Cadmium chloride

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Cadmium chloride
Ball-and-stick model of cadmium chloride Cadmium-chloride-3D-balls.png
Ball-and-stick model of cadmium chloride
Cadmium chloride in polyhedron shape Cadmium-chloride-3D-polyhedra.png
Cadmium chloride in polyhedron shape
Cadmium chloride hemipentahydrate.jpg
Names
IUPAC name
Cadmium dichloride
Other names
Cadmium(II) chloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.030.256 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 233-296-7
912918
KEGG
PubChem CID
RTECS number
  • EV0175000
UNII
UN number 2570
  • InChI=1S/Cd.2ClH/h;2*1H/q+2;;/p-2 Yes check.svgY
    Key: YKYOUMDCQGMQQO-UHFFFAOYSA-L Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/Cd.2ClH/h;2*1H/q+2;;/p-2
    Key: YKYOUMDCQGMQQO-NUQVWONBAG
  • [Cd+2].[Cl-].[Cl-]
Properties
CdCl2
Molar mass 183.31 g·mol−1
AppearanceWhite solid, hygroscopic
Odor Odorless
Density 4.047 g/cm3 (anhydrous) [1]
3.327 g/cm3 (Hemipentahydrate) [2]
Melting point 568 °C (1,054 °F; 841 K)
at 760 mmHg [2]
Boiling point 964 °C (1,767 °F; 1,237 K)
at 760 mmHg [2]
Hemipentahydrate:
79.5 g/100 mL (−10 °C)
90 g/100 mL (0 °C)
Monohydrate:
119.6 g/100 mL (25 °C) [2]
134.3 g/100 mL (40 °C)
134.2 g/100 mL (60 °C)
147 g/100 mL (100 °C) [3]
Solubility Soluble in alcohol, selenium(IV) oxychloride, benzonitrile
Insoluble in ether, acetone [1]
Solubility in pyridine 4.6 g/kg (0 °C)
7.9 g/kg (4 °C)
8.1 g/kg (15 °C)
6.7 g/kg (30 °C)
5 g/kg (100 °C) [1]
Solubility in ethanol 1.3 g/100 g (10 °C)
1.48 g/100 g (20 °C)
1.91 g/100 g (40 °C)
2.53 g/100 g (70 °C) [1]
Solubility in dimethyl sulfoxide 18 g/100 g (25 °C) [1]
Vapor pressure 0.01 kPa (471 °C)
0.1 kPa (541 °C) [2]
−6.87·10−5 cm3/mol [2]
Viscosity 2.31 cP (597 °C)
1.87 cP (687 °C) [1]
Structure
Rhombohedral, hR9 (anhydrous) [4]
Monoclinic (hemipentahydrate) [3]
R3m, No. 166 (anhydrous) [4]
3 2/m (anhydrous) [4]
a = 3.846 Å, c = 17.479 Å (anhydrous) [4]
α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°
Thermochemistry
74.7 J/mol·K [2]
Std molar
entropy
(S298)
115.3 J/mol·K [2]
−391.5 kJ/mol [2]
−343.9 kJ/mol [2]
Hazards
GHS labelling:
GHS-pictogram-skull.svg GHS-pictogram-silhouette.svg GHS-pictogram-pollu.svg [5]
Danger
H301, H330, H340, H350, H360, H372, H410 [5]
P210, P260, P273, P284, P301+P310, P310 [5]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
4
0
0
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
94 mg/kg (rats, oral) [1]
60 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
88 mg/kg (rat, oral) [6]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
[1910.1027] TWA 0.005 mg/m3 (as Cd) [7]
REL (Recommended)
Ca [7]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Ca [9 mg/m3 (as Cd)] [7]
Safety data sheet (SDS) External MSDS
Related compounds
Other anions
Cadmium fluoride
Cadmium bromide
Cadmium iodide
Other cations
Zinc chloride
Mercury(II) chloride
Calcium chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
X mark.svgN  verify  (what is  Yes check.svgYX mark.svgN ?)

Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chloride, with the formula CdCl2. This salt is a hygroscopic solid that is highly soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. The crystal structure of cadmium chloride (described below), is a reference for describing other crystal structures. Also known are CdCl2•H2O and CdCl2•5H2O. [2]

Contents

Structure

Cadmium chloride forms a layered structure consisting of octahedral Cd2+ centers linked with chloride ligands. Cadmium iodide, CdI2, has a similar structure, but the iodide ions are arranged in a HCP lattice, whereas in CdCl2 the chloride ions are arranged in a CCP lattice. [8] [9]

Chemical properties

Cadmium chloride dissolves well in water and other polar solvents. It is a mild Lewis acid. [8]

CdCl2 + 2 Cl → [CdCl4]2−

Solutions of equimolar cadmium chloride and potassium chloride give potassium cadmium trichloride. [10] With large cations, it is possible to isolate the trigonal bipyramidal [CdCl5]3− ion.

Preparation

Anhydrous cadmium chloride can be prepared by the reaction of hydrochloric acid and cadmium metal.

Cd + 2 HCl → CdCl2 + H2

The anhydrous salt can also be prepared from anhydrous cadmium acetate using hydrogen chloride or acetyl chloride. [11]

Uses

Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide, used as "cadmium yellow", a brilliant-yellow stable inorganic pigment.

CdCl
2
+ H
2
S
CdS + 2 HCl

In the laboratory, anhydrous CdCl2 can be used for the preparation of organocadmium compounds of the type R2Cd, where R is an aryl or a primary alkyl. These were once used in the synthesis of ketones from acyl chlorides: [12]

CdCl
2
+ 2 RMgX → R
2
Cd
+ MgCl
2
+ MgX
2
R
2
Cd
+ 2R'COCl → 2R'COR + CdCl
2

Such reagents have largely been supplanted by organocopper compounds, which are much less toxic.

Cadmium chloride is also used for photocopying, dyeing and electroplating.

Like all cadmium compounds, CdCl
2
is highly toxic and appropriate safety precautions must be taken when handling it.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potassium tetraiodomercurate(II)</span> Chemical compound

Potassium tetraiodomercurate(II) is an inorganic compound consisting of potassium cations and the tetraiodomercurate(II) anion. It is mainly used as Nessler's reagent, a 0.09 mol/L solution of potassium tetraiodomercurate(II) (K2[HgI4]) in 2.5 mol/L potassium hydroxide, used to detect ammonia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zinc chloride</span> Chemical compound

Zinc chloride is the name of inorganic chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates. Zinc chlorides, of which nine crystalline forms are known, are colorless or white, and are highly soluble in water. This salt is hygroscopic and even deliquescent. Zinc chloride finds wide application in textile processing, metallurgical fluxes, and chemical synthesis. No mineral with this chemical composition is known aside from the very rare mineral simonkolleite, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Barium chloride</span> Chemical compound

Barium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula BaCl2. It is one of the most common water-soluble salts of barium. Like most other water-soluble barium salts, it is white, highly toxic, and imparts a yellow-green coloration to a flame. It is also hygroscopic, converting first to the dihydrate BaCl2(H2O)2. It has limited use in the laboratory and industry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hydrogen bromide</span> Chemical compound

Hydrogen bromide is the inorganic compound with the formula HBr. It is a hydrogen halide consisting of hydrogen and bromine. A colorless gas, it dissolves in water, forming hydrobromic acid, which is saturated at 68.85% HBr by weight at room temperature. Aqueous solutions that are 47.6% HBr by mass form a constant-boiling azeotrope mixture that boils at 124.3 °C. Boiling less concentrated solutions releases H2O until the constant-boiling mixture composition is reached.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lead(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Lead(II) chloride (PbCl2) is an inorganic compound which is a white solid under ambient conditions. It is poorly soluble in water. Lead(II) chloride is one of the most important lead-based reagents. It also occurs naturally in the form of the mineral cotunnite.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manganese(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Manganese(II) chloride is the dichloride salt of manganese, MnCl2. This inorganic chemical exists in the anhydrous form, as well as the dihydrate (MnCl2·2H2O) and tetrahydrate (MnCl2·4H2O), with the tetrahydrate being the most common form. Like many Mn(II) species, these salts are pink, with the paleness of the color being characteristic of transition metal complexes with high spin d5 configurations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Copper(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuCl2. The anhydrous form is yellowish brown but slowly absorbs moisture to form a blue-green dihydrate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chromium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) describes any of several chemical compounds with the formula CrCl3 · xH2O, where x can be 0, 5, and 6. The anhydrous compound with the formula CrCl3 is a violet solid. The most common form of the trichloride is the dark green hexahydrate, CrCl3 · 6 H2O. Chromium chlorides find use as catalysts and as precursors to dyes for wool.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nickel(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Nickel(II) chloride (or just nickel chloride) is the chemical compound NiCl2. The anhydrous salt is yellow, but the more familiar hydrate NiCl2·6H2O is green. Nickel(II) chloride, in various forms, is the most important source of nickel for chemical synthesis. The nickel chlorides are deliquescent, absorbing moisture from the air to form a solution. Nickel salts have been shown to be carcinogenic to the lungs and nasal passages in cases of long-term inhalation exposure.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zinc bromide</span> Chemical compound

Zinc bromide (ZnBr2) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula ZnBr2. It is a colourless salt that shares many properties with zinc chloride (ZnCl2), namely a high solubility in water forming acidic solutions, and good solubility in organic solvents. It is hygroscopic and forms a dihydrate ZnBr2·2H2O.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chromyl chloride</span> Chemical compound

Chromyl chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula CrO2Cl2. It is a reddish brown compound that is a volatile liquid at room temperature, which is unusual for transition metal complexes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arsenic trichloride</span> Chemical compound

Arsenic trichloride is an inorganic compound with the formula AsCl3, also known as arsenous chloride or butter of arsenic. This poisonous oil is colourless, although impure samples may appear yellow. It is an intermediate in the manufacture of organoarsenic compounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zinc nitrate</span> Chemical compound

Zinc nitrate is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula Zn(NO3)2. This colorless, crystalline salt is highly deliquescent. It is typically encountered as a hexahydrate Zn(NO3)2·6H2O. It is soluble in both water and alcohol.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yttrium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Yttrium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound of yttrium and chloride. It exists in two forms, the hydrate (YCl3(H2O)6) and an anhydrous form (YCl3). Both are colourless solids that are highly soluble in water and deliquescent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cadmium iodide</span> Chemical compound

Cadmium iodide is the inorganic compound with the formula CdI2. It is a white hygroscopic solid. It also can be obtained as a mono- and tetrahydrate. It has few applications. It is notable for its crystal structure, which is typical for compounds of the form MX2 with strong polarization effects.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cadmium bromide</span> Chemical compound

Cadmium bromide is the inorganic compound with the formula CdBr2. It is a white hygroscopic solid. It also can be obtained as a mono- and tetrahydrate. It has few applications.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cadmium acetate</span> Chemical compound

Cadmium acetate is the chemical compound with the formula Cd(O2CCH3)2(H2O)2. The compound is marketed both as the anhydrous form and as a dihydrate, both of which are white or colorless. Only the dihydrate has been verified by X-ray crystallography.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cadmium hydroxide</span> Chemical compound

Cadmium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Cd(OH)2. It is a white crystalline ionic compound that is a key component of nickel–cadmium battery.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chromium(II) fluoride</span> Chemical compound

Chromium(II) fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula CrF2. It exists as a blue-green iridescent solid. Chromium(II) fluoride is sparingly soluble in water, almost insoluble in alcohol, and is soluble in boiling hydrochloric acid, but is not attacked by hot distilled sulfuric acid or nitric acid. Like other chromous compounds, chromium(II) fluoride is oxidized to chromium(III) oxide in air.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Berkelium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Berkelium(III) chloride also known as berkelium trichloride, is a chemical compound with the formula BkCl3. It is a water-soluble green solid with a melting point of 603 °C. This compound forms the hexahydrate, BkCl3·6H2O.

References

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  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Lide, David R., ed. (2009). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (90th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN   978-1-4200-9084-0.
  3. 1 2 Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1919). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (2nd ed.). New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. p.  169.
  4. 1 2 3 4 "Cadmium Chloride - CdCl2". chem.uwimona.edu.jm. Mona, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies. Retrieved 2014-06-25.
  5. 1 2 3 Sigma-Aldrich Co., Cadmium chloride. Retrieved on 2014-05-23.
  6. "Cadmium compounds (as Cd)". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  7. 1 2 3 NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0087". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  8. 1 2 N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
  9. A. F. Wells, Structural Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1984.
  10. F. Wagenknecht; R. Juza (1963). "Potassium cadmium chloride". In G. Brauer (ed.). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Vol. 2. NY, NY: Academic Press. p. 1095.
  11. F. Wagenknecht; R. Juza (1963). "Cadmium chloride". In G. Brauer (ed.). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Vol. 2. NY, NY: Academic Press. pp. 1093–4.
  12. J. March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., p. 723, Wiley, New York, 1992.