Calcium sulfide

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Calcium sulfide
Calcium-sulfide-3D-balls.png
Names
IUPAC name
Calcium sulfide
Other names
Calcium monosulfide,
Hepar calcies,
Sulfurated lime
Oldhamite
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.039.869
EC Number
  • 243-873-5
KEGG
PubChem CID
UNII
Properties
CaS
Molar mass 72.143 g/mol
Appearancewhite crystals
hygroscopic
Density 2.59 g/cm3
Melting point 2,525 °C (4,577 °F; 2,798 K)
hydrolyses
Solubility insoluble in alcohol
reacts with acid
2.137
Structure
Halite (cubic), cF8
Fm3m, No. 225
Octahedral (Ca2+); octahedral (S2−)
Hazards
Main hazards H2S source
GHS pictograms GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg GHS-pictogram-pollu.svg
GHS Signal word Warning
H315, H319, H335, H400
P261, P273, P305+351+338
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g. chloroformReactivity code 3: Capable of detonation or explosive decomposition but requires a strong initiating source, must be heated under confinement before initiation, reacts explosively with water, or will detonate if severely shocked. E.g. hydrogen peroxideSpecial hazards (white): no codeCalcium sulfide
0
2
3
Related compounds
Other anions
Calcium oxide
Other cations
Magnesium sulfide
Strontium sulfide
Barium sulfide
Related sulfides
Sodium sulfide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Calcium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula Ca S. This white material crystallizes in cubes like rock salt. CaS has been studied as a component in a process that would recycle gypsum, a product of flue-gas desulfurization. Like many salts containing sulfide ions, CaS typically has an odour of H2S, which results from small amount of this gas formed by hydrolysis of the salt.

Contents

In terms of its atomic structure, CaS crystallizes in the same motif as sodium chloride indicating that the bonding in this material is highly ionic. The high melting point is also consistent with its description as an ionic solid. In the crystal, each S2 ion is surrounded by an octahedron of six Ca2+ ions, and complementarily, each Ca2+ ion surrounded by six S2 ions.

Production

CaS is produced by "carbothermic reduction" of calcium sulfate, which entails the conversion of carbon, usually as charcoal, to carbon dioxide:

CaSO4 + 2 C → CaS + 2 CO2

and can react further:

3 CaSO4 + CaS → 4 CaO + 4 SO2

In the second reaction the sulfate (+6 oxidation state) oxidizes the sulfide (-2 oxidation state) to sulfur dioxide (+4 oxidation state), while it is being reduced to sulfur dioxide itself (+4 oxidation state).

CaS is also a byproduct in the Leblanc process, a once major industrial process for producing sodium carbonate. In that process sodium sulfide reacts with calcium carbonate: [1]

Na2S + CaCO3 → CaS + Na2CO3

Millions of tons of this calcium sulfide byproduct was discarded, causing extensive pollution and controversy. [2]

Milk of lime, Ca(OH)2, reacts with elemental sulfur to give a "lime-sulfur", which has been used as an insecticide. The active ingredient is probably a calcium polysulfide, not CaS. [3]

Reactivity and uses

Calcium sulfide decomposes upon contact with water, including moist air, giving a mixture of Ca(SH)2, Ca(OH)2, and Ca(SH)(OH).

CaS + H2O → Ca(SH)(OH)
Ca(SH)(OH) + H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2S

It reacts with acids such as hydrochloric acid to release toxic hydrogen sulfide gas.

CaS + 2 HCl → CaCl2 + H2S

Calcium sulfide is phosphorescent, and will glow a blood red for up to an hour after a light source is removed. [4]

Natural occurrence

Oldhamite is the name for mineralogical form of CaS. It is a rare component of some meteorites and has scientific importance in solar nebula research. Burning of coal dumps can also produce the compound.

See also

Related Research Articles

Sulfur dioxide Chemical compound

Sulfur dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula SO
2
. It is a toxic gas responsible for the smell of burnt matches. It is released naturally by volcanic activity and is produced as a by-product of copper extraction and the burning of fossil fuels contaminated with sulfur compounds.

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Sodium carbonate chemical compound

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals) is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2CO3 and its various hydrates. All forms are white, water-soluble salts. All forms have a strongly alkaline taste and give moderately alkaline solutions in water. Historically it was extracted from the ashes of plants growing in sodium-rich soils. Because the ashes of these sodium-rich plants were noticeably different from ashes of wood (once used to produce potash), sodium carbonate became known as "soda ash". It is produced in large quantities from sodium chloride and limestone by the Solvay process.

Calcium hydroxide chemical compound

Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is produced when quicklime (calcium oxide) is mixed, or slaked with water. It has many names including hydrated lime, caustic lime, builders' lime, slack lime, cal, or pickling lime. Calcium hydroxide is used in many applications, including food preparation, where it has been identified as E number E526. Limewater is the common name for a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide.

Neutralization (chemistry) chemical reaction

In chemistry, neutralization or neutralisation is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react quantitatively with each other. In a reaction in water, neutralization results in there being no excess of hydrogen or hydroxide ions present in the solution. The pH of the neutralized solution depends on the acid strength of the reactants.

Barium carbonate chemical compound

Barium carbonate (BaCO3), also known as witherite, is a chemical compound used in rat poison, bricks, ceramic glazes and cement.

Kraft process industrial process to extract pure cellulose from wood pulp

The kraft process (also known as kraft pulping or sulfate process) is a process for conversion of wood into wood pulp, which consists of almost pure cellulose fibers, the main component of paper. The kraft process entails treatment of wood chips with a hot mixture of water, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and sodium sulfide (Na2S), known as white liquor, that breaks the bonds that link lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. The technology entails several steps, both mechanical and chemical. It is the dominant method for producing paper. In some situations, the process has been controversial because kraft plants can release odorous products and in some situations produce substantial liquid wastes.

Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds. It is mainly focused on detecting ions in an aqueous solution, therefore materials in other forms may need to be brought to this state before using standard methods. The solution is then treated with various reagents to test for reactions characteristic of certain ions, which may cause color change, precipitation and other visible changes.

Sodium sulfite chemical compound

Sodium sulfite (sodium sulphite) is a soluble sodium salt of sulfurous acid (sulfite) with the chemical formula Na2SO3. It is used as a preservative to prevent dried fruit from discoloring, and for preserving meats, and is used in the same way as sodium thiosulfate to convert elemental halogens to their respective hydrohalic acids, in photography and for reducing chlorine levels in pools. In boiler systems, sulfite and bisulfite are the most commonly employed oxygen scavengers used to prevent pitting corrosion. Sodium sulfite is also a byproduct of sulfur dioxide scrubbing, a part of the flue-gas desulfurization process.

Flue-gas desulfurization

Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants, and from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes such as waste incineration.

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Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O. It is used in ceramics and glasses, though not in a raw form. It is the base anhydride of sodium hydroxide, so when water is added to sodium oxide NaOH is produced.

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Sodium sulfide chemical compound

Sodium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula Na2S, or more commonly its hydrate Na2S·9H2O. Both are colorless water-soluble salts that give strongly alkaline solutions. When exposed to moist air, Na2S and its hydrates emit hydrogen sulfide, which smells like rotten eggs. Some commercial samples are specified as Na2xH2O, where a weight percentage of Na2S is specified. Commonly available grades have around 60% Na2S by weight, which means that x is around 3. Such technical grades of sodium sulfide have a yellow appearance owing to the presence of polysulfides. These grades of sodium sulfide are marketed as 'sodium sulfide flakes'. Although the solid is yellow, solutions of it are colorless.

The sulfite process produces wood pulp which is almost pure cellulose fibers by using various salts of sulfurous acid to extract the lignin from wood chips in large pressure vessels called digesters. The salts used in the pulping process are either sulfites (SO32−), or bisulfites (HSO3), depending on the pH. The counter ion can be sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) or ammonium (NH4+).

Calcium sulfite chemical compound

Calcium sulfite, or calcium sulphite, is a chemical compound, the calcium salt of sulfite with the formula CaSO3·x(H2O). Two crystalline forms are known, the hemihydrate and the tetrahydrate, respectively CaSO3·½(H2O) and CaSO3·4(H2O). All forms are white solids. It is most notable as the product of flue-gas desulfurization.

Concrete degradation Concrete technology

Concrete degradation may have various causes. Concrete can be damaged by fire, aggregate expansion, sea water effects, bacterial corrosion, calcium leaching, physical damage and chemical damage. This process adversely affects concrete exposed to these damaging stimuli.

Cobalt extraction

Cobalt extraction refers to the techniques used to extract cobalt from its ores and other compound ores. Several methods exist for the separation of cobalt from copper and nickel. They depend on the concentration of cobalt and the exact composition of the used ore.

Compounds of lead exist in two main oxidation states: +2 and +4. The former is more common. Inorganic lead(IV) compounds are typically strong oxidants or exist only in highly acidic solutions.

References

  1. Christian Thieme (2000). "Sodium Carbonates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_299. ISBN   978-3527306732.
  2. Kiefer, David M. (January 2002). "It was all about alkali". Today's Chemist at Work. 11 (1): 45–6.
  3. Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN   0-12-352651-5.
  4. "Red Glow in the Dark Powder - Calcium Sulfide".