Holmium(III) chloride

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Holmium(III) chloride
Aluminium-trichloride-crystal-3D-balls.png
Names
Other names
Holmium trichloride
Holmiumchlorid
Identifiers
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PubChem CID
UNII
Properties
HoCl3
Molar mass 271.289 g/mol
Appearanceyellow crystals
hygroscopic
Density 3.7 g/cm3
Melting point 720 °C (1,328 °F; 993 K) [1]
Boiling point 1,500 °C (2,730 °F; 1,770 K) (decomposes)
dissolves
Structure
Monoclinic, mS16
C12/m1, No. 12
Related compounds
Other anions
Holmium(III) oxide
Other cations
Dysprosium(III) chloride, Erbium(III) chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Holmium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula Ho Cl3. It is a common salt but is mainly used in research. It exhibits the same color-changing behavior seen in holmium oxide, being a yellow in natural lighting and a bright pink color in fluorescent lighting.

Contents

Preparation

It forms upon union of the elements, but a more commonly used method involves heating a mixture of holmium(III) oxide and ammonium chloride at 200-250 °C: [2]

Ho2O3 + 6 NH4Cl → 2 HoCl3 + 6 NH3 + 2 H2O

Structure

In the solid state it has the YCl3 layer structure. [3]

Related Research Articles

Holmium Chemical element, symbol Ho and atomic number 67

Holmium is a chemical element with the symbol Ho and atomic number 67. It is a rare-earth element and the eleventh member of the lanthanide series. It is a relatively soft, silvery, fairly corrosion-resistant and malleable metal. Like a lot of other lanthanides, holmium is too reactive to be found in native form, as pure holmium slowly forms a yellowish oxide coating when exposed to air. When isolated, holmium is relatively stable in dry air at room temperature. However, it reacts with water and corrodes readily, and also burns in air when heated.

Thulium Chemical element, symbol Tm and atomic number 69

Thulium is a chemical element with the symbol Tm and atomic number 69. It is the thirteenth and third-last element in the lanthanide series. Like the other lanthanides, the most common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides and other compounds; however, the +2 oxidation state can also be stable. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble thulium compounds form coordination complexes with nine water molecules.

Iron(III) chloride Inorganic compound

Iron(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula FeCl3. Also called ferric chloride, it is a common compound of iron in the +3 oxidation state. The anhydrous compound is a crystalline solid with a melting point of 307.6 °C. The color depends on the viewing angle: by reflected light the crystals appear dark green, but by transmitted light they appear purple-red.

Zinc chloride Chemical compound

Zinc chloride is the name of inorganic chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates. Zinc chlorides, of which nine crystalline forms are known, are colorless or white, and are highly soluble in water. This salt is hygroscopic and even deliquescent. Zinc chloride finds wide application in textile processing, metallurgical fluxes, and chemical synthesis. No mineral with this chemical composition is known aside from the very rare mineral simonkolleite, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O.

Neodymium(III) chloride or neodymium trichloride is a chemical compound of neodymium and chlorine with the formula NdCl3. This anhydrous compound is a mauve-colored solid that rapidly absorbs water on exposure to air to form a purple-colored hexahydrate, NdCl3·6H2O. Neodymium(III) chloride is produced from minerals monazite and bastnäsite using a complex multistage extraction process. The chloride has several important applications as an intermediate chemical for production of neodymium metal and neodymium-based lasers and optical fibers. Other applications include a catalyst in organic synthesis and in decomposition of waste water contamination, corrosion protection of aluminium and its alloys, and fluorescent labeling of organic molecules (DNA).

Samarium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Samarium(III) chloride, also known as samarium trichloride, is an inorganic compound of samarium and chloride. It is a pale yellow salt that rapidly absorbs water to form a hexahydrate, SmCl3.6H2O. The compound has few practical applications but is used in laboratories for research on new compounds of samarium.

Copper(II) chloride Chemical compound

Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuCl2. The anhydrous form is yellowish brown but slowly absorbs moisture to form a blue-green dihydrate.

Chromium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) describes any of several chemical compounds with the formula CrCl3 · xH2O, where x can be 0, 5, and 6. The anhydrous compound with the formula CrCl3 is a violet solid. The most common form of the trichloride is the dark green hexahydrate, CrCl3 · 6 H2O. Chromium chlorides find use as catalysts and as precursors to dyes for wool.

Terbium(III,IV) oxide Chemical compound

Terbium(III,IV) oxide, occasionally called tetraterbium heptaoxide, has the formula Tb4O7, though some texts refer to it as TbO1.75. There is some debate as to whether it is a discrete compound, or simply one phase in an interstitial oxide system. Tb4O7 is one of the main commercial terbium compounds, and the only such product containing at least some Tb(IV) (terbium in the +4 oxidation state), along with the more stable Tb(III). It is produced by heating the metal oxalate, and it is used in the preparation of other terbium compounds. Terbium forms three other major oxides: Tb2O3, TbO2, and Tb6O11.

Erbium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Erbium(III) chloride is a violet solid with the formula ErCl3. It is used in the preparation of erbium metal.

Holmium(III) oxide Chemical compound

Holmium(III) oxide, or holmium oxide is a chemical compound of a rare-earth element holmium and oxygen with the formula Ho2O3. Together with dysprosium(III) oxide (Dy2O3), holmium oxide is one of the most powerfully paramagnetic substances known. The oxide, also called holmia, occurs as a component of the related erbium oxide mineral called erbia. Typically, the oxides of the trivalent lanthanides coexist in nature, and separation of these components requires specialized methods. Holmium oxide is used in making specialty colored glasses. Glass containing holmium oxide and holmium oxide solutions have a series of sharp optical absorption peaks in the visible spectral range. They are therefore traditionally used as a convenient calibration standard for optical spectrophotometers.

Phosphoryl chloride Chemical compound

Phosphoryl chloride is a colourless liquid with the formula POCl3. It hydrolyses in moist air releasing phosphoric acid and fumes of hydrogen chloride. It is manufactured industrially on a large scale from phosphorus trichloride and oxygen or phosphorus pentoxide. It is mainly used to make phosphate esters such as tricresyl phosphate.

Arsenic trichloride Chemical compound

Arsenic trichloride is an inorganic compound with the formula AsCl3, also known as arsenous chloride or butter of arsenic. This poisonous oil is colourless, although impure samples may appear yellow. It is an intermediate in the manufacture of organoarsenic compounds.

Yttrium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Yttrium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound of yttrium and chloride. It exists in two forms, the hydrate (YCl3(H2O)6) and an anhydrous form (YCl3). Both are colourless solids that are highly soluble in water and deliquescent.

Lanthanum chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula LaCl3. It is a common salt of lanthanum which is mainly used in research. It is a white solid that is highly soluble in water and alcohols.

Lutetium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Lutetium(III) chloride or lutetium trichloride is the chemical compound composed of lutetium and chlorine with the formula LuCl3. It forms hygroscopic white monoclinic crystals and also a hydroscopic hexahydrate LuCl3·6H2O. Anhydrous lutetium(III) chloride has the YCl3 (AlCl3) layer structure with octahedral lutetium ions.

Zirconium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Zirconium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound with formula ZrCl3. It is a blue-black solid that is highly sensitive to air.

Chromium(III) perchlorate Chemical compound

Chromium(III) perchlorate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Cr(ClO4)3. It's hexahydrate Cr(ClO4)3·6H2O is a cyan solid that dissolves in water.

Lanthanide trichlorides are a family of inorganic compound with the formula LnCl3, where Ln stands for a lanthanide metal. The trichlorides are standard reagents in applied and academic chemistry of the lanthanides. They exist as anhydrous solids and as hydrates.

Holmium(III) sulfide Chemical compound

Holmium(III) sulfide is the sulfide of holmium, with the chemical formula of Ho2S3. Like other rare earth sulfides, it is used as a high-performance inorganic pigment.

References

  1. Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN   0-8493-0487-3.
  2. Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY.
  3. Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford. ISBN   0-19-855370-6