Chlorine azide

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Chlorine azide
Chlorine azide.svg
Chlorine-azide-3D-spacefill.png
Names
Other names
Chlorine nitride; Nitrogen chloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
PubChem CID
  • [N-]=[N+]=NCl
Properties
ClN3
Molar mass 77.4731 g/mol
AppearanceYellow-orange liquid; colorless gas
Melting point −100 °C (−148 °F; 173 K)
Boiling point −15 °C (5 °F; 258 K)
Solubility Soluble[ vague ] in butane, pentane, benzene, methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon disulfide; slightly soluble in water
Structure
orthorhombic
Cmc 21, No. 36 [1]
Explosive data
Shock sensitivity Extreme
Friction sensitivity Extreme
Hazards
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
Extremely sensitive explosive
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
0
4
Related compounds
Related compounds
Hydrazoic acid
Fluorine azide
Bromine azide
Iodine azide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Chlorine azide ( Cl N 3) is an inorganic compound that was discovered in 1908 by Friedrich Raschig. [2] Concentrated ClN3 is notoriously unstable and may spontaneously detonate at any temperature. [3]

Contents

Preparation and handling

Chlorine azide is prepared by passing chlorine gas over silver azide, or by an addition of acetic acid to a solution of sodium hypochlorite and sodium azide. [4]

Explosive characteristics

Chlorine azide is extremely sensitive. It may explode, sometimes even without apparent provocation; it is thus too sensitive to be used commercially unless first diluted in solution. Chlorine azide reacts explosively with 1,3-butadiene, ethane, ethene, methane, propane, phosphorus, silver azide, and sodium. On contact with acid, chlorine azide decomposes, evolving toxic and corrosive hydrogen chloride gas. [5]

Regulatory information

Its shipment is subject to strict reporting requirements and regulations by the US Department of Transportation.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chlorine</span> Chemical element, symbol Cl and atomic number 17

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the revised Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine. On several scales other than the revised Pauling scale, nitrogen's electronegativity is also listed as greater than chlorine's, such as on the Allen, Allred-Rochow, Martynov-Batsanov, Mulliken-Jaffe, Nagle, and Noorizadeh-Shakerzadeh electronegativity scales.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nitrogen</span> Chemical element, symbol N and atomic number 7

Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. Nitrogen is a nonmetal and the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. It is a common element in the universe, estimated at seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form N2, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas. N2 forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate. The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes the movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium chloride</span> Chemical compound with formula NaCl

Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In its edible form of table salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. Another major application of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium hypochlorite</span> Chemical compound (known in solution as bleach)

Sodium hypochlorite is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula NaOCl, comprising a sodium cation and a hypochlorite anion. It may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. The anhydrous compound is unstable and may decompose explosively. It can be crystallized as a pentahydrate NaOCl·5H
2
O
, a pale greenish-yellow solid which is not explosive and is stable if kept refrigerated.

The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula HCl and as such is a hydrogen halide. At room temperature, it is a colourless gas, which forms white fumes of hydrochloric acid upon contact with atmospheric water vapor. Hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid are important in technology and industry. Hydrochloric acid, the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride, is also commonly given the formula HCl.

In chemistry, azide is a linear, polyatomic anion with the formula N−3 and structure N=N+=N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid HN3. Organic azides are organic compounds with the formula RN3, containing the azide functional group. The dominant application of azides is as a propellant in air bags.

The chloralkali process is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. It is the technology used to produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide, which are commodity chemicals required by industry. Thirty five million tons of chlorine were prepared by this process in 1987. The chlorine and sodium hydroxide produced in this process are widely used in the chemical industry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium azide</span> Chemical compound

Sodium azide is the inorganic compound with the formula NaN3. This colorless salt is the gas-forming component in legacy car airbag systems. It is used for the preparation of other azide compounds. It is an ionic substance, is highly soluble in water and is very acutely poisonous.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hydrazoic acid</span> Unstable and toxic chemical compound

Hydrazoic acid, also known as hydrogen azide or azoimide, is a compound with the chemical formula HN3. It is a colorless, volatile, and explosive liquid at room temperature and pressure. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, and is therefore a pnictogen hydride. It was first isolated in 1890 by Theodor Curtius. The acid has few applications, but its conjugate base, the azide ion, is useful in specialized processes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phosphorus pentachloride</span> Chemical compound

Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5. It is one of the most important phosphorus chlorides, others being PCl3 and POCl3. PCl5 finds use as a chlorinating reagent. It is a colourless, water-sensitive and moisture-sensitive solid, although commercial samples can be yellowish and contaminated with hydrogen chloride.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dichlorine monoxide</span> Chemical compound

Dichlorine monoxide is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula Cl2O. It was first synthesised in 1834 by Antoine Jérôme Balard, who along with Gay-Lussac also determined its composition. In older literature it is often referred to as chlorine monoxide, which can be a source of confusion as that name now refers to the neutral species ClO.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gold(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Gold(III) chloride, traditionally called auric chloride, is a compound of gold and chlorine with the molecular formula Au2Cl6. The "III" in the name indicates that the gold has an oxidation state of +3, typical for many gold compounds. Gold(III) chloride is hygroscopic and decomposes in visible light. This compound is a dimer of AuCl3. This compound has few uses, although it catalyzes various organic reactions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chloroplatinic acid</span> Chemical compound

Chloroplatinic acid (also known as hexachloroplatinic acid) is an inorganic compound with the formula [H3O]2[PtCl6](H2O)x (0 ≤ x ≤ 6). A red solid, it is an important commercial source of platinum, usually as an aqueous solution. Although often written in shorthand as H2PtCl6, it is the hydronium (H3O+) salt of the hexachloroplatinate anion (PtCl2−
6
). Hexachloroplatinic acid is highly hygroscopic.

Monochloramine, often called chloramine, is the chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl. Together with dichloramine (NHCl2) and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3), it is one of the three chloramines of ammonia. It is a colorless liquid at its melting point of −66 °C (−87 °F), but it is usually handled as a dilute aqueous solution, in which form it is sometimes used as a disinfectant. Chloramine is too unstable to have its boiling point measured.

The chemical element nitrogen is one of the most abundant elements in the universe and can form many compounds. It can take several oxidation states; but the most oxidation states are -3 and +3. Nitrogen can form nitride and nitrate ions. It also forms a part of nitric acid and nitrate salts. Nitrogen compounds also have an important role in organic chemistry, as nitrogen is part of proteins, amino acids and adenosine triphosphate.

The Stieglitz rearrangement is a rearrangement reaction in organic chemistry which is named after the American chemist Julius Stieglitz (1867–1937) and was first investigated by him and Paul Nicholas Leech in 1913. It describes the 1,2-rearrangement of trityl amine derivatives to triaryl imines. It is comparable to a Beckmann rearrangement which also involves a substitution at a nitrogen atom through a carbon to nitrogen shift. As an example, triaryl hydroxylamines can undergo a Stieglitz rearrangement by dehydration and the shift of a phenyl group after activation with phosphorus pentachloride to yield the respective triaryl imine, a Schiff base.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chloroauric acid</span> Chemical compound

Chloroauric acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula H[AuCl4]. It forms hydrates H[AuCl4nH2O. Both the trihydrate and tetrahydrate are known. Both are orange-yellow solids consisting of the planar [AuCl4] anion. Often chloroauric acid is handled as a solution, such as those obtained by dissolution of gold in aqua regia. These solutions can be converted to other gold complexes or reduced to metallic gold or gold nanoparticles.

An azinamine is a theoretical chemical compound in which azide functional groups are attached to nitrogen. The simple ones based on ammonia are unknown, but would be H2N−N3, HN(N3)2 and N(N3)3. The last would be a high-energy allotrope of nitrogen.

Silver chlorite is a chemical compound with the formula AgClO2. This slightly yellow solid is shock sensitive and has an orthorhombic crystal structure.

Cobalt compounds are chemical compounds formed by cobalt with other elements. In the compound, the most stable oxidation state of cobalt is the +2 oxidation state, and in the presence of specific ligands, there are also stable compounds with +3 valence. In addition, there are cobalt compounds in high oxidation states +4, +5 and low oxidation states -1, 0, +1.

References

  1. Lyhs, Benjamin; Bläser, Dieter; Wölper, Christoph; Schulz, Stephan; Jansen, Georg (2012). "A Comparison of the Solid‐State Structures of Halogen Azides XN3 (X=Cl, Br, I)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 51 (51): 12859–12863. doi:10.1002/anie.201206028. PMID   23143850.
  2. Frierson, W. J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide. II. Interaction of Chlorine Azide and Silver Azide. Azino Silver Chloride, N3AgCl". Journal of the American Chemical Society . 65 (9): 1698–1700. doi:10.1021/ja01249a013.
  3. Frierson, W. J.; Kronrad, J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide, ClN3. I.". Journal of the American Chemical Society . 65 (9): 1696–1698. doi:10.1021/ja01249a012.
  4. Raschig, F. (1908). "Über Chlorazid N3Cl". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 41 (3): 4194–4195. doi:10.1002/cber.190804103130.
  5. CID 61708 from PubChem