Pepper spray

Last updated
Pepper spray
Hottest-chili-rating.gif
HeatAbove peak
Scoville scale 2 000 000-4 500 000 SHU

Pepper spray, oleoresin capsicum spray, OC spray, capsaicin spray, or capsicum spray is a lachrymatory agent (a compound that irritates the eyes to cause a burning sensation, pain, and temporary blindness) used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears. [1] [2] Its inflammatory effects cause the eyes to close, temporarily taking away vision. This temporary blindness allows officers to more easily restrain subjects and permits people in danger to use pepper spray in self-defense for an opportunity to escape. It also causes temporary discomfort and burning of the lungs which causes shortness of breath.

Contents

Pepper spray was engineered into a spray originally for defense against bears, mountain lions, wolves and other dangerous predators. Many claim the use of OC is prohibited by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) but it is not a chemical weapon and is listed as a "Riot Control Agent" according to the CWC's definitions. It is also listed as "Purposes Not Prohibited Under this Convention" under 9(d) of the CWC agreement [3] (emphasis added).

Kamran Loghman, the person who developed it for use in riot control, wrote the guide for police departments on how it should be used. It was successfully adapted, except for improper usages such as when police sprayed peaceful protestors at University of California, Davis in 2011, Loghman commented, "I have never seen such an inappropriate and improper use of chemical agents", prompting court rulings completely barring its use on docile persons. [4] [5] [6]

Components

The active ingredient in pepper spray is capsaicin, which is derived from the fruit of plants in the genus Capsicum , including chilis. Extraction of oleoresin capsicum (OC) from peppers requires capsicum to be finely ground, from which capsaicin is then extracted using an organic solvent such as ethanol. The solvent is then evaporated, and the remaining waxlike resin is the oleoresin capsaicin. [7]

An emulsifier such as propylene glycol is used to suspend OC in water, and the suspension is then pressurized to make an aerosol pepper spray.

Determining the strength of pepper sprays made by different manufacturers can be confusing and difficult. Statements a company makes about their product strength are not regulated. A method using the capsaicin and related capsaicinoids (CRC) content of the product is unreliable as well, because there are six different types of capsaicinoids, causing different levels of irritation. Manufacturers do not state which particular type of capsaicinoids are used. Personal pepper sprays can range from a low of 0.18% to a high of 3%. Most law enforcement pepper sprays use between 1.3% and 2%. The federal government of the United States has determined that bear attack deterrent sprays must contain at least 1.0% and not more than 2% CRC. CRC does not measure the amount of OC within the formulation. Instead, CRC is the pain-producing component of the OC that produces the burning sensation.

The federal government of the United States makes no mention of Scoville heat units (SHU) or OC in their requirements, only CRC (only for bear attack deterrent sprays). But, there are countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain – see below, under "Legality") and a few states within the US that do mention OC limitations. Some manufacturers may show a very high percentage of OC and, although OC is the active ingredient within the formulation, it does not indicate pepper spray strength. High OC percentage also indicates that a spray has more oil content; which can possibly use lower grade pepper oils (but, more of it), or lower grade capsaicinoids (within the major CRCs) and also has less ability to soak and penetrate the skin than a formula with less, but higher-quality, pepper oil, because oil has hydrophobic properties. The OC percentage measures only the amount of chili oil extract contained in the defense spray, not the strength, pungency or effectiveness of the product. Other companies may show a high SHU. The SHU is a measurement of the base resin compound and not what comes out in the aerosol. The rated irritant effect of the resin may be diluted depending on how much of it is put in the can. [8]

Counterparts

There are several counterparts of pepper spray developed and legal to possess in some countries. In the United Kingdom, desmethyldihydrocapsaicin (known also as PAVA spray) is used by police officers. As a Section 5 weapon, it is not generally permitted to the public. Pelargonic acid morpholide (MPK) is widely used as a self-defense chemical agent spray in Russia, though its effectiveness compared to natural pepper spray is unclear.[ citation needed ] In China, Ministry of Public Security police units and security guards use tear gas ejectors with OC, CS or CN gases. These are defined as a "restricted" weapon that only police officers, as well as approved security, can use. [9] However, the law does not forbid civilians from purchasing and possessing any non-police used pepper spray.

Effects

Pepper spray demonstration Pepper spray Demonstration.jpg
Pepper spray demonstration
US Marines training after being exposed to pepper spray. MCMAP1.jpg
US Marines training after being exposed to pepper spray.

Pepper spray is an inflammatory agent. It inflames the mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, throat and lungs. [10] It causes immediate closing of the eyes, difficulty breathing, runny nose, and coughing. [11] The duration of its effects depends on the strength of the spray; the average full effect lasts from 20 to 90 minutes, but eye irritation and redness can last for up to 24 hours. [12]

The Journal of Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science published a study that concluded that single exposure of the eye to OC is harmless, but repeated exposure can result in long-lasting changes in corneal sensitivity. They found no lasting decrease in visual acuity. [13]

The European Parliament Scientific and Technological Options Assessment (STOA) published in 1998 "An Appraisal of Technologies of Political Control" [14] The STOA appraisal states:

"Past experience has shown that to rely on manufacturers unsubstantiated claims about the absence of hazards is unwise. In the US, companies making crowd control weapons, (e.g. pepper-gas manufacturer Zarc International), have put their technical data in the public domain without loss of profitability."
and
"Research on chemical irritants should be published in open scientific journals before authorization for any usage is permitted and that the safety criteria for such chemicals should be treated as if they were drugs rather than riot control agents;"

For those taking drugs, or those subjected to restraining techniques that restrict the breathing passages, there is a risk of death. In 1995, the Los Angeles Times reported at least 61 deaths associated with police use of pepper spray since 1990 in the USA. [15] The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) documented 27 people in police custody who died after exposure to pepper spray in California since 1993 [16] [17] However, the ACLU report counts all deaths occurring within hours of exposure to pepper spray regardless of prior interaction, taser use, or if drugs are involved. In all 27 cases listed by the ACLU, the coroners' report listed other factors as the primary cause of death; in few cases the use of pepper spray may have been a contributing factor.

The US Army performed studies in 1993 at Aberdeen Proving Ground, and a UNC study in 2000 stated that the compound in peppers, capsaicin, is mildly mutagenic, and only 10% of mice exposed to it developed cancer. Where the study also found many beneficial effects of capsaicin, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration released statements declaring exposure of employees to OC is an unnecessary health risk. As of 1999, it was in use by more than 2,000 public safety agencies. [18]

The head of the FBI's Less-Than-Lethal Weapons Program at the time of the 1991 study, Special Agent Thomas W. W. Ward, was fired by the FBI and was sentenced to two months in prison for receiving payments from a pepper-gas manufacturer while conducting and authoring the FBI study that eventually approved pepper spray for FBI use. [19] [20] Prosecutors said that from December 1989 through 1990, Ward received about $5,000 a month for a total of $57,500, from Luckey Police Products, a Fort Lauderdale, Florida-based company that was a major producer and supplier of pepper spray. The payments were paid through a Florida company owned by Ward's wife. [21]

Direct close-range spray can cause more serious eye irritation by attacking the cornea with a concentrated stream of liquid (the so-called "hydraulic needle" effect). Some brands have addressed this problem by means of an elliptically cone-shaped spray pattern.

Pepper spray has been associated with positional asphyxiation of individuals in police custody. There is much debate over the actual cause of death in these cases. There have been few controlled clinical studies of the human health effects of pepper spray marketed for police use, and those studies are contradictory. Some studies have found no harmful effects beyond the effects described above. [22] Due to these studies and deaths, many law enforcement agencies have moved to include policies and training to prevent positional deaths. [23] [24] However, there are some scientific studies that argue the positional asphyxiation claim is a myth due to pinpoint pressure on a person. The study by two universities stressed that no pressure should be applied to the neck area. They concluded that the person's own weight is not scientifically enough to stop a person's breathing with the rest of their body supported. [25]

Acute response

For individuals not previously exposed to OC effects, the general feelings after being sprayed can be best likened to being "set alight." The initial reaction, should the spray be directed at the face, is the involuntary closing of the eyes, an instant sensation of the restriction of the airways and the general feeling of sudden and intense, searing pain about the face, nose, and throat. This is due to irritation of mucous membranes. Many people experience fear and are disoriented due to sudden restriction of vision even though it is temporary. There is associated shortness of breath, although studies performed with asthmatics have not produced any asthma attacks in those individuals, and monitoring is still needed for the individuals after exposure. [26] Police are trained to repeatedly instruct targets to breathe normally if they complain of difficulty, as the shock of the exposure can generate considerable panic as opposed to actual physical symptoms.

Treatment

Capsaicin is not soluble in water, and even large volumes of water will not wash it off, only dilute it. In general, victims are encouraged to blink vigorously in order to encourage tears, which will help flush the irritant from the eyes.

A study of five often-recommended treatments for skin pain (Maalox, 2% lidocaine gel, baby shampoo, milk, or water) concluded that: [27]

...there was no significant difference in pain relief provided by five different treatment regimens. Time after exposure appeared to be the best predictor for a decrease in pain...

There is no way to simply neutralize the effects of tear gas, but a person can be helped to minimize the effects. [28] Move the affected person away from the source and to fresh air. Avoid rubbing the spray into the skin, thereby prolonging the burning sensation. In order to not spread the compound to other parts of the body, avoid touching affected areas. Rubbing the eyes repeatedly can damage the cornea, so do not touch or wipe eyes. [29] Many ambulance services and emergency departments carry saline to remove the spray. Some of the OC and CS will remain in the respiratory system, but a recovery of vision and the coordination of the eyes can be expected within 7 to 15 minutes. [30]

Some "triple-action" pepper sprays also contain "tear gas" (CS gas), which can be neutralized with sodium metabisulfite (Campden tablets), though it is not for use on a person. This is for area clean up only. [31]

Use

Pepper spray typically comes in canisters, which are often small enough to be carried or concealed in a pocket or purse. Pepper spray can also be purchased concealed in items such as rings. There are also pepper spray projectiles available, which can be fired from a paintball gun or similar platform. It has been used for years against demonstrators and aggressive animals like bears. There are also many types such as foam, gel, foggers, and spray. [32]

Legality

Pepper spray is banned for use in war by Article I.5 of the Chemical Weapons Convention, which bans the use of all riot control agents in warfare whether lethal or less-than-lethal. [33] Depending on the location, it may be legal to use for self-defense.

Africa

Asia

Europe

Police, like this Swedish police officer in riot gear at a 2007 demonstration, may use pepper spray to control civilians. Swedish riot police at nationalist demo.jpg
Police, like this Swedish police officer in riot gear at a 2007 demonstration, may use pepper spray to control civilians.

North America

Canada

Pepper spray designed to be used against people is considered a prohibited weapon in Canada. The definition under regulation states "any device designed to be used for the purpose of injuring, immobilizing or otherwise incapacitating any person by the discharge therefrom of (a) tear gas, Mace or other gas, or (b) any liquid, spray, powder or other substance that is capable of injuring, immobilizing or otherwise incapacitating any person" is a prohibited weapon. [62]

Only law enforcement officers may legally carry or possess pepper spray labeled for use on persons. Any similar canister with the labels reading "dog spray" or "bear spray" is regulated under the Pest Control Products Act—while legal to be carried by anyone, it is against the law if its use causes "a risk of imminent death or serious bodily harm to another person" or harming the environment and carries a penalty up to a fine of $500,000 and jail time of maximum 3 years. [63] Carrying bear spray in public, without justification, may also lead to charges under the Criminal Code. [64]

United States

It is a federal offense to carry/ship pepper spray on a commercial airliner or possess it beyond the security metal detectors at the airport. State law and local ordinances regarding possession and use vary across the country.

When pepper spray is used in the workplace, OSHA requires a pepper spray Safety Data Sheet (SDS) be available to all employees. [65]

Pepper spray can be legally purchased and carried in all 50 states. Some states regulate the maximum allowed strength of the pepper spray, age restriction, content and use. [66]

  • California: As of January 1, 1996 and as a result of Assembly Bill 830 (Speier), the pepper spray and Mace programs are now deregulated. Consumers will no longer be required to have the training, and a certificate is not required to purchase or possess these items. Pepper spray and Mace are available through gun shops, sporting goods stores, and other business outlets. California Penal Code Section 12400–12460 govern pepper spray use in California. [67] Container holding the defense spray must contain no more than 2.5 ounces (71 g) net weight of aerosol spray. [68]
    • Certain individuals are still prohibited from possessing pepper spray, including minors under the age of 16, convicted felons, individuals convicted of certain drug offenses, individuals convicted of assault, and individuals convicted of misusing pepper spray. [67]
  • Massachusetts: Before July 1, 2014, residents may purchase defense sprays only from licensed Firearms Dealers in that state, and must hold a valid Firearms Identification Card (FID) or License to Carry Firearms (LTC) to purchase or to possess outside of one's own private property. [69] New legislations allow residents to purchase pepper spray without a Firearms Identification Card starting July 1. [70]
  • Florida: Any pepper spray containing no more than 2 ounces (57 g) of chemical can be carried in public openly or concealed without a permit. [71] [72] Furthermore, any such pepper spray is classified as "self-defense chemical spray" and therefore not considered a weapon under Florida law. [73]
  • Michigan: Allows "reasonable use" of spray containing not more than 18% oleoresin capsicum to protect "a person or property under circumstances that would justify the person's use of physical force". [74] It is illegal to distribute a "self-defense spray" to a person under 18 years of age.
  • New York: Can be legally possessed by any person age 18 or over. Restricted to no more than 0.67% capsaicin content.
    • It must be purchased in person (i.e., cannot be purchased by mail-order or internet sale) either at a pharmacy or from a licensed firearm retailer (NY Penal Law 265.20 14) and the seller must keep a record of purchases.
      • The use of pepper spray to prevent a public official from performing his/her official duties is a class-E felony.

  • New Jersey: Non-felons over the age of 18 can possess a small amount of pepper spray, with no more than three-quarters of an ounce of chemical substance.
  • Texas law makes it legal for an individual to possess a small, commercially sold container of pepper spray for personal self-defense. However, Texas law otherwise makes it illegal to carry a "Chemical dispensing device". [75]
  • Virginia: Code of Virginia § 18.2-312. Illegal use of tear gas, phosgene, and other gases. "If any person maliciously releases or cause or procure to be released in any private home, place of business or place of public gathering any tear gas, mustard gas, phosgene gas or other noxious or nauseating gases or mixtures of chemicals designed to, and capable of, producing vile or injurious or nauseating odors or gases, and bodily injury results to any person from such gas or odor, the offending person shall be guilty of a Class 3 felony. If such act be done unlawfully, but not maliciously, the offending person shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony. Nothing herein contained shall prevent the use of tear gas or other gases by police officers or other peace officers in the proper performance of their duties, or by any person or persons in the protection of the person, life or property." [76]
  • Washington: Persons over 18 may carry personal-protection spray devices.
    • Persons over age 14 may carry personal-protection spray devices with their legal guardian's consent. [77]
  • Wisconsin: Tear gas is not permissible.
    • By regulation, OC products with a maximum OC concentration of 10% and weight range of oleoresin of capsicum and inert ingredients of 15–60 grams (0.53–2.12 oz) are authorized. Further, the product cannot be camouflaged and must have a safety feature designed to prevent accidental discharge. The units may not have an effective range of over 20 feet (6.1 m) and must have an effective range of six feet (1.8 m).
      • In addition there are certain labeling and packaging requirements, it must not be sold to anyone under 18 and the phone number of the manufacturer has to be on the label. The units must also be sold in sealed tamper-proof packages. [78] [79]

South America

Australia

New Zealand

Civilian use advocates

In June 2002, West Australian resident Rob Hall was convicted for using a canister of pepper spray to break up an altercation between two guests at his home in Midland. He was sentenced to a good behavior bond and granted a spent conviction order, which he appealed to the Supreme Court. Justice Christine Wheeler ruled in his favor, thereby legalizing pepper spray in the state on a case-by-case basis for those who are able to show a reasonable excuse. [84] [89]

On 14 March 2012, a person dressed entirely in black entered the public gallery of the New South Wales Legislative Council and launched a paper plane into the air in the form of a petition to Police Minister Mike Gallacher calling on the government to allow civilians to carry capsicum spray. [90]

See also

Related Research Articles

Gun laws and policies regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification and use of small arms by civilians.

Scoville scale Scale for measuring spiciness of peppers

The Scoville scale is a measurement of the pungency of chili peppers, as recorded in Scoville Heat Units (SHU), based on the concentration of capsaicinoids, among which capsaicin is the predominant component. The scale is named after its creator, American pharmacist Wilbur Scoville, whose 1912 method is known as the Scoville organoleptic test. The Scoville organoleptic test is the most practical method for estimating SHU and is a subjective assessment derived from the capsaicinoid sensitivity by people experienced with eating hot chilis.

Non-lethal weapon Weapon intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons

Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than-lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons such as knives and firearms with live ammunition. It is often understood that unintended or incidental casualties are risked wherever force is applied, but non-lethal weapons try to minimise the risk of casualties as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in policing and combat situations to limit the escalation of conflict where employment of lethal force is prohibited or undesirable, where rules of engagement require minimum casualties, or where policy restricts the use of conventional force. These weapons occasionally cause serious injuries or death; the term "less-lethal" has been preferred by some organizations as it describes the risks of death more accurately than the term "non-lethal", which some have argued is a misnomer.

Oc, OC or O.C. may refer to:

Riot control

Riot control measures are used by law enforcement, military, or security forces to control, disperse, and arrest people who are involved in a riot, demonstration, or protest.

Gun laws in Finland incorporate the political and regulatory aspects of firearms usage in the country. Both hunting and shooting sports are common hobbies. There are approximately 300,000 people with hunting permits, and 34,000 people belong to sport shooting clubs. Over 1,500 people are licensed weapons collectors. Additionally, many reservists practice their skills using their own semi-automatic rifles and pistols after the military service.

Mace is the brand name of an early type of aerosol self-defense spray invented by Alan Lee Litman in the 1960s. The first commercial product of its type, Litman's design packaged phenacyl chloride (CN) tear gas dissolved in hydrocarbon solvents into a small aerosol spray can, usable in many environments and strong enough to act as a deterrent and incapacitant when sprayed in the face. Its popularity led to the name "mace" being used commonly for other defense sprays regardless of their composition, and for the term "maced" to be used to reference being pepper sprayed. It is unrelated to the spice mace.

Concealed carry, or carrying a concealed weapon (CCW), is the practice of carrying a weapon in public in a concealed manner, either on one's person or in close proximity. CCW is often practiced as a means of self-defense. It is illegal in many states to carry a concealed handgun without first obtaining a permit from a designated government authority at the state and/or local level. Permits may be difficult to obtain in some areas.

Tear gas Non-lethal chemical weapon

Tear gas, also known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator, sometimes colloquially known as "mace" after an early commercial aerosol, is a chemical weapon that stimulates the nerves of the lacrimal gland in the eye to produce tears. In addition, it can cause severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and blindness. Common lachrymators both currently and formerly used as tear gas include pepper spray, PAVA spray (nonivamide), CS gas, CR gas, CN gas, bromoacetone, xylyl bromide and Mace.

Gun politics and laws in Mexico covers the role firearms play as part of society within the limits of the United Mexican States. Current legislation sets the legality by which members of the armed forces, law enforcement and private citizens may acquire, own, possess and carry firearms; covering rights and limitations to individuals—including hunting and shooting sport participants, property and personal protection personnel such as bodyguards, security officers, private security, and extending to VIPs.

Concealed carry The practice of carrying a handgun or other weapon in public in a concealed or hidden manner

Concealed carry, or carrying a concealed weapon (CCW), is the practice of carrying a weapon, either in proximity to or on one's person or in public places in a manner that hides or conceals the weapon's presence from the surrounding observers. The opposite of concealed carry is called open carry.

Use of force continuum

A use of force continuum is a standard that provides law enforcement officers and civilians with guidelines as to how much force may be used against a resisting subject in a given situation. In some ways, it is similar to the U.S. military's escalation of force (EOF). The purpose of these models is to clarify, both for law enforcement officers and civilians, the complex subject of use of force. They are often central parts of law enforcement agencies' use of force policies. Various criminal justice agencies have developed different models of the continuum, and there is no universal or standard model. Generally, each different agency will have their own use of force policy. Some agencies may separate some of the hand-to-hand based use of force. For example, take-downs and pressure point techniques may be one step before actual strikes and kicks. Also, for some agencies the use of aerosol pepper spray and electronic control devices (TASER) may fall into the same category as take-downs, or the actual strikes.

Knife legislation is defined as the body of statutory law or case law promulgated or enacted by a government or other governing jurisdiction that prohibits, criminalizes, or restricts the otherwise legal manufacture, importation, sale, transfer, possession, transport, or use of knives.

Nonivamide, also called pelargonic acid vanillylamide or PAVA, is an organic compound and a capsaicinoid. It is an amide of pelargonic acid and vanillyl amine. It is present in chili peppers, but is commonly manufactured synthetically. It is more heat-stable than capsaicin.

Gun law in the Czech Republic Gun law in Czech Republic

Gun laws in the Czech Republic in many respects differ from those in other Member states of the European Union (see Gun laws in the European Union). A gun in the Czech Republic is available to anybody subject to acquiring a shall issue firearms license. Gun licenses may be obtained in a way similar to a driving license – by passing a gun proficiency exam, medical examination and having a clean criminal record. Unlike in most other European countries, the Czech gun legislation also permits a citizen to carry a concealed weapon for self-defense – 250,342 out of 307,372 legal gun owners have a concealed carry permit. The vast majority of Czech gun owners possess their firearms for protection, with hunting and sport shooting being less common.

Criminal possession of a weapon is the unlawful possession of a weapon by an individual.

Gun laws in Oklahoma Oklahomas gun law

Gun laws in Oklahoma regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition in the state of Oklahoma in the United States.

Gun laws in Arizona Arizonas gun law

Firearm laws in Arizona regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition in the state of Arizona in the United States.

Gun laws in Indiana Indianas gun law

Gun laws in Indiana regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition in the U.S. state of Indiana.

Polish law allows firearm ownership under license for people who can provide important reason. Hunting, sport shooting and collection are most popular reasons and require membership in suitable organization. Self-defense, while allowed, require proof of threat to life and is rarely allowed. With approximately 2.5 civilian firearms per 100 people, Poland is the 166th most armed country in the world. Only 0.6% of citizens have valid firearm permits.

References

  1. "Bear Spray Vs. Dogs: How Effective Is It?". Tbotech.com. 2009-07-04. Archived from the original on 2012-11-15. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  2. "Pepper Spray". Llrmi.com. Archived from the original on 2015-06-23. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  3. https://www.opcw.org/sites/default/files/documents/CWC/CWC_en.pdf
  4. Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth (November 11, 2002). "276 F3d 1125 Headwaters Forest Defense and Molly Burton v. The Coun". F3d (276): 1125 via openjurist.org.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. Seelye, Katharine Q. (November 22, 2011). "Pepper Spray's Fallout, From Crowd Control to Mocking Images". The New York Times . Archived from the original on October 21, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  6. Hemphill, Kenny (August 4, 2015). "10 Inventors Who Came to Regret Their Creations". Mental Floss. Archived from the original on April 28, 2020. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  7. Sabre Red. FAQs: What is oleoresin capsaicum? August 2020.
  8. National Institute of Justice. Oleoresin Capsaicum: Pepper Spray as a Force Alternative. March 1994.
  9. "Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Use of Police Implements and Arms by the People's Police". www.lawinfochina.com.
  10. "Top 10 Deadliest Weapons". ozytive. June 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-09-06.
  11. "Effects Of Pepper Spray". Redhotpepperspray.com. Archived from the original on 2011-12-17. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  12. "Top 10 Deadliest Weapons". ozytive.com. Archived from the original on December 6, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  13. "Effects of Oleoresin Capsicum Pepper Spray on Human Corneal Morphology and Sensitivity - Vesaluoma et al. 41 (8): 2138 - Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science". Iovs.org. Archived from the original on 2013-03-10. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  14. "CROWD CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (An appraisal of technologies for political control)" (PDF). European Parliament, Directorate General for Research. June 2000. p. v-vi. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-01-06. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  15. Los Angeles Times June 18, 1995
  16. "Pepper Spray Update: More Fatalities, More Questions | United States Environmental Protection Agency | American Government". Scribd.
  17. "Pepper spray's lethal legacy" in Ottawa Citizen . October 22, 1998, p. A1.
  18. Smith CG, Stopford W (1999). "Health hazards of pepper spray". N C Med J. 60 (5): 268–74. PMID   10495655. Archived at web.archive.org
  19. "Former F.B.I. Agent Is Sentenced to Prison", The New York Times . May 20, 1996, p. B8.
  20. "Ex-FBI Agent Pleads Guilty in Conflict-of-Interest Case", The Washington Post . February 13, 1996, p. A12.
  21. "Pepper spray study is tainted", San Francisco Chronicle . May 20, 1996, p. B8.
  22. Reay DT. Forensic pathology, part 1: death in custody. Clinics in Lab Med 1998;18:19–20; Watson WA, Stremel KR, and Westdorp EJ. Oleoresin capsicum (cap-stun) toxicity from aerosol exposures. Ann Pharmacotherapy 1996;30:733–5.
  23. Heiskell, Lawrence E. "How To Prevent Positional Asphyxia". www.policemag.com.
  24. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/posasph.pdf
  25. Remsberg, ByChuck (January 8, 2019). "New Study: More Evidence Against the Myth of "Restraint Asphyxia"".
  26. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/181655.pdf
  27. Barry, J. D.; Hennessy, R.; McManus Jr, J. G. (2008-09-04). "A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Treatment Regimens for Acute Pain for Topical Oleoresin Capsaicin (Pepper Spray) Exposure in Adult Volunteers - Prehospital Emergency Care". Prehospital Emergency Care. Informaworld.com. 12 (4): 432–7. doi:10.1080/10903120802290786. PMID   18924005. S2CID   12262260. Archived from the original on 2020-04-18. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
  28. https://www.gq.com/story/how-to-handle-tear-gas#:~:text=There's%20no%20way%20to%20simply,them%20to%20a%20safe%20area.
  29. https://www.simoneye.com/eye-care/why-you-shouldnt-rub-your-eyes/#:~:text=Studies%20have%20shown%20that%20continuous,need%20for%20a%20corneal%20graft
  30. Young, D., Police Marksman Magazine, July/August 1995 Issue.
  31. "Tear Gas Cleanup Procedures | Cleanfax magazine". Cleanfax. March 22, 2011.
  32. https://www.pepper-spray-store.com/pages/pepper-spray-types#:~:text=Essentially%20there%20are%20four%20types,for%20your%20own%20individual%20needs.
  33. "Riot Control Agents". Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  34. Agbo, Njideka (2018-04-18). "Nigeria: Possession of Pepper Spray an Offence Says Nigerian Police". The Guardian (Lagos). Archived from the original on 2019-01-04. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
  35. "Everything you Need to Know about Pepper Spray in South Africa". SecurityPro. 2016-07-21. Archived from the original on 2017-08-27. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
  36. "Self-defense gadgets popular after hotel assault - China - Chinadaily.com.cn". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on 2019-10-26. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  37. "HK Laws. Chap 238 Firearms and Ammunition Ordinance Section 2". Legislation.gov.hk. 2000-05-26. Archived from the original on 2012-12-23. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  38. "A spicy self-defense". The Times of India . Archived from the original on 2013-08-26. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
  39. Geeta Padmanabhan; Aarti Dhar (October 19, 2008). "Safety is a right too". The Hindu . Chennai, India. Archived from the original on November 1, 2010. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
  40. "Arms and Explosives Act - Singapore Statutes Online". sso.agc.gov.sg. Archived from the original on 2019-05-09. Retrieved 2019-05-22.
  41. "Nieuwe wapenwet (New Gun Law)". Archived from the original on 2012-12-23. Retrieved 2008-04-15.
  42. K.B. of 10 June 2006 tot regeling van het model, de inhoud, de wijze van dragen en het gebruik van spuitbussen en handboeien door de leden van de veiligheidsdiensten van de openbare vervoersmaatschappijen (B.S. 20 June 2006.
  43. "Prevence přepadení" [Prevention of assault] (in Czech). Policie České republiky – KŘP Královéhradeckého kraje (Police of the Czech Republic - Hradec Kralove region KRP). Archived from the original on 2012-12-23. Retrieved 2012-03-11.
  44. "Lov om ændring af lov om våben og eksplosivstoffer (Delvis lovliggørelse af peberspray) - retsinformation.dk". www.retsinformation.dk (in Danish). Archived from the original on 2018-12-25. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
  45. Rigspolitiet (25 December 2018). "Peberspray". Politi. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018.
  46. "How your gun permit applications are considered". blog.anta.net. 2007-10-21. ISSN   1797-1993. Archived from the original on 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  47. §2 Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine VersammlG.
  48. §32 Archived 2011-06-05 at the Wayback Machine StGB
  49. Ministerium des Inneren Archived 2007-05-16 at the Wayback Machine on Weapon Laws (German).
  50. "Greece". travel.state.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-11-17. Retrieved 2017-11-19.
  51. 175/2003. (X. 28.) Korm. rendelet a közbiztonságra különösen veszélyes eszközökről Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine .
  52. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-01-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  53. "Regolamento concernente la definizione delle caratteristiche tecniche degli strumenti di autodifesa che nebulizzano un principio attivo naturale a base di Oleoresin Capsicum e che non abbiano attitudine a recare offesa alla persona, in attuazione dell'articolo 3, comma 32, della legge n. 94/2009. (11G0142) (GU n. 157 del 8-7-2011)" (PDF). Ministero dell'Interno (Italian Ministry of Interior). 2012-06-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-05-11.
  54. "Rozdział 2. Zasady i warunki wydawania, cofania pozwoleń na broń, rejestracji broni oraz dysponowania bronią i amunicją". Ustawa o broni i aminucji (in Polish). Marszałek Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. 2004-03-18. pp. art. 11. Archived from the original on 28 January 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  55. "Статья 3 Закон об Оружии. Гражданское оружие - Кодексы и Законы РФ + Судебная практика". Archived from the original on 2012-11-29. Retrieved 2012-12-01.
  56. "Приказ Министерства здравоохранения и социального развития РФ от 22.10.2008 N 583н "О разрешении к применению слезоточивых и раздражающих веществ в составе патронов к газовому оружию, механических распылителей, аэрозольных и других устройств гражданского оружия самообороны"". Archived from the original on 2012-10-20. Retrieved 2012-12-01.
  57. Вукосављевић, Данијела. "Гасни спреј и електрошокер дозвољени по новом закону". Archived from the original on 2015-07-30. Retrieved 2015-08-02.
  58. "Každá žena sa môže stať obeťou trestného činu, buďte preto opatrné a pripravené". Archived from the original on 2017-08-26. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
  59. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-07-27. Retrieved 2018-07-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  60. Polisen. "Knivar och andra farliga föremål". Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  61. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-18. Retrieved 2013-12-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  62. "Regulations Prescribing Certain Firearms and other Weapons, Components and Parts of Weapons, Accessories, Cartridge Magazines, Ammunition and Projectiles as Prohibited or Restricted (SOR/98-462)". Archived from the original on 2012-12-23. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
  63. "Page not Found - Page non trouvé". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 2015-08-03. Retrieved 2015-10-07.Cite uses generic title (help)
  64. Crawford, Tiffany. "Vancouver police warn of criminal charges for carrying bear spray in the city". Archived from the original on 2020-02-23. Retrieved 2020-02-23.
  65. "Hazard Communication". US Department of Labor. Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  66. "States With Pepper Spray Restrictions | eBay". www.ebay.com.au. Archived from the original on 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  67. 1 2 "Pepper Spray (Mace/Tear Gas) - Consumer Wiki". consumerwiki.dca.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-11-14. Retrieved 2017-11-13.
  68. California Penal Code, Section 12403.7
  69. "M.G.L - Chapter 140, Section 131". Mass.gov. 2008-10-29. Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. Retrieved 2011-08-16..
  70. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-24. Retrieved 2014-06-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  71. "Florida Statues 790.01 Unlicensed carrying of concealed weapons or concealed firearms". Archived from the original on 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  72. "Florida Statues 790.053 Open carrying of weapons". Archived from the original on 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  73. "Florida Statues 790.001 Definitions". Archived from the original on 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  74. "Michigan Penal Code 750.224d Self-defense spray or foam device". Legislature.mi.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  75. Texas Penal Code 46.05(a)(1)(4) and Texas Penal Code 46.01(14)
  76. "§ 18.2-312. Illegal use of tear gas, phosgene and other gases". law.lis.virginia.gov. Archived from the original on 2018-06-29. Retrieved 2018-06-29.
  77. "RCW 9.91.160: Personal protection spray devices". Apps.leg.wa.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-08-22. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
  78. "Sale and Distribution of OC Products to Private Citizens" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-09-23.
  79. "Wisconsin State Legal Statutes 941.26". Archived from the original on 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2011-09-23.
  80. Collett, Michael (8 July 2018). "The one place in Australia where it's legal to have pepper spray for self-defence". ABC News. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  81. "Weapons Prohibition Act 1998 - Schedule 1". Archived from the original on 2017-04-10. Retrieved 2017-04-10.
  82. "Weapons Control Act". Archived from the original on 2013-01-02. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
  83. Police, South Australia. "Firearms and weapons". Archived from the original on 2013-04-30. Retrieved 2014-06-22.
  84. 1 2 Anne Calverley, 'Judge clears use of pepper spray', The West Australian, 28 March 2003, 1.
  85. Control of Weapons Regulations 2011 (Vic)
  86. "Dealing with confrontation". Queensland Police. Archived from the original on 2018-04-01. Retrieved 2018-12-09.
  87. "Arms (Restricted Weapons and Specially Dangerous Airguns) Order 1984". Parliamentary Counsel Office. Archived from the original on 2014-10-17. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  88. Broadstock, M. (2002) What is the safety of "pepper spray" use by law enforcement or mental health service staff? Archived 2004-12-06 at the Wayback Machine , NZHTA Tech Brief Series 2002; 1(2). ISBN   1-877235-39-3.
  89. Hall v Collins [2003] WASCA 74 (4 April 2003).
  90. Tovey, Josephine (March 15, 2012). "Flight of the MacQuarie Street Ninja". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved December 19, 2014.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Pepper sprays at Wikimedia Commons