Aesthetics looks at styles of production. [3] In particular, feminists argue that despite seeming neutral or inclusive, the way people think about art and aesthetics is influenced by gender roles. [2] Feminist aesthetics is a tool for analyzing how art is understood using gendered issues. [4] A person's gender identity affects the ways in which they perceive art and aesthetics because of their subject position and the fact that perception is influenced by power. [5] The ways in which people see art is also influenced by social values such as class and race. [6] One's subject position in life changes the way art is perceived because of people's different knowledge's about life and experiences. [5] In the way that feminist history unsettles traditional history, feminist aesthetics challenge philosophies of beauty, the arts and sensory experience. [7]

Starting in the 18th century, ideas of aesthetic pleasure have tried to define "taste". Kant and Hume both argued that there was universal good taste, which made aesthetic pleasure. A feminist line of logic about these attempts is that, because fine art was a leisure activity at this time, those who could afford to make art or produce supposed universal truths about how it is enjoyed would do so in a way that creates class and gender division. [2] Even when those universal aesthetes did address gender, they categorized aesthetics into two categories: beauty and sublimity; with beauty being small and delicate (feminine) and sublimity being large and awe-inspiring (masculine). [2] Feminist aesthetics analyzes why "feminine" traits are subservient compared to "masculine" traits in art and aesthetics. [8]

Another explanation for the male-domination of forming aesthetic theory is that feminists express their aesthetic pleasure differently than non-feminist aesthetes for "whom the pleasure of theorizing [...] is a form of jouissance". Instead, a feminist is less likely to view the object as a disinterested interpreter, and intellectualize the sensation (Hilde Hein). [7] Morse [9] discusses how art is a social institution. The influence of institutions comes from those who created the structure, which is mainly by men. From a spectator's point of view, men looking at women, compared to women looking at women, produces different social implications. When understanding a feminist perspective, Morse discusses the ideas of “self-defined” and “self-determined” art by women artists. [9] Critics of feminist art argue that politics have no place in art, however, many art forms contain politics, but because of their subject position, the critics are unable to perceive it. [10]

The language used when talking about aesthetics in art is limited. The lexicon is limited because it doesn't include femme and women identifying language. The language that does exist separates them as “female” artist. The examination of the need for there to be a separate field of feminist aesthetics is discussed. If there is a separate field, women's art gets defined as feminist, then it assumes that the “normal” and all other art is automatically categorized as masculine. [11]

The idea of the creative genius is inspected in feminist aesthetics. In particular, women artists are often excluded from being creative or artistic geniuses. [encycl 1] This exclusion in part stems from the traditional masculine definitions of genius. [encycl 1] Christine Battersby has critiqued the fact that women are excluded from being known as geniuses because female artists will be separated from their art, and instead their art will be called genius, instead of the artist. [12] However, women were also excluded because they lacked the opportunities for artistic education required to be recognized as artists and geniuses. [13] In addition, the idea of the creative genius itself celebrates individualism – which Battersby calls "a kind of masculine heroism" – and overlooks the work of joint collaborations. [12]

Linda Nochlin, an art historian, understands that art history comes from a Western male point of view, which creates a dominant way of viewing art. Nochlin questions why there have been no women artists in art history and understands that this is due to the influence of Western males within the field of art. [14]

Aesthetic theories that make a distinction between "arts" and "crafts" can be viewed as anti-feminist. [15] Here, art usually refers to fine art and crafts refers to everything else which has everyday aesthetics . [5] Art forms traditionally used by women, such as embroidery or sewing, are perceived as crafts and not art, because of their domestic uses. [5] Feminist aesthetics focuses on all objects created by women, whether or not they are seen as "art". [10] Since those craft practices occur in the home where many women continue to work, their creativity is overlooked by the perception of "art", because their domain is marginalized. [16]

The Guerrilla Girls are a contemporary an activist group that focuses on how feminism plays a role in public art. Their relationship to feminist aesthetics is relevant because they expose gender and ethnic bias, as well as corruption in the art, film and pop culture worlds. The group draws attention to the idea that women are not equally valued in these areas and fight to improve gender equality. [17]

Another areas of study that is tied to feminist aesthetics is feminist art criticism. This area of study can focus on female body imagery, goddess imagery, personal narratives, and devaluation of "individual solitary genius." [18]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Écriture féminine translates from the French as "women's writing". The theory, which unpacks the relationship between the cultural and psychological inscription of the female body and female difference in language and text, is a strain of feminist literary theory that originated in France in the early 1970s through the work of theorists including Hélène Cixous, Monique Wittig, Luce Irigaray, Chantal Chawaf, Catherine Clément, and Julia Kristeva and has subsequently been extended by writers such as psychoanalytic theorist Bracha Ettinger, who emerged in this field in the early 1990s.

Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. It examines women's and men's social roles, experiences, interests, chores, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology, communication, media studies, psychoanalysis, home economics, literature, education, and philosophy.

Feminist legal theory, also known as feminist jurisprudence, is based on the belief that the law has been fundamental in women's historical subordination. The project of feminist legal theory is twofold. First, feminist jurisprudence seeks to explain ways in which the law played a role in women's former subordinate status. Second, feminist legal theory is dedicated to changing women's status through a rework of the law and its approach to gender. It is a critique of American law that was created to change the way women were treated and how judges had applied the law in order to keep women in the same position they had been in for years. The women who worked in this area viewed law as holding women in a lower place in society than men based on gender assumptions, and judges have therefore relied on these assumptions to make their decisions. This movement originated in the 1960s and 1970s with the purpose of achieving equality for women by challenging laws that made distinctions on the basis of sex. It was crucial to allowing women to become their own people through becoming financially independent and having the ability to find real jobs that were not available to them before due to discrimination in employment. However, feminist legal theorists today extend their work beyond overt discrimination by employing a variety of approaches to understand and address how the law contributes to gender inequality.

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Linda Nochlin American art historian

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Feminist art art that reflects women’s lives and experiences

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Griselda Pollock British art historian

Griselda Pollock is a visual theorist, cultural analyst and scholar of international, postcolonial feminist studies in the visual arts. Based in England, she is well known for her theoretical and methodological innovation, combined with readings of historical and contemporary art, film and cultural theory. Since 1977, Pollock has been one of the most influential scholars of modern, avant-garde art, postmodern art, and contemporary art. She is also a major influence in feminist theory, feminist art history and gender studies.

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Feminist ethics is an approach to ethics that builds on the belief that traditionally ethical theorizing has undervalued and/or underappreciated women's moral experience, which is largely male-dominated, and it therefore chooses to reimagine ethics through a holistic feminist approach to transform it.

Carolyn Korsmeyer is an author and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Buffalo in New York. She is generally recognized for her study and research on aesthetics, feminism, and emotion theory.

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"Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?" is a 1971 essay by American art historian Linda Nochlin. It is considered a pioneering essay for both feminist art history and feminist art theory.

In feminist theory, the male gaze is the act of depicting women and the world, in the visual arts and in literature, from a masculine, heterosexual perspective that presents and represents women as sexual objects for the pleasure of the male viewer. In the visual and aesthetic presentations of narrative cinema, the male gaze has three perspectives: (i) that of the man behind the camera, (ii) that of the male characters within the film's cinematic representations; and (iii) that of the spectator gazing at the image.

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Carol Duncan is a Marxist-feminist scholar known as a pioneer of ‘new art history’, a social-political approach to art, who is recognized for her work in the field of Museum Studies, particularly her inquiries into the role that museums play in defining cultural identity.

References

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  2. 1 2 3 4 "Feminist Aesthetics". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
  3. Hein, Hilde (23/1990). "The Role of Feminist Aesthetics in Feminist Theory". The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 48 (4): 281–291. doi:10.2307/431566. JSTOR   431566.Check date values in: |date= (help)
  4. Lyudmyla Fedorivna, Bulanova-Duvalko. "Philosophical Aspects of Understanding the Trend of Feminist Aesthetics". Studia Humanitatis. 3.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Korsmeyer, Carolyn (2002). Code, Lorraine (ed.). Feminist Aesthetics. Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories. Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN   9780203195598.
  6. Stubs, Roberta; Teixeira-Filho, Fernando Silva; Lessa, Patricia. "Artivismo, estetica feminista e producao de sobjetividade". Revista Estudos Feministas. 26. doi:10.1590/1806-9584-2018v26n238901.
  7. 1 2 Hein, Hilde (Autumn 1990). "The Role of Feminist Aesthetics in Feminist Theory". The America Society for Aesthetics. 48 (4): 281–291. JSTOR   431566.
  8. Korsmeyer, Carolyn (2004). Gender and Aesthetics: An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN   9780415266581.
  9. 1 2 Morse, Marcia (April 1992). "Feminist Aesthetics and the Spectrum of Gender". Philosophy East and West. 42 (2): 287–295. doi:10.2307/1399292. JSTOR   1399292.
  10. 1 2 Hein, Hilde; Korsmeyer, Carolyn (1993). Aesthetics in Feminist Perspective. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  11. Waugh, Joanne B. (23/1990). "Analytic Aesthetics and Feminist Aesthetics: Neither/Nor?". The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 48 (4): 317–326. doi:10.2307/431569. JSTOR   431569.Check date values in: |date= (help)
  12. 1 2 Battersby, Christine (1989). Gender and Genius: Towards a Feminist Aesthetics. The Women's Press Ltd. ISBN   978-0704343009.
  13. Korsmeyer, Carolyn (2004). "Amateurs and Professionals". Gender and Aesthetics: An Introduction. Understanding Feminist Philosophy. London: Taylor and Francis. p. 59. ISBN   9780203646632.
  14. Nochlin, Linda (2018-02-12), "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?", Women, Art, and Power and Other Essays, Routledge, pp. 145–178, doi:10.4324/9780429502996-7, ISBN   9780429502996
  15. Pollock, Griselda (1999). "Differencing: Feminism's encounter with the canon". Differencing the Canon: Feminism and the Writing of Art's Histories. New York: Routledge. p. 25. ISBN   9780415066990.
  16. Leddy, Thomas (2012). The Extraordinary in the Ordinary: The aesthetics of everyday life. Broadview Press.
  17. "OUR STORY". Guerrilla Girls. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
  18. "The Crime of Candor: Feminist Art Criticism | Studio Potter". studiopotter.org. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
  1. 1 2 Battersby, Christine (1998). "Genius and Feminism". In Kelly, Michael (ed.). Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. Oxford University Press. ISBN   9780195113075.