3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||124.12 g/mol|
|Melting point||100 °C (212 °F; 373 K)decomposes at 150 °C|
|38.1 g/100 mL (0 °C)|
|Solubility||slightly soluble in ethanol |
insoluble in ether, acetone
Std enthalpy of
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Calcium azide is a chemical compound with the formula CaN6.
It can be obtained from a distilled reaction between hydrazoic acid and calcium hydroxide.
Hydrazoic acid, also known as hydrogen azide or azoimide, is a compound with the chemical formula HN3. It is a colorless, volatile, and explosive liquid at room temperature and pressure. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, and is therefore a pnictogen hydride. It was first isolated in 1890 by Theodor Curtius. The acid has few applications, but its conjugate base, the azide ion, is useful in specialized processes.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is produced when quicklime (calcium oxide) is mixed, or slaked with water. It has many names including hydrated lime, caustic lime, builders' lime, slack lime, cal, or pickling lime. Calcium hydroxide is used in many applications, including food preparation, where it has been identified as E number E526. Limewater is the common name for a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide.
Calcium azide is sensitive to impact, in which it may detonate and ignite.
Lead azide (Pb(N3)2) is an inorganic compound. More so than other azides, Pb(N
2 is explosive. It is used in detonators to initiate secondary explosives. In a commercially usable form, it is a white to buff powder.
Azide is the anion with the formula N−
3. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3). N−
3 is a linear anion that is isoelectronic with CO2, NCO−, N2O, NO+
2 and NCF. Per valence bond theory, azide can be described by several resonance structures; an important one being . Azide is also a functional group in organic chemistry, RN3.
In organic chemistry, an amino sugar is a sugar molecule in which a hydroxyl group has been replaced with an amine group. More than 60 amino sugars are known, with one of the most abundant being N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine, which is the main component of chitin.
Sodium azide is the inorganic compound with the formula NaN3. This colorless salt is the gas-forming component in many car airbag systems. It is used for the preparation of other azide compounds. It is an ionic substance, is highly soluble in water, and is very acutely toxic.
Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat. The decomposition temperature of a substance is the temperature at which the substance chemically decomposes. The reaction is usually endothermic as heat is required to break chemical bonds in the compound undergoing decomposition. If decomposition is sufficiently exothermic, a positive feedback loop is created producing thermal runaway and possibly an explosion.
The Curtius rearrangement, first defined by Theodor Curtius in 1885, is the thermal decomposition of an acyl azide to an isocyanate with loss of nitrogen gas. The isocyanate then undergoes attack by a variety of nucleophiles such as water, alcohols and amines, to yield a primary amine, carbamate or urea derivative respectively. Several reviews have been published.
Silver azide is the chemical compound with the formula AgN3. This colorless solid is a well-known explosive.
Thallium azide, TlN3, is a yellow-brown crystalline solid poorly soluble in water. Although it is not nearly as sensitive to shock or friction as lead azide, it can easily be detonated by a flame or spark. It can be stored safely dry in a closed non-metallic container.
Copper(II) azide is a medium density explosive with the molecular formula Cu(N3)2.
Diphenylphosphoryl azide (DPPA) is an organic compound. It is widely used as a reagent in the synthesis of other organic compounds.
Potassium azide is the inorganic compound having the formula KN
3. It is a white, water-soluble salt. It is used as a reagent in the laboratory.
Lithium azide is the lithium salt of hydrazoic acid. It is an unstable and toxic compound that decomposes into lithium and nitrogen when heated.
Beryllium azide, Be(N3)2, is an inorganic compound.
Barium azide is an inorganic azide with the formula Ba(N3)2. Like most azides, it is explosive. It is less sensitive to mechanical shock than lead azide.
Chlorine azide (ClN3) is an inorganic compound that was discovered in 1908 by Friedrich Raschig. Concentrated ClN
3 is notoriously unstable and may spontaneously detonate at any temperature.
Methyl azide is a covalent molecule related to hydrazoic acid and other alkyl azides.
Bromine azide is an explosive inorganic compound with the formula BrN3. It has been described as a crystal or a red liquid at room temperature. It is extremely sensitive to small variations in temperature and pressure, thus extreme caution must be observed when working with this reagent. This property of bromine azide has led to difficulty in discerning its crystal structure, with explosions occurring at Δp ≥ 0.05 Torr and also upon crystallization. Despite this, a crystal structure of bromine azide has been obtained using a miniature zone-melting procedure with focused infrared laser radiation. In contrast to IN3, which forms an endless chain-like structure upon crystallization, BrN3 forms a helical structure.
Rubidium azide is an inorganic compound with the formula RbN3. It is the rubidium salt of the azide ion (N–
3). Like most azides, it is explosive.
Salts and covalent derivatives of the azide ion
|TlN3||Pb(N3)2|| Bi(N3)3 ||Po||At||Rn|
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