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|United States Federal Reserve Police|
|Motto||Protecting the nation's economy|
| Federal agency |
|Operations jurisdiction||United States|
|Parent agency||United States Federal Reserve System|
The U.S. Federal Reserve Police is the law enforcement unit of the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States.
Federal Reserve System Law Enforcement Officers derive their authority from Section 11(q) of the Federal Reserve Act, codified at 12 U.S.C. § 248(q). Federal Reserve officers have the same authority as any other federal law enforcement officer while on duty, regardless of their geographic location.
Prior to designation as federal law enforcement officers, system protection personnel operated as protection or special police officers in their respective states and were generally regulated to exercising authority on Federal Reserve property, with variances dependent on specific district regulations. Prior to federal law enforcement designation, there were no plainclothes or specialized units in the system.
Following the passage of updated legislation by Congress after the events of September 11, 2001, which designated federal law enforcement authority to system officers, authority now extends to wherever a federal reserve law enforcement officer is performing official duties, whether in uniform, plainclothes, or in a specialized unit.
Each Federal Reserve law enforcement office in the twelve regional districts are independent law enforcement units, though governed loosely out of Washington, D.C. Many of the law enforcement districts have dual city or state police authority in addition to their federal authority. This separate authority allows for the enforcement of state and/or city laws, in addition to the Federal Code.
The primary duty of uniformed division officers is to provide general law enforcement and force protection services to Federal Reserve facilities, whether owned or leased. Federal Reserve officers respond to police, fire and medical incidents in and adjacent to their assigned facilities to protect life, render aid or assist other law enforcement. Each Federal Reserve office operates a 24/7 emergency communications (command) center. Federal Reserve officers are authorized to conduct investigations involving Federal Reserve regulations, but assist with local, state and federal investigations into criminal matters that affect the Federal Reserve. Some Federal Reserve districts employ sworn officer intelligence analysts while others utilize non-sworn civilians.
Each district has a dignitary protection team, which provide armed plainclothes protection to the twelve Federal Reserve presidents. Protective driving and off-site special event security of other Federal Reserve officials is regularly performed throughout the country. There are five Special Response Teams (SRT) based in San Francisco, Minneapolis, Atlanta, Richmond, as well as New York City, which are designed to respond nationwide. Additionally, Explosive Detector Dog teams, Active Shooter/Patrol Rapid Response teams and Hazardous Materials teams are assigned to several Federal Reserve districts throughout the nation, often traveling to other regions on temporary assignments.
Officers are certified to carry a variety of weapons systems, including semi-automatic pistols, assault rifles, and submachine guns. They also carry less lethal weapons including pepper spray, batons, tasers, and other standard police equipment. Officers also wear body armor in both covert and overt forms. Each district can choose the make and model of all police equipment the officers are issued.
On October 12, 2010, President Barack Obama signed into law S.B. 1132 the "Law Enforcement Officers' Safety Act Improvements Act", which states that law enforcement officers of the Federal Reserve are "qualified law enforcement officers" and thus are authorized to carry a firearm off-duty. This update to the Law Enforcement Safety Act, among other aspects, clarified that federal law enforcement officers working for Amtrak and the Federal Reserve (not funded by Congress) are specifically granted the same rights as publicly funded law enforcement officers as it relates to off-duty concealed carry.
Each district can choose the make, model and style of police vehicles, which vary based on location and weather. There are both marked and unmarked police cars in the Federal Reserve fleet.
Federal Reserve Law Enforcement Officers must complete basic training at one of the regional Federal Reserve Police training centers, which are nationally accredited by the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC). All Federal Reserve Police Instructors are certified by FLETC or Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST). The Federal Reserve System runs regional FLETC-accredited training academies throughout the nation. In some districts, where officers are cross-designated as local–state law enforcement officers, additional training is provided to comply with the governing POST. Some (but not all) districts offer a lateral entry program that allows certification with minimal training for those with prior police training and experience.
Because the Federal Reserve System is independent of the federal government, Federal Reserve Law Enforcement officers have a benefit system separate from, but similar to, public federal employees. Each district has a different pay scale based on the local cost of living index and provides compensation packages comparable to other law enforcement officers in the area. System officers are provided a fully paid (non-contribution) defined pension plan, in addition to a matching thrift savings program.
Since the establishment of the Federal Reserve Police, two officers have been killed in the line of duty.
One K9 has died while on duty.
A special agent, in the United States, is usually an investigator or detective for a federal government, who primarily serves in criminal investigatory positions. Additionally, many federal and state "special agents" operate in "criminal intelligence" based roles as well. Within the U.S. federal law enforcement system, dozens of federal agencies employ federal law enforcement officers, each with different criteria pertaining to the use of the titles Special Agent and Agent.
In some countries, security police are those persons employed by or for a governmental agency or corporations with large campuses who provide police and security services to those agencies' properties.
Special police usually describes a police force or unit within a police force whose duties and responsibilities are significantly different from other forces in the same country or from other police in the same force, although there is no consistent international definition. A special constable, in most cases, is not a member of a special police force (SPF); in countries in the Commonwealth of Nations and often elsewhere, a special constable is a voluntary or part-time member of a national or local police force or a person involved in law enforcement who is not a police officer but has some of the powers of a police officer.
The Federal Protective Service (FPS) is the uniformed security police division of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS). FPS is "the federal agency charged with protecting and delivering integrated law enforcement and security services to facilities owned or leased by the General Services Administration (GSA)"—over 9,000 buildings—and their occupants.
The Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC) serves as an interagency law enforcement training body for 105 United States government federal law enforcement agencies. The stated mission of FLETC is to "...train those who protect our homeland". It also provides training to state, local, campus, tribal, and international law enforcement agencies. Through the Rural Policing Institute (RPI) and the Office of State and Local Training, it provides tuition-free and low-cost training to state, local, campus and tribal law enforcement agencies.
The United States Postal Inspection Service (USPIS) or the Postal Inspectors, is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service. Its jurisdiction is defined as "crimes that may adversely affect or fraudulently use the U.S. Mail, the postal system or postal employees." The mission of the U.S. Postal Inspection Service is to support and protect the U.S. Postal Service, its employees, infrastructure, and customers by enforcing the laws that defend the nation's mail system from illegal or dangerous use.
A law enforcement officer (LEO), or peace officer in North American English, is a public-sector employee whose duties primarily involve the enforcement of laws. The phrase can include police officers, municipal law enforcement officers, special police officers, customs officers, state troopers, special agents, secret agents, special investigators, border patrol officers, immigration officers, court officers, probation officers, parole officers, arson investigators, auxiliary officers, game wardens, sheriffs, constables, corrections, marshals, deputies, detention officers, correction officers, and public safety officers. Security guards are civilians and therefore not law enforcement officers, unless they have been granted powers to enforce particular laws, such as those accredited under a community safety accreditation scheme such as a security police officer.
The United States Capitol Police (USCP) is a federal law enforcement agency in the United States charged with protecting the United States Congress within the District of Columbia and throughout the United States and its territories. It answers to Congress, not the President of the United States, and is the only full-service federal law enforcement agency responsible to the legislative branch of the Federal Government of the United States.
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs Police is the uniformed law enforcement service of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, responsible for the protection of the VA Medical Centers (VAMC) and other facilities such as Outpatient Clinics (OPC) and Community Based Outpatient Clinics (CBOC) operated by United States Department of Veterans Affairs and its subsidiary components of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) as well as the National Cemetery Administration (NCA) and the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) respectively. The VA Police have several divisions and operate separately but alongside the VA Law Enforcement Training Center under the umbrella of the Office of Security and Law Enforcement. The primary role of VA Police is to serve as a protective uniformed police force in order to deter and prevent crime, maintain order, and investigate crimes which may have occurred within the jurisdiction of the Department or its federal assets. Some cases are investigated in conjunction with agents from the Office of the Inspector General.
Law enforcement in Germany is constitutionally vested solely with the states, which is one of the main features of the German political system.
The Amtrak Police Department (APD) is a railroad police agency and security organization that acts as the law enforcement arm of Amtrak, the government-owned passenger train system in the United States. It is headquartered at Union Station in Washington, D.C., and as of 2019 has a force of 452 sworn police officers, most of whom are stationed within the Northeast Corridor, Amtrak's busiest route.
The British Columbia Sheriff Service (BCSS) is a provincial law enforcement agency overseen by the Ministry of the Attorney General in the province of British Columbia, Canada. It is the oldest law enforcement agency in the Province of British Columbia, tracing its roots back to 1857. Sheriffs are Provincial Peace Officers appointed under the BC Sheriff Act and BC Police Act with authority to enforce all relevant federal and provincial acts including the criminal code throughout British Columbia while in the lawful execution of their duties.
The New Jersey Transit Police Department (NJTPD) is a transit police agency of the New Jersey Transit Corporation in the state of New Jersey. As provided by NJS Title 27:25-15.1, New Jersey Transit Police Officers have "general authority, without limitation, to exercise police powers and duties, as provided by law for police officers and law enforcement officers, in all criminal and traffic matters at all times throughout the State and, in addition, to enforce such rules and regulations as the NJ Transit Corporation shall adopt and deem appropriate." The primary focus of NJTPD is providing police services to the numerous bus depots, rail and light rail stations throughout New Jersey. The New Jersey Transit Police Department is the only transit police agency in the United States with statewide authority and jurisdiction.
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The Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) is a state-wide investigative law enforcement agency within the state of Florida. The department formally coordinates eight boards, councils, and commissions. FDLE's duties, responsibilities and procedures are mandated through Chapter 943, Florida Statutes, and Chapter 11, Florida Administrative Code. FDLE is headed by a commissioner who reports to Florida Cabinet which is composed of the governor, the attorney general, the chief financial officer and the commissioner of agriculture. The commissioner is appointed to his position by the governor and cabinet and confirmed by the Florida Senate.
Department of the Army Civilian Police are the uniformed and plainclothes civilian police officers of the United States Army. They are also referred to as DoD Police. The Department of the Army Civilian Police (DACP) are responsible for law enforcement on U.S. Army–owned and –leased buildings, facilities, properties and other U.S. Army assets. In overseas locations or in areas of concurrent jurisdiction, Department of the Army Civilian Police are responsible for the protection and policing of DOD-affiliated personnel. It is important to note that "Department of Defense Police" is a phrase that refers to any civilian engaged in police duties for the Department of Defense and its component branches of the US Armed Forces. There is no one unified agency that goes under the title "Department of Defense Police". There are several police forces that use the title "DoD police", such as the Pentagon Police, Defense Logistics Agency Police, Navy Civilian Police (NCP), Army Civilian Police (DACP), Marine Corps Civilian Police (MCCIVPOL) and Air Force Civilian Police (DAFCP).
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National Park Service Law Enforcement Rangers or United States Park Rangers are uniformed federal law enforcement officers with broad authority to enforce federal and state laws within National Park Service sites. The National Park Service commonly refers to law enforcement operations in the agency as visitor and resource protection. In units of the National Park System, law enforcement rangers are the primary police agency. The National Park Service also employs special agents who conduct more complex criminal investigations. Rangers and agents receive extensive police training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center and annual in-service and regular firearms training. The United States Park Police shares jurisdiction with law enforcement rangers in all National Park Service units, although this agency primarily operates in the Washington, D.C., New York City, and San Francisco areas.