United States Park Police

Last updated

United States Park Police
Patch of the United States Park Police.png
Patch of the USPP
Badge of the United States Park Police.png
Badge of a USPP officer
Flag of the United States National Park Service.svg
Flag of the U.S. National Park Service
Common nameU.S. Park Police
AbbreviationUSPP
MottoIntegrity, Honor, Service
Agency overview
Formed1919
Preceding agency
  • Park Watchmen (1791)
Jurisdictional structure
Federal agency
(Operations jurisdiction)
United States
Operations jurisdiction United States
Legal jurisdiction National Park Service areas, primarily located in the Washington, D.C., San Francisco, and New York City areas and certain other government lands.
General nature
Specialist jurisdiction
  • Environment, parks, and-or heritage property.
Operational structure
HeadquartersWashington, D.C.
Sworn members605 [1]
Agency executive
  • Gregory T. Monahan [2] , Acting chief
Parent agency National Park Service
Website
http://www.nps.gov/uspp/

The United States Park Police (USPP) is one of the oldest uniformed federal law enforcement agencies in the United States. It functions as a full-service law enforcement agency with responsibilities and jurisdiction in those National Park Service areas primarily located in the Washington, D.C., San Francisco, and New York City areas and certain other government lands. The United States Park Police is one of the few[ quantify ] full-service police departments in the federal government that possess both state and federal authority. In addition to performing the normal crime prevention, investigation, and apprehension functions of an urban police force, the Park Police are responsible for policing many of the famous monuments in the United States.

Contents

The USPP shares law enforcement jurisdiction in all lands administered by the National Park Service with a force of National Park Service Law Enforcement Rangers tasked with the same law enforcement powers and responsibilities. The agency also provides protection for the President, Secretary of the Interior, and visiting dignitaries. The Park Police is an operation of the National Park Service, which is an agency of the Department of the Interior. As of 2006, the force consisted of 605 officers. [1]

History

U.S. Park Police in the early 20th century United States Park Police Officers-old.jpg
U.S. Park Police in the early 20th century

The Park Watchmen were first recruited in 1791 by George Washington to protect federal property in the District of Columbia. The police functioned as an independent agency of the federal government until 1849, when it was placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior. [3] In 1867, Congress transferred the police to the Office of Public Buildings and Grounds, under the supervision of the Chief of Engineers of the Army Corps of Engineers. The Watchmen were given the same powers and duties as the Metropolitan Police of Washington in 1882. [4] Their name was officially changed to the present United States Park Police in 1919. In 1925, Congress placed the Park Police in the newly created Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital. [5] Headed by an Army officer, Lt. Col. Ulysses S. Grant III, the office reported directly to the President of the United States. In 1933, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt transferred the police to the National Park Service. [6]

Their authority first began to expand outside D.C. in 1929, and today they are primarily responsible for the Gateway National Recreation Area units in New York City-New Jersey and the Golden Gate National Recreation Area in San Francisco, as well as the many designated areas in Washington D.C. and the neighboring counties in Maryland and Virginia. These sites include the National Mall, the C&O Canal towpath in the region, and the parallel roadways of the George Washington Memorial Parkway in Virginia and Clara Barton Parkway in Maryland.

US Park Police Officer in Class A Dress Blouse Park Police Officer.jpg
US Park Police Officer in Class A Dress Blouse

Authority

The Force functions as a unit of the National Park Service with jurisdiction in all Federal parks. U.S. Park Police officers are located in the Washington, DC, New York City, and San Francisco metropolitan areas, and investigate and detain persons suspected of committing offenses against the United States. Officers also carry out services for many notable events conducted in the national parks. [7]

Park Police have no authority to follow a vehicle outside their jurisdiction unless a felony has been committed. [8] According to Park Police policy, lethal force can only be used when there is "imminent danger of death or serious bodily harm". [9]

In Virginia, USPP Officers are provided with Conservator of the Peace powers as set forth in 19.2-12 of the Code of Virginia [10] with powers and duties provided under 19.2-18 of the Code of Virginia. [11] In Washington, D.C. itself, USPP Officers have the same powers and duties as the D.C. Metropolitan Police. USPP Officers possess a limited arrest authority in the State of Maryland. The U.S. Park Police hold state arrest authority in New York [ New York State CPL 2.15 part 9 ], and state arrest authority in New Jersey [ New Jersey Code 2A:154-6 ]. In California, arrest powers are provided under California Penal Code Section 830.8. These state arrest powers are in addition to powers held as federal officers. The U.S. Park Police primarily enforce laws including but not limited to Title 36 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and other federal statutes such as 16 USC and 18 USC, as well as state and local laws.

Leadership

In September 2019, Gregory T. Monahan became acting chief of U.S. Park Police. He previously served as assistant chief in charge of the San Francisco field office, where he arranged for charges to be dropped against employees of the Presidio Trust, which funds the Park Police, after they assaulted officers. [2] As a police officer, Monahan was investigated for wrongdoing in at least four instances for illegal body cavity searches. On multiple cases, Monahan's testimony was dismissed in court because the judge did not find him to be credible or truthful. [12]

Upon Monahan's appointment, Former Chief Robert Maclean was promoted to Interior Department's Office of Law Enforcement and Security. [2]

Districts

The United States Park Police operates patrol district stations in the New York City, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C. metropolitan areas. [13]

U.S. Park Police officers are charged with protecting National Icons such as the Statue of Liberty, the Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memorial, the Jefferson Memorial, and other well known monuments and memorials. This is accomplished through the Homeland Security Division, which consists of the Intelligence/Counter-Terrorism Unit, the New York field office, and the Icon Protection Branch, which consists of the Central District Station and Special Forces. [14]

Specialized Units

The U.S. Park Police manages a Marine Unit, an Aviation Unit, Special Weapons and Tactics Team (SWAT), a Canine Unit, a Motorcycle Unit, a Special Events Unit, a Traffic Safety Unit, a Horse Mounted Unit and a Criminal Investigations Branch. [15]

Aviation

U.S. Park Police helicopter, Washington, D.C., August 24, 2013. U.S. Park Police helicopter.JPG
U.S. Park Police helicopter, Washington, D.C., August 24, 2013.

The missions of the United States Park Police Aviation Unit include aviation support for law enforcement, medevac, search and rescue, high-risk prisoner transport and presidential and dignitary security. The Aviation Unit has provided accident-free, professional aviation services for over 40 years. They were the first helicopter provider of Air medical services within Washington, D.C, and continue to provide these services 24/7 to the district and neighboring jurisdictions. [16] They also provide an invaluable resource for patrolling and performing rescues at the numerous federal parks and recreation areas within the National Capital Region, such as Great Falls Park and Shenandoah National Park. [17] Like many park environments, injured parties in these remote and difficult to access locations require specialized rescue equipment to access and retrieve persons in distress. The US Park Police Aviation Unit is the primary resource for these remote rescues requiring helicopter access.

The Aviation Unit of the United States Park Police began in April 1973 and was placed under the command of Lt. Richard T. Chittick. It started with one Bell 206B JetRanger and a staff of three pilots and three rescue technicians based at the Anacostia Naval Air Station in a shared space with the MPD Aviation Branch. A second helicopter, a Bell 206B-3 JetRanger, was added in 1975 and the unit relocated to Andrews AFB. The Aviation Unit moved to its present facility in Anacostia Park, the "Eagle's Nest," in 1976. In 1983, the 206B-3 was upgraded to a Bell206L-3 LongRanger. Their first twin-engine helicopter, a Bell 412SP, and the third helicopter to carry the designation "Eagle One," was placed in service in January 1991. The unit grew to its current staff, and began providing 24-hour coverage in January 1994.

In August 1999, the unit took delivery of its second twin-engine helicopter, a Bell 412EP. It became the fourth helicopter in the unit's history to carry the designation "Eagle One" and the same registration number as that of an earlier aircraft whose crew affected the rescue of victims after the crash of Air Florida Flight 90. In May 2016, the unit received a replacement for "Eagle Two" with a used & reconditioned Bell 412EP to replace the aging aircraft delivered in 1991. [18]

The crew of US Park Police Aviation resources are frequently called to assist at significant and historical disasters and emergency incidents throughout the National Capital Region. These incidents include the September 11 attacks on the Pentagon, [19] the D.C. sniper attacks throughout the region, the crashing of Air Florida Flight 90, and the Washington Navy Yard shooting in 2013. [20] During the 2017 Congressional baseball shooting the crews of US Park Police Aviation responded with two helicopters and transported Congressman Steve Scalise and a US Capitol Police Officer to the trauma center at MedStar Washington Hospital Center. [21]

Organization and Rank structure

Organization chart of the USPP United States Park Police Organization.jpg
Organization chart of the USPP


TitleInsignia
Chief of Police
4 Gold Stars.svg
Assistant Chief
3 Gold Stars.svg
Deputy Chief
2 Gold Stars.svg
Major
US-O4 insignia.svg
Captain
Captain insignia gold.svg
Lieutenant
US-OF1B.svg
Sergeant
VSP Sergeant.jpg
Private/Investigator
N/A

Incidents

2017 shooting of Bijan Ghaisar

In November 2017, Park Police shot and killed Bijan Ghaisar, an unarmed Virginia man after a hit and run and three separate vehicle pursuits. More than eight months after the incident, Park Police provided no explanation for the killing. [8] According to a lawsuit filed by the family, it was twelve hours following the incident before the family learned that Park Police were involved. Two days after the shooting, Park Police Chief Robert MacLean met with the family. MacLean offered condolences but provided no information about what had happened. [8] The Ghaisar family was not allowed to touch their son for three days following the incident, when he was guarded by the department's officers. [8] According to the family, when a doctor arrived to examine Ghaisar for organ donation, the Park Police denied access, declaring the brain-dead man "under arrest" and his body "evidence." [8] More than nine months after the incident, Chief MacLean refused to speak to media about the incident, while Fairfax County Police, who filmed the shooting, said that the episode showed that greater transparency was needed. [22] After more than a year and in response to a lawsuit, US Park Police named the shooters as officers Lucas Vinyard and Alejandro Amaya. [23]

The incident was not captured on a body cam, since Park Police are forbidden from wearing body cameras while on the job. In a 2015 memo written by Chief MacLean, he told the entire force not to use any audio or video recorders "while on duty". MacLean claimed that the lack of a department-wide policy justified the ban on cameras. [24] Following the shooting, in 2018 DC Congressional Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton introduced a bill to require uniformed federal police officers to wear body cameras and have dashboard cameras in marked vehicles. The legislation was directly in response to Ghaisar's death. [25] Chief MacLean backed out of a scheduled meeting with Holmes Norton and Representative Don Beyer to discuss the matter, prompting Holmes Norton to make a statement to "express our astonishment" at his absence. [26] More than two years after the killing, Park Police had not launched an internal investigation into the matter or released recordings of the 911 calls the Park Police received. [27]

George Floyd protests

On June 1, 2020, USPP officers forcibly cleared Lafayette Park, DC of peaceful protesters on the order of Attorney General William Barr. The operation was conducted for President Donald J. Trump to attend a photo op at the nearby St. John's Episcopal Church. Reporting news crews, Rev. Gini Gerbasi of St. John's Episcopal, and many protesters noted the use of tear gas, flashbangs, and rubber bullets to disperse the peaceful crowds. Park Police officers on foot, and mounted on horseback, used riot gear such as batons and shields to drive assembled crowds out of the public park. The USPP released a statement that stated "no tear gas was used" by any law enforcement agency during the incident. [28] Media subsequently reported that USPP assaulted the protesters with OC canisters, which were found at the scene. [29]

Australian journalists who were reporting live from the scene were assaulted by Park Police during the attack. The incident prompted a diplomatic complaint by the Australian government. Two park police officers were assigned to administrative duties. [30]

Other incidents

In January 1982 USPP helicopter pilot Don Usher and his partner Gene Windsor saved the lives of five passengers from the Air Florida Flight 90 crash. [31]

In December 1982, Norman Mayer threatened to blow up the Washington Monument with a truck he said contained explosives. A standoff with U.S. Park police began at 9:20 In the morning. It ended ten hours later after the suspect backed up the truck, then surged forward. Police fired dozens of shots at the tires and engine block, overturning the van. One of the bullets ricocheted and fatally struck Mayer in the head. No explosives were found in the van. [32] [33]

In 1989 Officers David Duffey and William Lovegrove rescued two people in the Glen Echo Flood after a parking lot collapsed. [34]

In 1990, Officer Katherine Heller was at Lafayette Park when she was approached by a man who had been assaulted. After Heller radioed a description of the attacker, another Park Police officer, Scott Dahl, spotted a man matching the description and approached him. The alleged assailant began fighting with the officer and wrested the officers service pistol away from him. Heller approached and shot the man in the chest. Heller was named police officer of the year by Parade Magazine and the International Association of Chiefs of Police. She was the first U.S. Park Police officer, and the first female officer, to receive the IACP award. [35] [36] [37]

In 1993, officers of the Park police rescued passengers of the Golden Venture ship, which had run aground on the beach at Fort Tilden in Rockaway, Queens. Park police officers were the first to arrive on the scene. After calling for backup they ran into the water, pulling survivors from the cold water. [38]

In 1994 Park Police shot and killed a homeless man on the sidewalk in front of the White House. The man was brandishing a large hunting knife taped to his hand and refused to surrender in a confrontation with the officers. [39] [40]

The two helicopters of the U.S. Park Police played an important role after the September 11 attacks on the Pentagon. The crews responded immediately, transporting injured personnel to hospitals. The helicopters served as a command and control platform, using their Forward Looking Infrared equipment to provide firefighters with intelligence about the scope and spread of the fire through the five rings of the structure, and taking over air traffic control for the Washington, D.C. airspace after the controllers at Washington National Airport had to evacuate due to thick smoke. [41] [42] [19]

In 2011, U.S. Park Police conducted an investigation after the arrest of five dancers at the Jefferson Memorial. In a video posted to YouTube, Park Police appeared to body slam and choke an individual who was silently dancing. The dance was in protest of the ban on dancing at memorials. [43]

U.S. Park Police played a role in the Washington Navy Yard shooting on September 16, 2013. Two U.S. Park Police officers, Andrew Wong and Carl Hiott, were involved in the response. The shooter was killed by D.C. Police Emergency Response Team officer Dorian DeSantis, who took fire, and a U.S Park Police Officer. [44] U.S. Park Police Eagle 1 also conducted a rescue mission and removed an injured shooting victim from the roof of building 197 along with 3 other survivors ultimately saving their lives. [45]

In 2014, Park Police launched a crackdown on food truck operators. Park Police handcuffed food vendors who were selling to tourists on the National Mall. Vendors suggested that the enforcement was to protect the revenue from the government's food stands. [46] By September 2014, Park Police had arrested 196 people over the year for vending without a license on the mall, some of whom were jailed. [47] [48]

In 2015, U.S. Park Police detained an on-duty secret service special agent who was part of a detail for US Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson. The Park Police were sued following the incident for violating the Fourth Amendment protections against unreasonable seizures. [49]

In 2016, Park Police aggressively enforced traffic regulations outside Arlington National Cemetery. Officers hid behind bushes to catch cabdrivers picking up passengers, claiming that idling cars were parked. Charges brought by the Park Police were dropped on appeal. [50]

In 2017, Park Police handcuffed teens who were selling water on the National Mall. The incident sparked public outrage and raised questions of racial disparities in enforcement. DC Councilmember Charles Allen asked whether arresting the teens was the appropriate response. [51]

In 2019, the sexual assault of a female Park Police officer by her male colleague two years earlier was disclosed. The attack occurred inside a Park Police station. Despite a protection order requiring 100 yards of distance between the two officers, Park Police continued to assign the officers to roles where they might be in contact. The assaulting officer was not suspended or terminated. [52]

Locations

Below is a partial list of areas policed by the United States Park Police. [1]

See also

Related Research Articles

Coast guard Maritime security organization of a particular country

A coast guard or coastguard is a maritime security organization of a particular country. The term embraces wide range of responsibilities in different countries, from being a heavily armed military force with customs and security duties to being a volunteer organization tasked with search and rescue without law enforcement authority. A typical coast guard's functions are distinct from those of the navy and the transit police.

Hostage Rescue Team Elite tactical unit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) is the elite tactical unit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The HRT was formed to provide a full-time federal law enforcement tactical capability to respond to major terrorist incidents throughout the United States. Today, the HRT performs a number of tactical law enforcement and national security functions in high-risk environments and conditions and has deployed overseas.

Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia Law enforcement agency in Washington, D.C., United States

The Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia (MPDC), more commonly known as the Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) and the DC Police, is the primary law enforcement agency for the District of Columbia, in the United States. With approximately 3,800 officers and 600 civilian staff, it is the sixth-largest municipal police department in the United States. The department serves an area of 68 square miles (180 km2) and a population of over 700,000 people. Established on August 6, 1861, the MPD is one of the oldest police departments in the United States. The MPD headquarters is at the Henry J Daly Building, located on Indiana Avenue in Judiciary Square across the street from the District of Columbia Court of Appeals and the Superior Court of the District of Columbia. The department's mission is to "safeguard the District of Columbia and protect its residents and visitors with the highest regard for the sanctity of human life". The MPD's regulations are compiled in title 5, chapter 1 of the District of Columbia Code.

United States Capitol Police United States federal law enforcement agency charged with protecting the U.S. Congress

The United States Capitol Police (USCP) is a federal law enforcement agency in the United States charged with protecting the United States Congress within the District of Columbia and throughout the United States and its territories. It answers to Congress, not the President of the United States, and is the only full-service federal law enforcement agency responsible to the legislative branch of the Federal Government of the United States.

Teresa Chambers American police officer

Teresa Chambers is an American law enforcement officer and a former chief of the United States Park Police (USPP). She took office as the U.S. Park Police chief on January 31, 2011, but previously served as the U.S. Park Police chief from February 2002 until December 2003, when she was dismissed from the position.

Maryland State Police

The Maryland State Police (MSP), officially the Maryland Department of State Police (MDSP), is the official state police force of the U.S. state of Maryland. The Maryland State Police is headquartered at 1201 Reisterstown Road in the Pikesville CDP in unincorporated Baltimore County.

Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department, or Port Authority Police Department (PAPD), is a law enforcement agency in New York and New Jersey, the duties of which are to protect and to enforce state and city laws at all the facilities, owned or operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ), the bi-state agency running airports, seaports, and many bridges and tunnels within the Port of New York and New Jersey. Additionally, the PAPD is responsible for other PANYNJ properties including three bus terminals, the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, and the PATH train system. The PAPD is the largest transit-related police force in the United States.

Ventura County Sheriffs Office Police force in California, U.S.

The Ventura County Sheriff's Office (VCSO), also sometimes known as the Ventura County Sheriff's Department (VCSD), provides law enforcement for the unincorporated areas of Ventura County, California as well as several cities within the county. The cities that Ventura County Sheriff's Office provides police services for are Camarillo, Fillmore, Moorpark, Ojai, and Thousand Oaks.

Dallas Police Department Dallas, Texas law enforcement agency

The Dallas Police Department, established in 1881, is the principal law enforcement agency serving the city of Dallas, Texas.

Metropolitan Police Department, City of St. Louis Law enforcement agency in St. Louis City, Missouri, US

The Metropolitan Police Department – City of St. Louis, is the primary law enforcement agency for the city of St. Louis, Missouri in the United States. The Metropolitan Police is a division in the Public Safety Department - City of St. Louis. The Metropolitan Police is the second largest municipal police agency in Missouri, based on number of employees, city population, and geographic area served. The department is also the 37th largest police department in the United States.

United States Pentagon Police Federal police agency of the Office of the US Secretary of Defense

The Pentagon Police Division (PPD) is the uniformed division of the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA).

Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department

The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department (CMPD) is the police department of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, United States, which includes the City of Charlotte. With 1,817 officers and 525 civilian staff as of 2020, covering an area of 438 square miles (1,130 km2) with a population of nearly 900,000, it is the largest police department between Washington D.C. and Atlanta, Georgia.

Prince Georges County Police Department

The Prince George's County Police Department (PGPD) is the primary law enforcement agency in Prince George's County, Maryland in the United States, servicing a population of over 900,000 residents and visitors within 498 square miles (1,290 km²) of jurisdiction.

Phoenix Police Department

The Phoenix Police Department is the law enforcement agency responsible for the city of Phoenix, Arizona. Currently, the Phoenix Police Department comprises more than 2,900 officers and more than 1,000 support personnel. The department serves a population of more than 1.6 million and patrol almost 516 square miles (1,340 km2) of the fifth largest city in the United States. Phoenix has one of the highest rates of police killings in the United States.

Alexandria Police Department

The Alexandria Police Department (APD) is the primary law enforcement agency servicing 155,810 people within 15.4 square miles (40 km2) of jurisdiction within Alexandria, Virginia. The APD has been internationally accredited by the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA) since 1986, and was re-accredited in 1991, 1996, 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010, 2013, and 2016. The APD has 315 sworn officers and 152 civilian employees. New officers are trained at the Northern Virginia Criminal Justice Training Academy.

2013 United States Capitol shooting

On October 3, 2013, in Washington, D.C., Miriam Carey, 34, a dental hygienist from Stamford, Connecticut, attempted to drive through a White House security checkpoint in her black Infiniti G37 coupe, accidentally hit a security rail, and was chased by the Secret Service to the United States Capitol where she was fatally shot by law enforcement officers. A young child, Carey's daughter, was found unharmed in the car after it was ultimately stopped.

On November 17, 2017, Bijan C. Ghaisar, a 25-year-old American, was fatally shot by US Park Police officers Lucas Vinyard and Alejandro Amaya after a vehicular chase that followed a traffic collision along the George Washington Memorial Parkway in Northern Virginia. Ghaisar was unarmed and died ten days later in a hospital. A video of the shooting was released by Fairfax County Police, who had assisted with the chase.

The Hawthone Police Department of Hawthorne, California in Los Angeles County, was established in 1922. The Hawthone Police Department serves a community of 84,293 people and employs 100 officers and 60 support staff. The Department has its "own Helicopter, Tactical Medicine Program, Armored Rescue Vehicle, and state of the art Police Facility.".

Donald Trump photo op at St. Johns Church 2020 controversial presidential photo op

On June 1, 2020, amid the George Floyd protests in Washington, D.C., law enforcement officers used tear gas and other riot control tactics to forcefully clear peaceful protesters from Lafayette Square and surrounding streets, creating a path for President Donald Trump and senior administration officials to walk from the White House to St. John's Episcopal Church. Trump held up a Bible and posed for a photo op in front of Ashburton House, which had been damaged by a fire during protests the night before.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "Policing Capital Sites". doi.gov. July 21, 2006. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 Jackman, Tom (September 13, 2019). "Police union says new Park Police chief arranged for criminal cases to be dropped". Washington Post. Washington DC. Retrieved September 13, 2019.
  3. Farabee, Charles R. (2003). National Park Ranger: An American Icon. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 121. ISBN   9781570983924.
  4. United States Congressional serial set, Issue 5145. The Library of Congress. 1907. p. 2125.
  5. United States. National Park Service (1999). The White House and President's Park, Comprehensive Design Plan: Environmental Impact Statement. Northwestern University. p. 448.
  6. Maion, Nancy (2015). Federal Law Enforcement Agencies in America. Wolters Kluwer Law & Business. p. 66. ISBN   9781454858775.
  7. "United States Park Police (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. August 10, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Tom Jackman and Michael Brice-Saddler (August 3, 2018). "Family of accountant shot dead by U.S. Park Police officers files $25 million lawsu=it". Washington Post. Washington DC. Retrieved August 4, 2018.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. Tom Jackman (January 24, 2018). "Video shows Park Police fired nine shots into Bijan Ghaisar's Jeep at close range, killing him". Washington Post. Washington DC. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
  10. "Legislative Information System". Leg1.state.va.us. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  11. "Legislative Information System". Leg1.state.va.us. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  12. Goldstein, Matthew; Benner, Katie (June 18, 2020). "Park Police Head Had Been Accused of Illegal Searches and Unreliable Testimony". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  13. "Jurisdiction and Authority". USPP. National Park Service.
  14. "Homeland Security Division". USPP. National Park Service.
  15. "Specialized Units". USPP. National Park Service.
  16. "Air medical providers". Doh.dc.gov. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  17. "Elite National Park Service Helicopter Unit Marks Forty Years Of Service". National Parks Traveler.
  18. "Aviation to receive a 'New' Eagle". Usppfop.org. May 25, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  19. 1 2 Goldberg, Alfred; Papadopoulos, Sarandis; Putney, Diane; Berlage, Nancy; Welch, Rebecca (April 2, 2007). Pentagon 9/11 (Kindle ed.). Defense Dept., Office of the Secretary, Historical Office. pp.  1172, 2527, 2536. ISBN   978-0-16-078328-9.
  20. https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2013/09/16/dc-navy-yard-shooting-at-least-6-dead
  21. Mullins, Luke (May 28, 2018). "The Terrifying Story of the Congressional Baseball Shooting". Washingtonian.
  22. Paul Wagner (August 9, 2018). "US Park Police chief confronted about deadly shooting of Bijan Ghaisar". Fox News. Washington DC. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
  23. Reem Nadeem (March 29, 2019). "Family's lawsuit IDs Park Police officers who shot unarmed Va. driver". WTOP. Washington DC. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  24. MIRANDA GREEN (April 25, 2018). "Park Police officers were forbidden from wearing body cameras: memo". Washington Post. Washington DC. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  25. "Bijan Ghaisar's family and friends push for answers in US Park Police shooting death". Fox 5. Washington DC. January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
  26. Tom Jackman (February 13, 2018). "After Ghaisar killing, Park Police chief backs out of meeting on bill requiring body cams". Washington Post. Washington DC. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  27. Tom Jackman (December 2, 2019). "After Ghaisar killing, Park Police chief backs out of meeting on bill requiring body cams". Washington Post. Washington DC. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
  28. "Park Police: 'No tear gas was used' to move protesters away from White House" . Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  29. Baca, Nathan (June 3, 2020). "U.S. Park Police said they didn't fire tear gas Monday; here's what was shot at protesters". WUSA. Washington DC. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  30. "The U.S. Park Police's reputation is in tatters". WUSA. Washington DC. June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  31. Dicus, Howard (January 13, 1992). "Ten years after a jet headed to sunny Florida..." UPI.
  32. SHRIBMAN, David (December 9, 1982). "MAN SLAIN IN CAPITAL MONUMENT THREAT". The New York Tiimes.
  33. McCabe, Scott (December 8, 2009). "CRIME HISTORY - Man killed at Washington Monument". Washington Examiner.
  34. Latimer, Leah Y. (May 7, 1989). "63 VEHICLES TAKE PLUNGE AS PARKING LOT COLLAPSES". The Washington Post.
  35. Buckley, Stephen (February 23, 1990). "MAN SLAIN BY POLICE IN LAFAYETTE SQUARE". The Washington Post.
  36. Hoberock, Barbara (October 10, 1990). "U.S. Parks Officer Honored By Police Chiefs, Magazine". Tulsa World.
  37. "POLICE OFFICER OF THE YEAR HONOREES". International Association of Chiefs of Police.
  38. MCFADDEN, KATIE (June 7, 2018). "The Golden Venture: 25 Years Later". The Rockaway Times.
  39. Duggan, Paul (December 21, 1994). "HOMELESS MAN SHOT IN FRONT OF WHITE HOUSE". The Washington Times.
  40. "Homeless Man Shot Near the White House Dies". The New York Times. December 22, 1994.
  41. Gabbert, Bill (December 1, 2018). "National Park Service helicopters played vital role on 9/11". Fire Aviation.
  42. McDonnell, Janet (2004). The National Park Service: Responding to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks (PDF). United States. National Park Service. pp. 19–24.
  43. RUSSELL GOLDMAN (May 30, 2011). "Park Police Investigate Arrests for Dancing at Jefferson Memorials". ABC News. Washington DC. Retrieved May 30, 2011.
  44. Hermann, Peter (September 14, 2014). "Officer who shot Navy Yard gunman says it 'needed to be done'". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  45. "For Park Police pilot Ken Burchell, Navy Yard shooting was unlike any other rescue mission". WTKR.com. September 18, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  46. Shapira, Ian (July 8, 2014). "Park Police Investigate Park police cracking down on Mall food trucks". Washington Post. Washington DC. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
  47. Carman, Tim (September 23, 2014). "Food trucks on the Mall? Stationary vendors worry about the impending competition" . Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  48. "DC Food Truck Vendor Jailed For Parking At Mall". September 23, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  49. Flynn, Meagan (June 18, 2019). "Park Police detained an on-duty Secret Service agent. He says it was because he's black". The Washington Post. Washington DC. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  50. Shapira, Ian (February 11, 2016). "A taxi driver's standoff with U.S. Park Police outside Arlington National Cemetery". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  51. JANICE WILLIAMS (June 24, 2017). "POLICE IN WASHINGTON D.C. ARREST BLACK TEENS FOR SELLING WATER BOTTLES, BECAUSE 'SAFETY'". Washington DC. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  52. Satterfield, Kolbie (September 20, 2019). "US Park Police Officer speaks out after she says she was sexually assaulted by fellow officer". WUSA 9. Washington DC. Retrieved September 20, 2019.