GHS hazard statements

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Hazard statements form part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). They are intended to form a set of standardized phrases about the hazards of chemical substances and mixtures that can be translated into different languages. [1] [2] As such, they serve the same purpose as the well-known R-phrases, which they are intended to replace.

Contents

Hazard statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with: [3]

Each hazard statement is designated a code, starting with the letter H and followed by three digits. Statements which correspond to related hazards are grouped together by code number, so the numbering is not consecutive. The code is used for reference purposes, for example to help with translations, but it is the actual phrase which should appear on labels and safety data sheets. [4]

Physical hazards

H-phrases Physical Hazards [5]
CodePhrase
H200Unstable explosive
H201Explosive: mass explosion hazard
H202Explosive: severe projection hazard
H203Explosive: fire, blast or projection hazard
H204Fire or projection hazard
H205May mass explode in fire
H206Fire, blast or projection hazard: increased risk of explosion if desensitizing agent is reduced
H207Fire or projection hazard; increased risk of explosion if desensitizing agent is reduced
H208Fire hazard; increased risk of explosion if desensitizing agent is reduced
H209Explosive
H210Very explosive
H211May be sensitive
H220Extremely flammable gas
H221Flammable gas
H222Extremely flammable material
H223Flammable material
H224Extremely flammable liquid and vapour
H225Highly flammable liquid and vapour
H226Flammable liquid and vapour
H227Combustible liquid
H228Flammable solid
H230May react explosively even in the absence of air
H231May react explosively even in the absence of air at elevated pressure and/or temperature
H240Heating may cause an explosion
H241Heating may cause a fire or explosion
H242Heating may cause a fire
H250Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air
H251Self-heating: may catch fire
H252Self-heating in large quantities: may catch fire
H260In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously
H261In contact with water releases flammable gas
H270May cause or intensify fire: oxidizer
H271May cause fire or explosion: strong oxidizer
H272May intensify fire: oxidizer
H280Contains gas under pressure: may explode if heated
H281Contains refrigerated gas: may cause cryogenic burns or injury
H282Extremely flammable chemical under pressure: May explode if heated
H283Flammable chemical under pressure: May explode if heated
H284Chemical under pressure: May explode if heated
H290May be corrosive to metals

Health hazards

H-phrases Health Hazards [5]
CodePhrase
H300Fatal if swallowed
H300+H310Fatal if swallowed or in contact with skin
H300+H310+H330Fatal if swallowed, in contact with skin or if inhaled
H300+H330Fatal if swallowed or if inhaled
H301Toxic if swallowed
H301+H311Toxic if swallowed or in contact with skin
H301+H311+H331Toxic if swallowed, in contact with skin or if inhaled
H301+H331Toxic if swallowed or if inhaled
H302Harmful if swallowed
H302+H312Harmful if swallowed or in contact with skin
H302+H312+H332Harmful if swallowed, in contact with skin or if inhaled
H302+H332Harmful if swallowed or inhaled
H303May be harmful if swallowed
H303+H313May be harmful if swallowed or in contact with skin
H303+H313+H333May be harmful if swallowed, in contact with skin or if inhaled
H303+H333May be harmful if swallowed or if inhaled
H304May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways
H305May be harmful if swallowed and enters airways
H310Fatal in contact with skin
H310+H330Fatal in contact with skin or if inhaled
H311Toxic in contact with skin
H311+H331Toxic in contact with skin or if inhaled
H312Harmful in contact with skin
H312+H332Harmful in contact with skin or if inhaled
H313May be harmful in contact with skin
H313+H333May be harmful in contact with skin or if inhaled
H314Causes severe skin burns and eye damage
H315Causes skin irritation
H315+H320Causes skin and eye irritation
H316Causes mild skin irritation
H317May cause an allergic skin reaction
H318Causes serious eye damage
H319Causes serious eye irritation
H320Causes eye irritation
H330Fatal if inhaled
H331Toxic if inhaled
H332Harmful if inhaled
H333May be harmful if inhaled
H334May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled
H335May cause respiratory irritation
H336May cause drowsiness or dizziness
H340May cause genetic defects
H341Suspected of causing genetic defects
H350May cause cancer
H350iMay cause cancer by inhalation
H351Suspected of causing cancer
H360May damage fertility or the unborn child
H360DMay damage the unborn child
H360DfMay damage the unborn child. Suspected of damaging fertility.
H360FMay damage fertility
H360FDMay damage fertility. May damage the unborn child.
H360FdMay damage fertility. Suspected of damaging the unborn child.
H361Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child
H361dSuspected of damaging the unborn child
H361fSuspected of damaging fertility
H361fdSuspected of damaging fertility. Suspected of damaging the unborn child.
H362May cause harm to breast-fed children
H370Causes damage to organs
H371May cause damage to organs
H372Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure
H373May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure

Environmental hazards

H-phrases Environmental Hazards [5]
CodePhrase
H400Very toxic to aquatic life
H401Toxic to aquatic life
H402Harmful to aquatic life
H410Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
H411Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
H412Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects
H413May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life
H420Harms public health and the environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere
H441Very toxic to terrestrial invertebrates

Country-specific hazard statements

European Union

The European Union has implemented the GHS through the CLP Regulation. Nevertheless, the older system based on the Dangerous Substances Directive was used in parallel until June 2015. Some R-phrases which do not have simple equivalents under the GHS have been retained under the CLP Regulation: [6] the numbering mirrors the number of the previous R-phrase.

Physical properties

  • EUH006: Explosive with or without contact with air, deleted in the fourth adaptation to technical progress of CLP.
  • EUH014: Reacts violently with water
  • EUH018: In use may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture
  • EUH019: May form explosive peroxides
  • EUH044: Risk of explosion if heated under confinement

Health properties

  • EUH029: Contact with water liberates toxic gas
  • EUH031: Contact with acids liberates toxic gas
  • EUH032: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas
  • EUH066: Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
  • EUH070: Toxic by eye contact
  • EUH071: Corrosive to the respiratory tract

Environmental properties

  • EUH059: Hazardous to the ozone layer, superseded by GHS Class 5.1 in the second adaptation to technical progress of CLP.

Other EU hazard statements

Some other hazard statements intended for use in very specific circumstances have also been retained under the CLP Regulation. [7] Note that, in this case, the numbering of the EU specific hazard statements can coincide with GHS hazard statements if the "EU" prefix is not included.

  • EUH201: Contains lead. Should not be used on surfaces liable to be chewed or sucked by children.
    • EUH201A: Warning! Contains lead.
  • EUH202: Cyanoacrylate. Danger. Bonds skin and eyes in seconds. Keep out of the reach of children.
  • EUH203: Contains chromium(VI). May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH204: Contains isocyanates. May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH205: Contains epoxy constituents. May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH206: Warning! Do not use together with other products. May release dangerous gases (chlorine).
  • EUH207: Warning! Contains cadmium. Dangerous fumes are formed during use. See information supplied by the manufacturer. Comply with the safety instructions.
  • EUH208: Contains <name of sensitising substance>. May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH209: Can become highly flammable in use.
    • EUH209A: Can become flammable in use.
  • EUH210: Safety data sheet available on request.
  • EUH211: Warning! Hazardous respirable droplets may be formed when sprayed. Do not breathe spray or mist.
  • EUH401: To avoid risks to human health and the environment, comply with the instructions for use.

Australia

The GHS was adopted in Australia from 1 January 2012 and becomes mandatory in States and Territories that have adopted the harmonised Work Health and Safety laws (other than Victoria and Western Australia) as of 1 January 2017. [8] The National Code of Practice for the Preparation of Safety Data Sheets for Hazardous Chemicals [9] includes 12 Australian-specific GHS Hazard Statements, as follows:

Physical hazard statements

  • AUH001: Explosive without moisture
  • AUH006: Explosive with or without contact with air
  • AUH014: Reacts violently with water
  • AUH018: In use, may form a flammable/explosive vapor-air mixture
  • AUH019: May form explosive peroxides
  • AUH044: Risk of explosion if heated under confinement

Human health hazard statements

  • AUH029: Contact with water liberates toxic gas
  • AUH031: Contact with acids liberates toxic gas

Additional non-GHS hazard statements

  • AUH032: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas
  • AUH066: Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
  • AUH070: Toxic by eye contact
  • AUH071: Corrosive to the respiratory tract

New Zealand

As of March 2009, the relevant New Zealand regulations under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 do not specify the exact wording required for hazard statements. However, the New Zealand classification system includes three categories of environmental hazard which are not included in the GHS Rev.2:

These are classes 9.2–9.4 respectively of the New Zealand classification scheme, and are divided into subclasses according to the degree of hazard. [10] Substances in subclass 9.2D ("Substances that are slightly harmful in the soil environment") do not require a hazard statement, while substances in the other subclasses require an indication of the general degree of hazard and general type of hazard. [11]

Notes

  1. The United Nations has published the list of GHS hazard statements in all UN official languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish): it can be found in Annex 3 of GHS Rev.2 for the corresponding language.
  2. A list of translations into all the European Union official languages can be found in Annex III to the CLP Regulation, on pages 146–91 of the official English-language version for the GHS statements and pages 192–209 for the EU-specific statements.
  3. Part 1, section 1.4.10.5.2, GHS Rev.2
  4. Part 1, section 1.4.10.5.2(b)(ii), GHS Rev.2
  5. 1 2 3 "Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals" (pdf). 2021. Annex 3: Codification of Statements and Pictograms (pp 268385).
  6. Annex III, CLP Regulation, pp. 192–200.
  7. Annex III, CLP Regulation, pp. 200–9.
  8. http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/whs-information/hazardous-chemicals/pages/hazardous-chemicals-other-substances
  9. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-04. Retrieved 2016-09-30.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. Schedule 6, Hazardous Substances (Classification) Regulations 2001
  11. reg. 20, Hazardous Substances (Identification) Regulations 2001

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