Rhenium pentachloride

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Rhenium pentachloride
IUPAC name
Rhenium pentachloride
Other names
Rhenium(V) chloride, Rhenium chloride, pentachlororhenium
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.033.660 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 237-042-6
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/5ClH.Re/h5*1H;/q;;;;;+5/p-5
  • InChI=1/5ClH.Re/h5*1H;/q;;;;;+5/p-5/rCl5Re/c1-6(2,3,4)5
  • Cl[Re](Cl)(Cl)(Cl)Cl
Molar mass 363.471 g/mol
Density 4.9 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 220 °C (428 °F; 493 K)
Boiling point N/A
Will react to decompose and release HCl (g)
+1225.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Monoclinic, mP48; a = 0.924 nm, b = 1.154 nm, c = 1.203 nm, α = 90°, β = 109.1°, γ = 90° [1]
P21/c, No. 14
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
releases HCl upon hydrolysis
GHS labelling: [2]
H315, H319, H335
P261, P264, P271, P280, P302+P352, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P312, P321, P332+P313, P337+P313, P362, P403+P233, P405, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Safety data sheet (SDS) MSDS
Related compounds
Other anions
Rhenium hexafluoride
Related compounds
Trirhenium nonachloride, rhenium tetrachloride, rhenium hexachloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Rhenium pentachloride is an inorganic compound of chlorine and rhenium. The compound has the formula Re2Cl10 but it is usually referred to as rhenium pentachloride. It is a red-brown solid.


Structure and preparation

Rhenium pentachloride has a bioctahedral structure and can be formulated as Cl4Re(μ-Cl)2ReCl4. The Re-Re distance is 3.74 Å. [1] The motif is similar to that seen for tantalum pentachloride.

This compound was first prepared in 1933, [3] a few years after the discovery of rhenium. The preparation involves chlorination of rhenium at temperatures up to 900 °C. [4] The material can be purified by sublimation.

ReCl5 is one of the most oxidized binary chlorides of Re. It does not undergo further chlorination. ReCl6 has been prepared from rhenium hexafluoride. [5] Rhenium heptafluoride is known but not the heptachloride. [6]

Uses and reactions

It degrades in air to a brown liquid. [7]

Although rhenium pentachloride has no commercial applications, it is of historic significance as one of the early catalysts for olefin metathesis. [8] Reduction gives trirhenium nonachloride.

Oxygenation affords the Re(VII) oxychloride: [9]

ReCl5 + 3 Cl2O → ReO3Cl + 5 Cl2

Comproportionation of the penta- and trichloride gives rhenium tetrachloride.

Related Research Articles

In chemistry, halogenation is a chemical reaction that entails the introduction of one or more halogens into a compound. Halide-containing compounds are pervasive, making this type of transformation important, e.g. in the production of polymers, drugs. This kind of conversion is in fact so common that a comprehensive overview is challenging. This article mainly deals with halogenation using elemental halogens (F2, Cl2, Br2, I2). Halides are also commonly introduced using salts of the halides and halogen acids. Many specialized reagents exist for and introducing halogens into diverse substrates, e.g. thionyl chloride.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Samarium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Samarium(III) chloride, also known as samarium trichloride, is an inorganic compound of samarium and chloride. It is a pale yellow salt that rapidly absorbs water to form a hexahydrate, SmCl3.6H2O. The compound has few practical applications but is used in laboratories for research on new compounds of samarium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Copper(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuCl2. The anhydrous form is yellowish brown but slowly absorbs moisture to form a blue-green dihydrate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chromium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) describes any of several chemical compounds with the formula CrCl3 · xH2O, where x can be 0, 5, and 6. The anhydrous compound with the formula CrCl3 is a violet solid. The most common form of the trichloride is the dark green hexahydrate, CrCl3 · 6 H2O. Chromium chlorides find use as catalysts and as precursors to dyes for wool.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phosphorus pentachloride</span> Chemical compound

Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5. It is one of the most important phosphorus chlorides, others being PCl3 and POCl3. PCl5 finds use as a chlorinating reagent. It is a colourless, water-sensitive and moisture-sensitive solid, although commercial samples can be yellowish and contaminated with hydrogen chloride.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Niobium(V) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Niobium(V) chloride, also known as niobium pentachloride, is a yellow crystalline solid. It hydrolyzes in air, and samples are often contaminated with small amounts of NbOCl3. It is often used as a precursor to other compounds of niobium. NbCl5 may be purified by sublimation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tantalum(V) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Tantalum(V) chloride, also known as tantalum pentachloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula TaCl5. It takes the form of a white powder and is commonly used as a starting material in tantalum chemistry. It readily hydrolyzes to form tantalum(V) oxychloride (TaOCl3) and eventually tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5); this requires that it be synthesised and manipulated under anhydrous conditions, using air-free techniques.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scandium chloride</span> Chemical compound

Scandium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula ScCl3. It is a white, high-melting ionic compound, which is deliquescent and highly water-soluble. This salt is mainly of interest in the research laboratory. Both the anhydrous form and hexahydrate (ScCl3•6H2O) are commercially available.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antimony pentachloride</span> Chemical compound

Antimony pentachloride is a chemical compound with the formula SbCl5. It is a colourless oil, but typical samples are yellowish due to dissolved chlorine. Owing to its tendency to hydrolyse to hydrochloric acid, SbCl5 is a highly corrosive substance and must be stored in glass or PTFE containers.

Vanadium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VCl4. This bright red liquid serves as a useful reagent for the preparation of other vanadium compounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Molybdenum(V) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Molybdenum(V) chloride is the inorganic compound with the empirical formula MoCl5. This dark volatile solid is used in research to prepare other molybdenum compounds. It is moisture-sensitive and soluble in chlorinated solvents.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nitrosyl chloride</span> Chemical compound

Nitrosyl chloride is the chemical compound with the formula NOCl. It is a yellow gas that is commonly encountered as a component of aqua regia, a mixture of 3 parts concentrated hydrochloric acid and 1 part of concentrated nitric acid. It is a strong electrophile and oxidizing agent. It is sometimes called Tilden's reagent, after William A. Tilden, who was the first to produce it as a pure compound.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trirhenium nonachloride</span> Chemical compound

Trirhenium nonachloride is a compound with the formula ReCl3, sometimes also written Re3Cl9. It is a dark red hygroscopic solid that is insoluble in ordinary solvents. The compound is important in the history of inorganic chemistry as an early example of a cluster compound with metal-metal bonds. It is used as a starting material for synthesis of other rhenium complexes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Niobium(IV) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Niobium(IV) chloride, also known as niobium tetrachloride, is the chemical compound of formula NbCl4. This compound exists as dark violet crystals, is highly sensitive to air and moisture, and disproportiates into niobium(III) chloride and niobium(V) chloride when heated.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metal halides</span>

Metal halides are compounds between metals and halogens. Some, such as sodium chloride are ionic, while others are covalently bonded. A few metal halides are discrete molecules, such as uranium hexafluoride, but most adopt polymeric structures, such as palladium chloride.

In chemistry, molecular oxohalides (oxyhalides) are a group of chemical compounds in which both oxygen and halogen atoms are attached to another chemical element A in a single molecule. They have the general formula AOmXn, where X = fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and/or iodine (I). The element A may be a main group element, a transition element or an actinide. The term oxohalide, or oxyhalide, may also refer to minerals and other crystalline substances with the same overall chemical formula, but having an ionic structure.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tungsten(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Tungsten(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula W6Cl18. It is a cluster compound. It is a brown solid, obtainable by chlorination of tungsten(II) chloride. Featuring twelve doubly bridging chloride ligands, the cluster adopts a structure related to the corresponding chlorides of niobium and tantalum. In contrast, W6Cl12 features eight triply bridging chlorides.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rhenium(VI) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Rhenium(VI) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula ReCl6. It is a black paramagnetic solid. The molecules adopt an octahedral structure as seen in tungsten(VI) chloride.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transition metal chloride complex</span> Coordination complex

In chemistry, a transition metal chloride complex is a coordination complex that consists of a transition metal coordinated to one or more chloride ligand. The class of complexes is extensive.

A chloride nitride is a mixed anion compound containing both chloride (Cl) and nitride ions (N3−). Another name is metallochloronitrides. They are a subclass of halide nitrides or pnictide halides.


  1. 1 2 Mucker, K. F.; Smith, G. S.; Johnson, Q. (1968). "The crystal structure of ReCl5" (PDF). Acta Crystallographica Section B. 24 (6): 874. doi:10.1107/S0567740868003316.
  2. GHS: PubChem 83602
  3. Geilmann, Wilhelm; Wrigge, Friedrich W.; Biltz, Wilhelm. (1933). "Rheniumpentachlorid". Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. (in German). 214 (3): 244. doi:10.1002/zaac.19332140304.
  4. Roger Lincoln, Geoffrey Wilkinson "Rhenium Pentachloride and Volatile Metal Chlorides by Direct Chlorination Using a Vertical-Tube Reactor" Inorganic Syntheses, 1980, Volume 20, Pages 41–43. doi : 10.1002/9780470132517.ch11.
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  6. Stuart A. Macgregor and Klaus H. Moock "Stabilization of High Oxidation States in Transition Metals. 2.1 WCl6 Oxidizes [WF6]-, but Would PtCl6 Oxidize [PtF6]-? An Electrochemical and Computational Study of 5d Transition Metal Halides: [MF6]z versus [MCl6]z (M = Ta to Pt; z = 0, 1−, 2−)" pp 3284–3292. doi : 10.1021/ic9605736
  7. Edwards, D. A.; Ward, R. T. (1970). "Some reactions of rhenium(V) chloride". Journal of the Chemical Society A: 1617. doi:10.1039/J19700001617.
  8. Ring-opening polymerization of endo and exo-dicyclopentadiene and their 7,8-dihydro derivatives, Hamilton, J.G.; Ivin, K.J.; Rooney, J.J. Journal of Molecular Catalysis1986 , 36, 115.
  9. Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G. (2004). Inorganic Chemistry (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN   978-0-13-039913-7.