Equity feminism

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Equity feminism is a form of liberal feminism that advocates the state's equal treatment of women and men, without challenging inequalities perpetuated by employers, educational and religious institutions, and other elements of society. [1] [2] The concept has been discussed since the 1980s. [2] [3] Equity feminism has been defined and classified as a kind of classically liberal or libertarian feminism, [1] in contrast with social feminism, [4] [5] difference feminism [6] gender feminism [ disambiguation needed ], [7] and equality feminism. [3]

Liberal feminism is an individualistic form of feminist theory, which focuses on women's ability to maintain their equality through their own actions and choices. Madiha Mazhar said its emphasis is on making the legal and political rights of women equal to men. Liberal feminists argue that society holds the false belief that women are, by nature, less intellectually and physically capable than men; thus it tends to discriminate against women in the academy, the forum, and the marketplace. Liberal feminists believe that "female subordination is rooted in a set of customary and legal constraints that blocks women's entrance to and success in the so-called public world". They strive for sexual equality via political and legal reform.

State (polity) Organised community living under a system of government; either a sovereign state, constituent state, or federated state

A state is a polity that is typically established as a centralized organisation. There is no undisputed definition of a state. Max Weber's definition of a state as a polity that maintains a monopoly on the use of force in a territory is widely used, as are many others.

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom. Closely related to economic liberalism, it developed in the early 19th century, building on ideas from the previous century as a response to urbanisation and to the Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States. Notable individuals whose ideas contributed to classical liberalism include John Locke, Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Robert Malthus and David Ricardo. It drew on the classical economic ideas espoused by Adam Smith in Book One of The Wealth of Nations and on a belief in natural law, utilitarianism and progress. The term classical liberalism has often been applied in retrospect to distinguish earlier 19th-century liberalism from social liberalism.

Contents

Overview

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy refers to Wendy McElroy, Joan Kennedy Taylor, Cathy Young, Rita Simon, Katie Roiphe, Diana Furchtgott-Roth, Christine Stolba, and Christina Hoff Sommers as equity feminists. [1] Camille Paglia also describes herself as an equity feminist. [8] [9] Christina Sommers, in particular, explored the topic of equity feminism in her book Who Stole Feminism? In this text, Sommers summarizes how the aim of equity feminism is to attain economic, educational, and political equality. [10]

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users. It is maintained by Stanford University. Each entry is written and maintained by an expert in the field, including professors from many academic institutions worldwide. Authors contributing to the encyclopedia give Stanford University the permission to publish the articles, but retain the copyright to those articles.

Wendy McElroy Canadian individualist anarchist and individualist feminist

Wendy McElroy is a Canadian individualist feminist and anarcho-capitalist writer. She was a co-founder along with Carl Watner and George H. Smith of The Voluntaryist magazine in 1982 and is the author of a number of books. McElroy is the editor of the website ifeminists.net.

Joan Kennedy Taylor American journalist

Joan Kennedy Taylor was an American journalist, author, editor, public intellectual, and political activist. She is best known for her advocacy of individualist feminism and for her role in the development of the modern American libertarian movement.

Steven Pinker, a evolutionary and cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author, identifies himself as an equity feminist, which he defines as "a moral doctrine about equal treatment that makes no commitments regarding open empirical issues in psychology or biology". [11]

Steven Pinker Psychologist, linguist, author

Steven Arthur Pinker is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author. He is Johnstone Family Professor in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University, and is known for his advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind.

Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.

Popular science is an interpretation of science intended for a general audience. While science journalism focuses on recent scientific developments, popular science is more broad-ranging. It may be written by professional science journalists or by scientists themselves. It is presented in many forms, including books, film and television documentaries, magazine articles, and web pages.

Distinctions have been made between conservative and radical forms of equity feminism. [12] Many young conservative women have accepted equity feminism. [13]

Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that calls for a radical reordering of society in which male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts.

Women in conservatism in the United States organization

Women in conservatism in the United States have advocated for social, political, economic, and cultural conservative policies since anti-suffragism. Leading conservative women such as Phyllis Schlafly have expressed that women should embrace their privileged essential nature. This thread of belief can be traced through the anti-suffrage movement, the Red Scare, and the Reagan Era, and is still present in the 21st century, especially in several conservative women's organizations such as Concerned Women for America and the Independent Women's Forum.

Theorists

Anne-Marie Kinahan claims that most American women look to a kind of feminism whose main goal is equity; [14]

Louis Schubert et al claim "principles of equity feminism remain in the vision of the vast majority of women in the United States". [15]

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. 1 2 3 "Liberal Feminism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 18 October 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2016. (revised 30 September 2013)
  2. 1 2 Black, Naomi (1989). Social feminism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN   9780801422614.
  3. 1 2 Halfmann, Jost (1989). "Social change and political mobilization in West Germany". In Katzenstein, Peter (ed.). Industry and politics in West Germany: toward the Third Republic. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press. p. 79. ISBN   9780801495953. Quote: Equity-feminism differs from equality-feminism in the depth and scope of its strategic goals. A feminist revolution would pursue three goals, according to Herrad Schenk:
  4. Buechler, Steven M. (1 September 1990). "3: Ideologies and Visions". Women's Movements in the United States: Woman Suffrage, Equal Rights, and Beyond. Rutgers University Press. p. 118. ISBN   9780813515595. Equity feminism, whether liberal, Marxist or socialist, relies on male classifications…Social feminism, whether maternal, cultural or radical, appeals to female values
  5. Black, Naomi; Brandt, Gail Cuthbert (16 April 1999). "7: Towards a New Analysis". Feminist Politics on the Farm: Rural Catholic Women in Southern Quebec and Southwestern France. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 200. ISBN   9780773518285. we found two strands, both of which we wanted to include as political: an equity feminism seeking equal rights…and women's collective action that looked more like a social feminism
  6. Kramarae, Cheris; Spender, Dale, eds. (16 April 2004). "Equality". Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge. Routledge. p. 672. ISBN   9781135963156. There are two dominant strains within the equality debate: "equity feminism" and "difference feminism".
  7. Kuhle, Barry X. (January 2012). "Evolutionary psychology is compatible with equity feminism, but not with gender feminism: A reply to Eagly and Wood". Evolutionary Psychology . Sage. 10 (1): 39–43. doi:10.1177/147470491201000104. PMID   22833845.
    See also Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy (May 2011). "Feminism and the evolution of sex differences and similarities". Sex Roles . Springer. 64 (9–10): 758–767. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9949-9.
  8. Paglia, Camille (2018). "The modern battle of the sexes". Free women, free men: sex, gender, feminism. Edinburgh: Canongate Books Ltd. ISBN   9781786892171. Quote: I am an equity feminist - that is, I believe in equality of the sexes before the law and the removal of all obstacles to women's advance in society. However, I oppose special protections for women, which had been sought from the start by some leading feminists... I represent the pro-sex wing of feminism that has turned the tide and that is close to winning the culture wars of the past fifteen years.... And I think that a younger generation of women are no longer in sympathy with the censorious, anti-pleasure wing of feminism.
  9. Smith, Rich (22 March 2017). "Who's worse: Camille Paglia, sanctimonious liberals, or my sniveling self? (blog)". thestranger.com/slog. SLOG . Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  10. "Who Stole Feminism?". 18 October 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  11. Pinker, Steven (2002). "Gender". The blank slate: the modern denial of human nature. New York: Viking. p. 341. ISBN   9780142003343.
  12. Almeder, Robert F. (13 August 2003). "Equity Feminism and Academic Feminism". In Pinnick, Cassandra L.; Koertge, Noretta (eds.). Scrutinizing Feminist Epistemology: An Examination of Gender in Science. p. 183. ISBN   9780813532271. I defend the stronger or more conservative form of equity feminism…I identify these latter more radical forms of equity feminism with academic feminism
  13. Iannello, Kathleen (18 August 2010). "8: Women's Leadership and Third-Wave Feminism (in Part II: History of Women's Public Leadership, in Volume One)". In O'Connor, Karen (ed.). Gender and Women's Leadership: A Reference Handbook. SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 76. ISBN   9781412960830. The concept of equity feminism has taken hold among many younger conservative women
  14. Kinahan, Anne-Marie (3 August 2004). "One: Foundations: Women Who Run from the Wolves: Feminist Critique As Post-Feminism". In Prince, Althea; Silva-Wayne, Susan (eds.). Feminisms and Womanisms: A Women's Studies Reader. p. 120. ISBN   9780889614116. Most American women subscribe philosophically to that older "First Wave" kind of feminism whose main goal is equity… A First Wave, "mainstream," or "equity" feminist wants for women what she wants for everyone…equity feminism has turned out to be a great American success story.
  15. Schubert, Louis; Dye, Thomas R.; Zeigler, Harmon (2014). "13: Civil Rights: Diversifying the Elite: Women's Rights in the United States". The Irony of Democracy: An Uncommon Introduction to American Politics (17th ed.). p. 331. ISBN   9781305537491. The principles of equity feminism remain in the vision of the vast majority of women in the United States.