R-phrases (short for risk phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. The list was consolidated and republished in Directive 2001/59/EC,where translations into other EU languages may be found.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.
These risk phrases are used internationally, not just in Europe, and there is an ongoing effort towards complete international harmonization using the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) which now generally replaces these risk phrases.
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations that was set up to replace the assortment of hazardous material classification and labelling schemes previously used around the world. “GLOBAL HARMONIZED SAFETY SYSTEM for CLASSIFIED CHEMICAL LABELLING” - Core elements of the GHS include standardized hazard testing criteria, universal warning pictograms, and harmonized safety data sheets which provide users of dangerous goods with a host of information. The system acts as a complement to the UN Numbered system of regulated hazardous material transport. Implementation is managed through the UN Secretariat. Although adoption has taken time, as of 2017, the system has been enacted to significant extents in most major countries of the world. This includes the European Union, which has implemented the United Nations' GHS into EU law as the CLP Regulation, and United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.
Note: Missing R-numbers indicate phrases that have been deleted or replaced by other phrases.
|R1||Explosive when dry|
|R2||Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire, or other sources of ignition|
|R3||Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire, or other sources of ignition|
|R4||Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds|
|R5||Heating may cause an explosion|
|R6||Explosive with or without contact with air|
|R7||May cause fire|
|R8||Contact with combustible material may cause fire|
|R9||Explosive when mixed with combustible material|
|R14||Reacts violently with water|
|R15||Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases|
|R16||Explosive when mixed with oxidising substances|
|R17||Spontaneously flammable in air|
|R18||In use, may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture|
|R19||May form explosive peroxides|
|R20||Harmful by inhalation|
|R21||Harmful in contact with skin|
|R22||Harmful if swallowed|
|R23||Toxic by inhalation|
|R24||Toxic in contact with skin|
|R25||Toxic if swallowed|
|R26||Very toxic by inhalation|
|R27||Very toxic in contact with skin|
|R28||Very toxic if swallowed|
|R29||Contact with water liberates toxic gas.|
|R30||Can become highly flammable in use|
|R31||Contact with acids liberates toxic gas|
|R32||Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas|
|R33||Danger of cumulative effects|
|R35||Causes severe burns|
|R36||Irritating to eyes|
|R37||Irritating to respiratory system|
|R38||Irritating to skin|
|R39||Danger of very serious irreversible effects|
|R40||Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect|
|R41||Risk of serious damage to eyes|
|R42||May cause sensitisation by inhalation|
|R43||May cause sensitisation by skin contact|
|R44||Risk of explosion if heated under confinement|
|R45||May cause cancer|
|R46||May cause inheritable genetic damage|
|R48||Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure|
|R49||May cause cancer by inhalation|
|R50||Very toxic to aquatic organisms|
|R51||Toxic to aquatic organisms|
|R52||Harmful to aquatic organisms|
|R53||May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment|
|R54||Toxic to flora|
|R55||Toxic to fauna|
|R56||Toxic to soil organisms|
|R57||Toxic to bees|
|R58||May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment|
|R59||Dangerous for the ozone layer|
|R60||May impair fertility|
|R61||May cause harm to the unborn child|
|R62||Possible risk of impaired fertility|
|R63||Possible risk of harm to the unborn child|
|R64||May cause harm to breast-fed babies|
|R65||Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed|
|R66||Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking|
|R67||Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness|
|R68||Possible risk of irreversible effects|
|R14/15||Reacts violently with water, liberating extremely flammable gases|
|R15/29||Contact with water liberates toxic, extremely flammable gases|
|R14/15/29||Reacts violently with water, liberating toxic, extremely flammable gases|
|R20/21||Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin|
|R20/22||Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed|
|R20/21/22||Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R21/22||Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R23/24||Toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin|
|R23/25||Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed|
|R23/24/25||Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R24/25||Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R26/27||Very toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin|
|R26/28||Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed|
|R26/27/28||Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R27/28||Very toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R36/37||Irritating to eyes and respiratory system|
|R36/38||Irritating to eyes and skin|
|R36/37/38||Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin|
|R37/38||Irritating to respiratory system and skin|
|R39/23||Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation|
|R39/24||Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin|
|R39/25||Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed|
|R39/23/24||Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin|
|R39/23/25||Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed|
|R39/24/25||Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R39/23/24/25||Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R39/26||Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation|
|R39/27||Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin|
|R39/28||Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed|
|R39/26/27||Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin|
|R39/26/28||Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed|
|R39/27/28||Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R39/26/27/28||Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R42/43||May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact|
|R45/46||May cause cancer and heritable genetic damage|
|R48/20||Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation|
|R48/21||Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin|
|R48/22||Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed|
|R48/20/21||Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin|
|R48/20/22||Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed|
|R48/21/22||Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R48/20/21/22||Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R48/23||Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation|
|R48/24||Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin|
|R48/25||Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed|
|R48/23/24||Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin|
|R48/23/25||Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed|
|R48/24/25||Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R48/23/24/25||Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R50/53||Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment|
|R51/53||Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment|
|R52/53||Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment|
|R68/20||Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation|
|R68/21||Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin|
|R68/22||Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects if swallowed|
|R68/20/21||Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin|
|R68/20/22||Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed|
|R68/21/22||Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed|
|R68/20/21/22||Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed|
Risk and Safety Statements, also known as R/S statements, R/S numbers, R/S phrases, and R/S sentences, is a system of hazard codes and phrases for labeling dangerous chemicals and compounds. The R/S statement of a compound consists of a risk part (R) and a safety part (S), each followed by a combination of numbers. Each number corresponds to a phrase. The phrase corresponding to the letter/number combination has the same meaning in different languages—see 'languages' in the menu on the left.
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