Americium(III) chloride

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Americium(III) chloride
UCl3.png
Names
IUPAC name
Americium(III) chloride
Systematic IUPAC name
Americium(3+) chloride
Other names
Americium chloride
Americium trichloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/Am.3ClH/h;3*1H/q+3;;;/p-3 Yes check.svgY
    Key: GQKWPBIZTINWCF-UHFFFAOYSA-K Yes check.svgY
  • [Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-].[Am+3]
Properties
AmCl3
Molar mass 349 g·mol−1
AppearanceLight red, opaque crystals
Density 5.87 g cm−3 [1]
Melting point 715 °C (1,319 °F; 988 K) [2]
Boiling point 850 °C (1,560 °F; 1,120 K) [1]
Structure
hexagonal (UCl3 type), hP8
P63/m, No. 176
Tricapped trigonal prismatic
(nine-coordinate)
Related compounds
Other anions
Americium(III) fluoride
Americium(III) bromide
Americium(III) iodide
Other cations
Plutonium(III) chloride
Curium(III) chloride
Europium(III) chloride
Americium(II) chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Americium(III) chloride or americium trichloride is the chemical compound composed of americium and chlorine with the formula AmCl3. This salt forms pink hexagonal crystals. In the solid state each americium atom has nine chlorine atoms as near neighbours, at approximately the same distance, in a tricapped trigonal prismatic configuration. [3] [4]

The hexahydrate has a monocline crystal structure with: a = 970.2 pm, b = 656.7 pm and c = 800.9 pm; β = 93° 37'; space group: P2/n. [5]

Reactions

An americium(III) chloride electrorefining method has been investigated to separate mixtures of actinides, since the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of americium(III) chloride is much different than the rest of the actinide chlorides. [6] This can be used to remove americium from plutonium by melting the crude mixture together with salts such as sodium chloride. [7]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Americium</span> Chemical element, symbol Am and atomic number 95

Americium is a synthetic radioactive chemical element with the symbol Am and atomic number 95. It is a transuranic member of the actinide series, in the periodic table located under the lanthanide element europium, and thus by analogy was named after the Americas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Berkelium</span> Chemical element, symbol Bk and atomic number 97

Berkelium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the symbol Bk and atomic number 97. It is a member of the actinide and transuranium element series. It is named after the city of Berkeley, California, the location of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory where it was discovered in December 1949. Berkelium was the fifth transuranium element discovered after neptunium, plutonium, curium and americium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Curium</span> Chemical element, symbol Cm and atomic number 96

Curium is a transuranic, radioactive chemical element with the symbol Cm and atomic number 96. This actinide element was named after eminent scientists Marie and Pierre Curie, both known for their research on radioactivity. Curium was first intentionally made by the team of Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, and Albert Ghiorso in 1944, using the cyclotron at Berkeley. They bombarded the newly discovered element plutonium with alpha particles. This was then sent to the Metallurgical Laboratory at University of Chicago where a tiny sample of curium was eventually separated and identified. The discovery was kept secret until after the end of World War II. The news was released to the public in November 1947. Most curium is produced by bombarding uranium or plutonium with neutrons in nuclear reactors – one tonne of spent nuclear fuel contains ~20 grams of curium.

Neodymium(III) chloride or neodymium trichloride is a chemical compound of neodymium and chlorine with the formula NdCl3. This anhydrous compound is a mauve-colored solid that rapidly absorbs water on exposure to air to form a purple-colored hexahydrate, NdCl3·6H2O. Neodymium(III) chloride is produced from minerals monazite and bastnäsite using a complex multistage extraction process. The chloride has several important applications as an intermediate chemical for production of neodymium metal and neodymium-based lasers and optical fibers. Other applications include a catalyst in organic synthesis and in decomposition of waste water contamination, corrosion protection of aluminium and its alloys, and fluorescent labeling of organic molecules (DNA).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Samarium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Samarium(III) chloride, also known as samarium trichloride, is an inorganic compound of samarium and chloride. It is a pale yellow salt that rapidly absorbs water to form a hexahydrate, SmCl3.6H2O. The compound has few practical applications but is used in laboratories for research on new compounds of samarium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chromium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) describes any of several chemical compounds with the formula CrCl3 · xH2O, where x can be 0, 5, and 6. The anhydrous compound with the formula CrCl3 is a violet solid. The most common form of the trichloride is the dark green hexahydrate, CrCl3 · 6 H2O. Chromium chlorides find use as catalysts and as precursors to dyes for wool.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scandium chloride</span> Chemical compound

Scandium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula ScCl3. It is a white, high-melting ionic compound, which is deliquescent and highly water-soluble. This salt is mainly of interest in the research laboratory. Both the anhydrous form and hexahydrate (ScCl3•6H2O) are commercially available.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gadolinium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Gadolinium(III) chloride, also known as gadolinium trichloride, is GdCl3. It is a colorless, hygroscopic, water-soluble solid. The hexahydrate GdCl3∙6H2O is commonly encountered and is sometimes also called gadolinium trichloride. Gd3+ species are of special interest because the ion has the maximum number of unpaired spins possible, at least for known elements. With seven valence electrons and seven available f-orbitals, all seven electrons are unpaired and symmetrically arranged around the metal. The high magnetism and high symmetry combine to make Gd3+ a useful component in NMR spectroscopy and MRI.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Organoactinide chemistry</span> Study of chemical compounds containing actinide-carbon bonds

Organoactinide chemistry is the science exploring the properties, structure and reactivity of organoactinide compounds, which are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to actinide chemical bond.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plutonium hexafluoride</span> Chemical compound

Plutonium hexafluoride is the highest fluoride of plutonium, and is of interest for laser enrichment of plutonium, in particular for the production of pure plutonium-239 from irradiated uranium. This pure plutonium is needed to avoid premature ignition of low-mass nuclear weapon designs by neutrons produced by spontaneous fission of plutonium-240.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lutetium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Lutetium(III) chloride or lutetium trichloride is the chemical compound composed of lutetium and chlorine with the formula LuCl3. It forms hygroscopic white monoclinic crystals and also a hydroscopic hexahydrate LuCl3·6H2O. Anhydrous lutetium(III) chloride has the YCl3 (AlCl3) layer structure with octahedral lutetium ions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Berkelium compounds</span> Any chemical compound having at least one berkelium atom

Berkelium forms a number of chemical compounds, where it normally exists in an oxidation state of +3 or +4, and behaves similarly to its lanthanide analogue, terbium. Like all actinides, berkelium easily dissolves in various aqueous inorganic acids, liberating gaseous hydrogen and converting into the trivalent oxidation state. This trivalent state is the most stable, especially in aqueous solutions, but tetravalent berkelium compounds are also known. The existence of divalent berkelium salts is uncertain and has only been reported in mixed lanthanum chloride-strontium chloride melts. Aqueous solutions of Bk3+ ions are green in most acids. The color of the Bk4+ ions is yellow in hydrochloric acid and orange-yellow in sulfuric acid. Berkelium does not react rapidly with oxygen at room temperature, possibly due to the formation of a protective oxide surface layer; however, it reacts with molten metals, hydrogen, halogens, chalcogens and pnictogens to form various binary compounds. Berkelium can also form several organometallic compounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chromyl fluoride</span> Chemical compound

Chromyl fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO2F2. It is a violet-red colored crystalline solid that melts to an orange-red liquid.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides</span>

Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides are coordination complexes composed of a cationic metal with anionic bis(trimethylsilyl)amide ligands and are part of a broader category of metal amides.

In chemistry, molecular oxohalides (oxyhalides) are a group of chemical compounds in which both oxygen and halogen atoms are attached to another chemical element A in a single molecule. They have the general formula AOmXn, where X = fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and/or iodine (I). The element A may be a main group element, a transition element or an actinide. The term oxohalide, or oxyhalide, may also refer to minerals and other crystalline substances with the same overall chemical formula, but having an ionic structure.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Neptunium(VI) fluoride</span> Chemical compound

Neptunium(VI) fluoride (NpF6) is the highest fluoride of neptunium, it is also one of seventeen known binary hexafluorides. It is an orange volatile crystalline solid. It is relatively hard to handle, being very corrosive, volatile and radioactive. Neptunium hexafluoride is stable in dry air but reacts vigorously with water.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Actinide chemistry</span> Branch of nuclear chemistry

Actinide chemistry is one of the main branches of nuclear chemistry that investigates the processes and molecular systems of the actinides. The actinides derive their name from the group 3 element actinium. The informal chemical symbol An is used in general discussions of actinide chemistry to refer to any actinide. All but one of the actinides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 5f electron shell; lawrencium, a d-block element, is also generally considered an actinide. In comparison with the lanthanides, also mostly f-block elements, the actinides show much more variable valence. The actinide series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.

Cerium(III) iodide (CeI3) is the compound formed by cerium(III) cations and iodide anions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Berkelium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Berkelium(III) chloride also known as berkelium trichloride, is a chemical compound with the formula BkCl3. It is a water-soluble green solid with a melting point of 603 °C. This compound forms the hexahydrate, BkCl3·6H2O.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lanthanum(III) iodide</span> Chemical compound

Lanthanum(III) iodide is an inorganic compound containing lanthanum and iodine with the chemical formula LaI
3
.

References

  1. 1 2 "Chemistry: Periodic Table: americium: compound data (americium (III) chloride)". WebElements. Retrieved 2008-06-24.
  2. Perry, Dale L.; Phillips, Sidney L. (1995), Handbook of Inorganic Compounds, CRC Press, p. 15, ISBN   0-8493-8671-3 , retrieved 2008-06-25
  3. L. B. Asprey, T. K. Keenan, F. H. Kruse: "Crystal Structures of the Trifluorides, Trichlorides, Tribromides, and Triiodides of Americium and Curium", Inorg. Chem. 1965, 4 (7), 985–986; doi : 10.1021/ic50029a013.
  4. A. F. Wells: Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition (1984) Oxford Science Publications, ISBN   0-19-855370-6.
  5. John H. Burns, Joseph Richard Peterson: "The Crystal Structures of Americium Trichloride Hexahydrate and Berkelium Trichloride Hexahydrate", Inorg. Chem. 1971, 10 (1), 147–151; doi : 10.1021/ic50095a029.
  6. Nuclear Energy Agency (2001), Proceedings of the Workshop on Pyrochemical Separations, Avignon, France: OECD Publishing, pp. 276–277, ISBN   92-64-18443-0 , retrieved 2008-06-24
  7. Plutonium Processing In The Nuclear Weapons Complex, Diane Publishing, 1992, p. 21, ISBN   1-56806-568-X , retrieved 2008-06-24