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Maternal feminism is the belief of many early feminists that women as mothers and caregivers had an important but distinctive role to play in society and in politics. It incorporates reform ideas from social feminism, and combines the concepts of maternalism and feminism. It was a widespread philosophy among well-to-do women in the British Empire, particularly Canada, from the late 19th century until after World War I (1914–18). The concept was attacked by later feminists as accepting the paternalist view of society and providing an excuse for inequality.
Social feminism is a feminist movement that advocates for social rights and special accommodations for women. It was first used to describe members of the women's suffrage movement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries who were concerned with social problems that affected women and children. They saw obtaining the vote mainly as a means to achieve their reform goals rather than a primary goal in itself. After women gained the right to vote, social feminism continued in the form of labor feminists who advocated for protectionist legislation and special benefits for women. The term is widely used, although some historians have questioned its validity.
Maternalism is the viewpoint that incorporates a common idea of femininity and applies it as a support for women’s involvement in society.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the genders. This includes fighting gender stereotypes and seeking to establish educational and professional opportunities for women that are equal to those for men.
Christina Hoff Sommers, a critic of late 20th century feminism, has defined maternal feminism as a "recognition that the sexes are equal but different."Sommers contrasts the "egalitarian feminism" of Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) to the maternal feminism of Hannah More (1745–1833). Wollstonecraft thought, "men and women were essentially the same in their spirits and souls, deserving of the same rights." According to Sommers, "Hannah [More] met women where they were. She believed there was a feminine nature and that women were caring and nurturing, different from men but deserving of equality." More was very popular in her day, but if she is remembered now it is for accepting and rationalizing the patriarchal system of her day.
Christina Marie Hoff Sommers is an American author and philosopher. Specializing in ethics, she is currently a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. Sommers is known for her critique of contemporary feminism. Her work includes the books Who Stole Feminism? (1994) and The War Against Boys (2000). She also hosts a video blog called The Factual Feminist.
Mary Wollstonecraft was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. Until the late 20th century, Wollstonecraft's life, which encompassed several unconventional personal relationships, received more attention than her writing. Today Wollstonecraft is regarded as one of the founding feminist philosophers, and feminists often cite both her life and work as important influences.
Hannah More was an English religious writer and philanthropist, remembered as a poet and playwright in the circle of Johnson, Reynolds and Garrick, as a writer on moral and religious subjects, and as a practical philanthropist. Born in Bristol, she taught at a school established there by her father and began writing plays. She became involved with the London literary elite as a leading Bluestocking member. Her plays and poetry became more evangelical and she joined a group campaigning against the slave trade. In the 1790s she wrote several Cheap Repository Tracts on moral, religious and political topics, for distribution to the literate poor. Meanwhile, she did increasing philanthropic work in the Mendip area, encouraged by William Wilberforce.
The conservative English authors Frances Trollope (1779–1863) and Elizabeth Gaskell (1810–65) both thought that women should be better educated so they would be less dependent on men. Trollope thought that financially secure women should go beyond providing moral education to their children, and should express in public their maternal values, social concerns and caring outlook. Her novels repeatedly show how a young heroine can improve a corrupt society through her moral influence.To some early feminists, such as the novelist Fanny Fern (1811–72) and the temperance leader Letitia Youmans (1827–96), maternal feminism was simply a strategy through which women could achieve their goal of equal rights.
Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, often referred to as Mrs Gaskell, was an English novelist, biographer, and short story writer. Her novels offer a detailed portrait of the lives of many strata of Victorian society, including the very poor, and are of interest to social historians as well as lovers of literature. Her first novel, Mary Barton, was published in 1848. Gaskell's The Life of Charlotte Brontë, published in 1857, was the first biography of Brontë. In this biography, she only wrote of the moral, sophisticated things in Brontë’s life, the rest she left out, deciding that certain, more salacious aspects were better kept hidden. Among Gaskell's best known novels are Cranford (1851–53), North and South (1854–55), and Wives and Daughters (1865), each having been adapted for television by the BBC.
Fanny Fern, born Sara Willis, was an American novelist, children's writer, humorist, and newspaper columnist in the 1850s to 1870s. Fern's popularity has been attributed to her conversational style and sense of what mattered to her mostly middle-class female readers. By 1855, Fern was the highest-paid columnist in the United States, commanding $100 per week for her New York Ledger column. A collection of her columns published in 1853 sold 70,000 copies in its first year. Her best-known work, the fictional autobiography Ruth Hall (1854), has become a popular subject among feminist literary scholars.
Letitia Youmans was a Canadian school teacher who became an activist for the temperance movement. Youmans founded and served as the first president of the Ontario chapter of the Women's Christian Temperance Union. She also served as editorial writer for the IOGT's Temperance Union.
In the United States, women became active in social reform in the early 1830s, but were constrained by traditional concepts of maternal feminism. When the Female Moral Reform Society (FMRS) was founded in 1834 there was considerable criticism of the fact that respectable women were discussing prostitution. The protofeminism of this society was lost as it evolved into a charity running homes for reformed prostitutes.The Woman's Christian Temperance Union, the largest women's organization in the US by the 1880s, provided an opportunity for women to participate in causes such as prison reform, labor conditions, education, purity and suffrage. However, the WCTU saw women purely as wives and mothers, accepting the constraints of maternal feminism.
Protofeminism is a philosophical tradition that anticipates modern feminism in an era when the concept of feminism was still unknown, i. e. before the 20th century. Precise usage is disputed, as 18th-century feminism and 19th-century feminism are subsumed under "feminism". The usefulness of the term protofeminist has been questioned by some modern scholars, as has the term postfeminist.
The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is an active international temperance organization that was among the first organizations of women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity." It was influential in the temperance movement, and supported the 18th Amendment. It was also influential in social reform issues that came to prominence in the progressive era.
Maternal feminism reached its peak at a time when the British Empire was still expanding fast, but new ideas about women's suffrage, temperance, pacifism and socialism were in the air. Talking of this period Veronica Strong-Boag (b. 1947) said, "Women themselves, like virtually everyone else in Canadian society, identified their sex with a maternal role. A re-invigorated motherhood, the natural occupation for virtually all women, could serve as a buttress against all the destabilizing elements in Canada."
Veronica Strong-Boag, Ph.D, FRSC is a Canadian historian specializing in the modern history of women and children in Canada. She is formerly Professor of Women's History at the University of British Columbia and now, following her retirement, a Professor Emerita. Having obtained her BA in history from the University of Toronto in 1970, she went on to receive an MA from Carleton University in 1971, and a PhD from the University of Toronto in 1975. Her PhD thesis, completed under the supervision of Michael Bliss, was subsequently published as The Parliament of Women. In 1988 she won the John A. Macdonald Prize for her study of the lives of women in Canada between the wars, entitled The New Day Recalled. In 1993–94 she served as president of the Canadian Historical Association. She was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 2001 and in July 2012 the RSC awarded her the J.B. Tyrrell Historical Medal "for outstanding work in the history of Canada". In June 2018, Rideau Hall announced Strong-Boag's upcoming appointment as a member of the Order of Canada. She received an honorary doctorate from the University of Guelph on October 15th 2018.
The growth of maternal feminism at the expense of the new woman in Britain and her colonies may have been due in part to the rapid expansion of the British empire after 1870. The Anglo-Saxon birth rate seemed to be falling while the infant mortality rate was rising. There was concern about a shortage of Britons "to fill the empty spaces of the empire."To ensure an adequate supply of Anglo-Saxons, women were flooded with propaganda that urged them to become "mothers of the race" by having more children, a superior purpose that was embraced by many feminists. Racism and imperialism thus contributed to support for maternal feminism.
Edith Wrigley (1879–1964), wife of George Weston Wrigley (1847–1907), edited the women's column in Citizen and Country, a newspaper that supported the Canadian Socialist League (CSL).She was also active in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. In her column "The Kingdom of the Home" Wrigley expressed the maternal feminist position that love and purity, the values of the home, should also become the guiding principles of politics. Margaret Haile ran in the 1902 provincial election for the CSL in North Toronto. She was said to be the first woman in the British Empire to compete in a political election. She also "still clung to the notion of the home as a traditional source of woman's power". Ruth Lestor became known as the first lady socialist lecturer in Canada during a speaking tour for the SPC in 1909–11. She sometimes used maternal feminist rhetoric when calling women to become socialist. This did not reflect her underlying belief in complete sexual equality.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries there were strong ties between maternal feminism and the suffrage and temperance movements, both of which aimed to improve the conditions of women and children at home and at work.There was also a natural link between pacifism and maternal feminism. Augusta Stowe-Gullen (1857–1943) said in 1915 that "when women have a voice in national and international affairs, war will cease forever." This became an increasingly hard position to support as World War I dragged on. Some who stayed true to maternal feminism and pacifism during the war were also socialist or communist, such as the Canadian Gertrude Richardson. Rose Henderson (1871–1937) was another Canadian socialist and peace activist who embraced maternal feminism. Their radicalism gave ammunition to opponents of feminism.
Maternal feminism combines the concepts of maternalism and feminism. Many of the maternalist reformers and organizations like the Elizabeth Fry Society and the Salvation Army did not identify themselves as feminist, and pursued strategies and objectives that were different from those of feminists.Maternalism appealed to bourgeois women interested in reforming the lower orders, and provided the excuse for intrusive surveillance of working class women and girls. It was not in itself feminist in any way. There also were different types of feminist. The "new women" or "equal rights" feminists did not accept maternalism. But the acceptable language of maternalism was tactically convenient to feminists who were willing to accept being locked into activities surrounding the home and family in return for other freedoms.
The ideology of Maternal feminism incorporates ideas from social feminism and domestic feminism. Social feminists were more concerned with social reform than with women's rights, but felt that women should be able to play a public role in social reform due to their nature as women.Domestic feminism claimed that women should have more autonomy within the family. It did not go further since women were prohibited any form of participation in public life. Combining the two gives the concept that "women's special role as mother gives her the duty and the right to participate in the public sphere." Maternal feminists did not see maternalism as being limited to biological maternity. They extended it to social or spiritual motherhood, and saw no reason why a woman should not remain single and devote herself to a professional career or to social causes.
Ellen Key (1849–1926) of Sweden thought motherhood was women's "highest cultural task", and considered that mothers should not work away from home. On the other hand, she was an early advocate of female suffrage, and thought every woman should have complete freedom to follow her individuality. She viewed motherhood as more important than marriage, and so was seen by American feminists of the 1910s as a radical and supporter of sexual liberation.
In Germany there was fierce debate among feminists about how to handle prostitution, seen as the source of venereal diseases and thus a major health problem. Hanna Bieber-Böhm (1851–1910), Anna Pappritz (1861–1939) and Helene Stöcker (1869–1943) advocated different solutions.Bieber-Böhm favoured stronger legal action by the state against the clients of prostitutes. Pappritz and Stöcker were both opposed to state surveillance and control of prostitutes. Pappritz proposed moral education of young people and encouragement of abstinence outside marriage, while Stocker thought that giving women more sexual freedom would eliminate the demand for prostitution. The more nurturing approach of Pappritz may be seen as closest to maternal feminism.
In 1893 Lady Aberdeen (1857–1939), head of the National Council of Women of Canada (NCWC), said mothering was the "grand woman's mission". NCWC delegates pledged to "conserve the highest good of the family and state" but to remain "aloof from issues pertaining to women's rights."The maternal feminism ideology, with its assumption that all women had common interests, prompted many women of the upper and middle classes to look for ways to help poorer women through clubs, unions, settlement houses and so on. Women of the elite such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815–1902) of America and Marguerite Durand (1864–1936) of France felt that with their better education and broader experience they had a natural duty to lead. Often they lacked empathy with the women they were trying to help, refused to cede control to these women and wanted to reform them as well as assist. Ellice Hopkins (1836–1904) exemplifies this attitude when calling in England in 1882 for "the greater utilization of the increasing culture of upper-class women to bring light and higher influence as well as brightness and beauty, to the 'dim populations' of our great factory towns, especially the toiling working women and mother.
Lucy Maud Montgomery (1874–1942), best known as author of Anne of Green Gables (1908), presented maternal feminist views in her books published in the period around World War I (1914-18).In Anne's secure world of Avonlea women make most of the decisions. Nellie McClung (1873–1951) of Manitoba, Canada said "A woman's place is in the home; and out of it whenever she is called to guard those she loves and to improve conditions for them." In her 1915 book In Times Like These McClung wrote,
Too long have the gentle ladies sat in their boudoirs looking at life in a mirror like the Lady of Shallot, while down below, in the street, the fight rages, and other women, and defenceless children, are getting the worst of it. But the cry is going up to the boudoir ladies to come down to help us, for the battle goes sorely; and many there are who are throwing aside the mirror and coming out to where the real things are. The world needs the work and help of the women, and the women must work, if the race will survive.
McClung wrote that "The woman's outlook on life is to save, to care for, to help. Men make wounds, and women bind them up." It was due to biological differences that women were morally superior to men and should have the vote. A modern feminist would see this as a reductive and biologically determinist view of gender, but at the time the concept did represent an advance towards giving women a greater and more meaningful role.In 1918 Canada gave women the right to vote, other than Inuit and Indians. Two years later Canadian women were given the right to run for election. However, the modern, urbanized "flappers" had little interest in the old-fashioned, moralistic causes of suffrage and temperance. The leaders of the maternal feminist movement were middle-aged and the maternal feminist movement was in decline.
There was still some progress. On 18 October 1929 Lord Sankey of the Privy Council overruled the Supreme Court of Canada and ruled that women were legally eligible to be appointed to the Senate of Canada. He said, "The exclusion of women from all public offices is a relic of days more barbarous than our". This was the culmination of a struggle led by judge Emily Murphy of Edmonton and four other prominent western women: Henrietta Edwards, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney and Irene Parlby.The "Famous Five" were all advocates of maternal feminism, believing that women's distinctive biology suited them for a role in public life. With this ruling Canadian women were finally established as legal persons. A few days later the stock market crash led to the start of the Great Depression.
Wayne Roberts noted in 1979 that the concept of "mother of the race" had replaced the more radical earlier feminist concept of "the new woman". The attempt to reconcile the domestic and maternal ideal with the push for equality handicapped the early feminist movement and limited the gains it made.The radical potential of the suffrage movement was crushed by "stultifying definitions of motherhood". Another criticism is that the exhortion to women to "mother the race" had racial undertones directed at new immigrants at the lowest level of the social hierarchy. There has been violent argument over whether maternal feminism in Germany led to Nazi-era coercive policies related to the family and reproduction. The historian Nancy F. Cott has proposed that maternal feminism would be better called "municipal housekeeping" or "civic maternalism", since by accepting existing sex roles it was not truly feminism.
Other historians defend the movement as letting women maintain their female identity rather than become like men to bargain for their rights. As Helene Stöcker said "No, no, not to be a man or to want to be a man or to be mistaken for a man: how should that help us!". Naomi Black sees maternal feminism as inherently radical. Its proponents were "committed, whether they [knew] it or not, to a basic transformation of patriarchal structures and values."
The dismissive attitude typical of the 1970s has given way to a more understanding view of maternal feminism as a strategic adaptation to social attitudes of the time.Women's demands for reform were less threatening when expressed in maternal terms. The central role of evangelical Protestantism in the early feminist movement is better understood, and the view that early feminists were focused on suffrage has given way to an understanding of their interest in prohibition, eugenics, morality laws, financial security and protection of women and children.
The concept of maternal feminism is resilient. In January 1993 CBS debuted a "soft" drama for family viewing called Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman about a woman doctor in Colorado Springs, Colorado in the late 1860s. Despite poor reviews and an unpromising time slot, the show proved very successful.According to Bonnie J. Dow, the reason is Dr. Quinn's "integration of liberal feminist assumptions with a sentimentalized affirmation of motherhood." In the United States Sarah Ruddick argued in the 1980s for the existence of "maternal thinking" and Carol Gilligan wrote of women's "standard of relationship, an ethic of nurturance, responsibility, and care". They may represent a revival of maternal feminist concepts, which Hillary Clinton has perhaps sought to exploit in the political arena. Critics of Gilligan's revived version of maternal feminism say that to assume women are all essentially mothers, and that a male culture should be replaced in schools by a female culture, are both debatable in a democracy with diverse views about gender, sexuality and maternal roles.
The term has also been used in the different sense of feminism as it applies to mothers. Dr. Andrea O’Reilly of York University in Toronto said at a 2011 Women’s Worlds conference in Ottawa, Canada that feminist mothering must focus on things that are denied to women by patriarchal motherhood. Feminist mothers must take control of their lives and act according to their own beliefs rather than society's expectations.
Nellie Letitia McClung, was a Canadian author, social activist, suffragette, and politician. She was a part of the social and moral reform movements prevalent in Western Canada in the early 1900s. Her great causes were women's suffrage and the temperance. It was largely through her efforts that in 1916 Manitoba became the first province to give women the right to vote and to run for public office.
The history of feminism comprises the narratives of the movements and ideologies which have aimed at equal rights for women. While feminists around the world have differed in causes, goals, and intentions depending on time, culture, and country, most Western feminist historians assert that all movements that work to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements, even when they did not apply the term to themselves. Some other historians limit the term "feminist" to the modern feminist movement and its progeny, and use the label "protofeminist" to describe earlier movements.
First-wave feminism was a period of feminist activity and thought that occurred during the 19th and early 20th century throughout the Western world. It focused on legal issues, primarily on gaining the right to vote.
It has been said that Phyllis Schlafly's social policies are a response to feminism.
The history of feminism in Canada has been a gradual struggle aimed at establishing equal rights. The history of Canadian feminism, like modern Western feminism in other countries, has been divided by scholars into four "waves", each describing a period of intense activism and social change. The use of "waves" has been critiqued for its failure to include feminist activism of, for example, Aboriginal and Québécois women who organized for changes in their own communities as well as for larger social change.
The National Council of Women of Canada is a Canadian advocacy organization based in Ottawa, Ontario aimed at improving conditions for women, families, and communities. A federation of nationally-organized societies of men and women and local and provincial councils of women, it is the Canadian member of the International Council of Women (ICW). The Council has concerned itself in areas including women's suffrage, immigration, health care, education, mass media, the environment, and many others. Formed on October 27, 1893 in Toronto, Ontario, it is one of the oldest advocacy organizations in the country. Lady Aberdeen was elected the first president of the National Council of Women of Canada in 1893. Prominent Council leaders included Lady Gzowski, Dr. Augusta Stowe-Gullen, and Adelaide Hoodless.
Feminism in the United States refers to the collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending a state of equal political, economic, cultural, and social rights for women in the United States. Feminism has had a massive influence on American politics. Feminism in the United States is often divided chronologically into first-wave, second-wave, third-wave, and fourth-wave feminism.
Feminism is the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes, even though many feminist movements and ideologies differ on exactly which claims and strategies are vital and justifiable to achieve equality.
The feminist movement refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement. The movement's priorities vary among nations and communities, and range from opposition to female genital mutilation in one country, to opposition to the glass ceiling in another.
Woman's Century was the official organ of the National Council of Women of Canada (NCWC), published in Toronto between 1913 and 1921. The magazine was relatively conservative, and supported World War I, but stood up for women's rights and universal suffrage.
Laura Hughes Lunde (1886–1966) was a Canadian feminist, socialist and pacifist. She was an outspoken pacifist in Toronto during World War I (1914–18). Towards the end of the war she married and moved to Chicago, where she was active in numerous civic causes for the rest of her life, notably fighting for women's rights and for improvements to education.
Gertrude Richardson was an English-born pacifist, feminist and socialist who was prominent in the fight for women's rights in Manitoba, Canada before World War I (1914–18). During the war she became disillusioned with the women's movement, since many of its members supported the fighting. She suffered from recurrent physical and mental illness after the war, and ended her life in a mental hospital.
The Grain Growers' Guide was a newspaper published by the Grain Growers' Grain Company (GGGC) in Western Canada for grain farmers between 1908 and 1936. It reflected the views of the grain growers' associations. In its day it had the highest circulation of any farm paper in the region.
The Political Equality League was a group active in Manitoba, Canada between 1912 and 1916 that successfully lobbied for women's suffrage at the provincial level. One of the highlights of the campaign was a mock parliament in which Nellie McClung parodied the Conservative premier Rodmond Roblin, with a parliament of women dismissing men's claims for rights using the same arguments used by men to dismiss women's claims.
Jane Misme (1865–1935) was a French journalist and feminist. She founded the feminist journal La Française, published from 1906 to 1934, and was a member of the executive of the French Union for Women's Suffrage and the National Council of French Women.
Motherhood Studies is a recognized field of study coined by Dr. Andrea O'Reilly. It is related to maternal feminism.
Eugenic feminism is a term that describes areas of the women's suffrage movement which overlapped with eugenics. Originally coined by the eugenicist Caleb Saleeby, the term has since been applied to summarize views held by some prominent feminists of the United States. Some early suffragettes in Canada, particularly a group known as The Famous Five, also pushed for eugenic policies, chiefly in Alberta and British Columbia.