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This article gives an overview of liberalism in Montenegro . It is limited to liberal parties with substantial support, mostly limited to parties with parliamentary status
Montenegro is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest; Serbia and Kosovo to the east, Albania to the south and Croatia to the southwest. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 620,079. Its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support limited government, individual rights, capitalism, democracy, secularism, gender equality, racial equality, internationalism, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion.
A political party is an organized group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests.
Following the fall of communism in Montenegro, one of the first political parties to emerge was Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG), a party which advocated liberalism, pacifism, civic concept of the state and supported restoration of Montenegrin independence. LSCG was an active opponent of the ruling DPS-led regime from 1990 to 2004, when it froze its political activity. Slavko Perović and Miro Vicković were the most prominent party officials and held the leading positions in the party throughout its existence.
Liberal Alliance of Montenegro was a liberal separatist anti-war political party active in Montenegro between 1990 and 2005. Liberal Alliance was a full member of Liberal International from 1994 until its dissolution in 2005.
Montenegrin nationalism refers to the nationalism of Montenegrins and/or the culture of Montenegro. Contemporary Montenegrin nationalism cites that an independent Montenegrin culture separate from Serbian culture arose after Serbia was taken over by the Ottoman Empire in the 14th century while Montenegro remained independent for many years, resulting in a different culture developing in Montenegro.
The Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro is the ruling political party in Montenegro. It has been so since the introduction of a multi-party system in 1990.
In 2004, Liberal Party of Montenegro (LP) was founded, its membership including a number of former LSCG officials who were previously ousted from the party due to corruption charges. Despite attempting to adopt the legacy of LSCG, LP pursued an entirely different political strategy, and has closely cooperated with the ruling DPS since its foundation. At the latest parliamentary election, LP was integrated into the electoral list of DPS, which ran independently.
Liberal Party of Montenegro is a liberal political party in Montenegro, an associate member of ALDE and a full member of the Liberal International. The party advocates liberalism and the bringing down of Milo Đukanović's rule, seeing it as authoritarian and undemocratic. It had continued the fight against what it saw as the DPS' authoritarianism that the Liberal Alliance of Montenegro pursued since its foundation in 1990. However, the party changed its discourse and became a junior coalition partner of DPS both on local and national level.
The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. In the 9th century, there were three principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora. Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by Venice. From 1515 until 1851 the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.
Politics of Montenegro takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Montenegro is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Montenegro. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Montenegro as "hybrid regime" in 2016.
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The Socialist People's Party of Montenegro is a socially conservative social-democratic opposition political party in Montenegro. It is part of the Key Coalition, an opposition political alliance in Montenegro. It has 2 of 3 MPs which it won in the 2016 parliamentary election. The party is pro-European Union and anti-NATO.
Movement for Changes is a liberal-conservative, populist political party in Montenegro that has as a proclaimed goal the integration of their country into the European Union and political and economic reforms to bring it into line with European norms. It was founded by a group of economists and academics in September 2002 and was modeled after the Group 17 Plus in Serbia. It is led by Nebojša Medojević It operated as a non-governmental organization under the name Group for Changes until July 17, 2006, when it reconstituted itself as a political party.
Coalition for a European Montenegro was the ruling political alliance in Montenegro headed by Milo Đukanović's Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS).
Social Democratic Party of Montenegro, or just the Social Democratic Party is a centre-left political party in Montenegro. It is the only party in Montenegro to have full membership in the Socialist International.
The Civic Party of Montenegro is a former liberal political party in Montenegro.
The government of Montenegro is the executive branch of state authority in Montenegro. It is headed by the prime minister. It comprises the prime minister, the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers.
Monitor is a weekly news magazine published in Podgorica, Montenegro.
Vijesti is a Montenegrin daily newspaper.
Slavko Perović, born on 2 August 1954, is a Montenegrin politician. He is best known as a co-founder and former leader of Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG), former party that was fighting for independence of Montenegro and promoting liberalism in Montenegro throughout the 1990s and early 2000s.
Parliamentary elections were held in Montenegro on 22 April 2001. The result was a victory for the Victory is of Montenegro alliance formed by the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro and the Social Democratic Party of Montenegro, which won 36 of the 77 seats.
Together for Change was a populist political alliance in Montenegro that existed from 2001 to 2006, originally known as Together for Yugoslavia. It based itself upon the necessity for a united Yugoslav state with Serbia. Predrag Bulatović was its wingleader. The pro-European semi-conservative coalition also based itself on economic and democratic reforms, bringing down of the authoritarian regime of Milo Đukanović.
Parliamentary elections were held in Montenegro on 31 May 1998. The result was a victory for the So that we live better coalition formed by the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro, Social Democratic Party of Montenegro and the People's Party of Montenegro which won 42 of the 78 seats.
Miodrag "Miko" Živković is the former president of the Liberal Alliance of Montenegro until he was expelled after allegations of corruption in what is known as Trsteno Affair. Following the expulsion he founded Liberal Party of Montenegro.
Andrija Popović is a Montenegrin politician and former water polo goalkeeper. He is the president of the Liberal Party of Montenegro.
The Democratic Front is a right-wing opposition political alliance in Montenegro.
Miroslav "Miro" Vicković was a Montenegrin politician and high-ranking official of the Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG).
Popular Unity was an opposition political alliance in Montenegro. The alliance was formed by two major opposition parties in Montenegro at time, the People's Party (NS) and Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG), prior to the 1996 parliamentary election. Slavko Perović's idea for the alliance was that it would open the way for "reconciliation between Montenegrins and Montenegrin Serbs". Kilibarda's party was Serbian nationalist. The main goal of the alliance was to overthrow the ruling Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS) of president Momir Bulatović, which has been in power since introduction of multi-party system. The coalition of liberals and populists won 24.91% of votes and gained only 19 MPs, 11 of which belonged to NS and 8 to LSCG. However, LSCG terminated the coalition after the decision of NS to enter into coalition with ruling DPS.