List of R-phrases

Last updated

R-phrases (short for risk phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. The list was consolidated and republished in Directive 2001/59/EC, [1] where translations into other EU languages may be found.

European Union Economic and political union of European states

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.

Contents

These risk phrases are used internationally, not just in Europe, and there is an ongoing effort towards complete international harmonization using the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) which now generally replaces these risk phrases.

Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals international system of classification of chemicals

The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations that was set up to replace the assortment of hazardous material classification and labelling schemes previously used around the world. “GLOBAL HARMONIZED SAFETY SYSTEM for CLASSIFIED CHEMICAL LABELLING” - Core elements of the GHS include standardized hazard testing criteria, universal warning pictograms, and harmonized safety data sheets which provide users of dangerous goods with a host of information. The system acts as a complement to the UN Numbered system of regulated hazardous material transport. Implementation is managed through the UN Secretariat. Although adoption has taken time, as of 2017, the system has been enacted to significant extents in most major countries of the world. This includes the European Union, which has implemented the United Nations' GHS into EU law as the CLP Regulation, and United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.

Risk phrases

Note: Missing R-numbers indicate phrases that have been deleted or replaced by other phrases.

CodePhrase
R1Explosive when dry
R2Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire, or other sources of ignition
R3Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire, or other sources of ignition
R4Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds
R5Heating may cause an explosion
R6Explosive with or without contact with air
R7May cause fire
R8Contact with combustible material may cause fire
R9Explosive when mixed with combustible material
R10Flammable
R11Highly flammable
R12Extremely flammable
R14Reacts violently with water
R15Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases
R16Explosive when mixed with oxidising substances
R17Spontaneously flammable in air
R18In use, may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture
R19May form explosive peroxides
R20Harmful by inhalation
R21Harmful in contact with skin
R22Harmful if swallowed
R23Toxic by inhalation
R24Toxic in contact with skin
R25Toxic if swallowed
R26Very toxic by inhalation
R27Very toxic in contact with skin
R28Very toxic if swallowed
R29Contact with water liberates toxic gas.
R30Can become highly flammable in use
R31Contact with acids liberates toxic gas
R32Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas
R33Danger of cumulative effects
R34Causes burns
R35Causes severe burns
R36Irritating to eyes
R37Irritating to respiratory system
R38Irritating to skin
R39Danger of very serious irreversible effects
R40Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
R41Risk of serious damage to eyes
R42May cause sensitisation by inhalation
R43May cause sensitisation by skin contact
R44Risk of explosion if heated under confinement
R45May cause cancer
R46May cause inheritable genetic damage
R48Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure
R49May cause cancer by inhalation
R50Very toxic to aquatic organisms
R51Toxic to aquatic organisms
R52Harmful to aquatic organisms
R53May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R54Toxic to flora
R55Toxic to fauna
R56Toxic to soil organisms
R57Toxic to bees
R58May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment
R59Dangerous for the ozone layer
R60May impair fertility
R61May cause harm to the unborn child
R62Possible risk of impaired fertility
R63Possible risk of harm to the unborn child
R64May cause harm to breast-fed babies
R65Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed
R66Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
R67Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness
R68Possible risk of irreversible effects

Combinations

Code CombinationStatement
R14/15Reacts violently with water, liberating extremely flammable gases
R15/29Contact with water liberates toxic, extremely flammable gases
R14/15/29Reacts violently with water, liberating toxic, extremely flammable gases
R20/21Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin
R20/22Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed
R20/21/22Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R21/22Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed
R23/24Toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin
R23/25Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
R23/24/25Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R24/25Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed
R26/27Very toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin
R26/28Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
R26/27/28Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R27/28Very toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed
R36/37Irritating to eyes and respiratory system
R36/38Irritating to eyes and skin
R36/37/38Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
R37/38Irritating to respiratory system and skin
R39/23Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation
R39/24Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin
R39/25Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed
R39/23/24Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R39/23/25Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R39/24/25Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R39/23/24/25Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R39/26Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation
R39/27Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin
R39/28Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed
R39/26/27Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R39/26/28Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R39/27/28Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R39/26/27/28Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R42/43May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact
R45/46May cause cancer and heritable genetic damage
R48/20Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
R48/21Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin
R48/22Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed
R48/20/21Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin
R48/20/22Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed
R48/21/22Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed
R48/20/21/22Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R48/23Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
R48/24Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin
R48/25Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed
R48/23/24Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin
R48/23/25Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed
R48/24/25Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed
R48/23/24/25Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R51/53Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R52/53Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R68/20Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation
R68/21Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin
R68/22Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects if swallowed
R68/20/21Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R68/20/22Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R68/21/22Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R68/20/21/22Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed

R-phrases no longer in use

See also

Risk and Safety Statements, also known as R/S statements, R/S numbers, R/S phrases, and R/S sentences, is a system of hazard codes and phrases for labeling dangerous chemicals and compounds. The R/S statement of a compound consists of a risk part (R) and a safety part (S), each followed by a combination of numbers. Each number corresponds to a phrase. The phrase corresponding to the letter/number combination has the same meaning in different languages—see 'languages' in the menu on the left.

Related Research Articles

E number codes for substances that used as food additives

E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA. The "E" stands for "Europe". Commonly found on food labels, their safety assessment and approval are the responsibility of the European Food Safety Authority.

Personal protective equipment

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter. Protective equipment may be worn for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and other recreational activities. "Protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of clothing, and "protective gear" applies to items such as pads, guards, shields, or masks, and others.

Safety data sheet System for cataloging information, potential hazards and instructions for safe use associated with a material or product

A safety data sheet (SDS), material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is a document that lists information relating to occupational safety and health for the use of various substances and products. SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds, and chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product, along with spill-handling procedures. SDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements.

European Committee for Standardization standards organization

The European Committee for Standardization is a public standards organization whose mission is to foster the economy of the European Union (EU) in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and distribution of coherent sets of standards and specifications.

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a European Union regulation dating from 18 December 2006. REACH addresses the production and use of chemical substances, and their potential impacts on both human health and the environment. Its 849 pages took seven years to pass, and it has been described as the most complex legislation in the Union's history and the most important in 20 years. It is the strictest law to date regulating chemical substances and will affect industries throughout the world. REACH entered into force on 1 June 2007, with a phased implementation over the next decade. The regulation also established the European Chemicals Agency, which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of REACH.

Dangerous goods Solids, liquids, or gases harmful to people, other organisms, property or the environment

Dangerous goods, abbreviated DG, are items or substances that when transported are a risk to health, safety, property or the environment. Hazardous materials are substances, solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment, more specifically.

The Dangerous Substances Directive was one of the main European Union laws concerning chemical safety, until its full replacement by the new regulation CLP Regulation (2008), starting in 2016. It was made under Article 100 of the Treaty of Rome. By agreement, it is also applicable in the EEA, and compliance with the directive will ensure compliance with the relevant Swiss laws. The Directive ceased to be in force on 31 May 2015 and was repealed by Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Trade mark law of the European Union is governed by European Union law together with national law within those countries which are also member states of the European Union. Trade marks may be registered within individual countries, or across the whole of the EU.

In the experimental (non-clinical) research arena, the phrase good laboratory practice or GLP specifically refers to a quality system of management controls for research laboratories and organizations to ensure the uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality, and integrity of chemical non-clinical safety tests; from physio-chemical properties through acute to chronic toxicity tests.

International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) are data sheets intended to provide essential safety and health information on chemicals in a clear and concise way. The primary aim of the Cards is to promote the safe use of chemicals in the workplace and the main target users are therefore workers and those responsible for occupational safety and health. The ICSC project is a joint venture between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) with the cooperation of the European Commission (EC). This project began during the 1980s with the objective of developing a product to disseminate the appropriate hazard information on chemicals at the workplace in an understandable and precise way.

ISO 13485Medical devices -- Quality management systems -- Requirements for regulatory purposes is an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard published for the first time in 1996; it represents the requirements for a comprehensive quality management system for the design and manufacture of medical devices. This standard supersedes earlier documents such as EN 46001 and EN 46002, the previously published ISO 13485, and ISO 13488.

Toy safety

Toy safety is the practice of ensuring that toys, especially those made for children, are safe, usually through the application of set safety standards. In many countries, commercial toys must be able to pass safety tests in order to be sold. In the U.S., some toys must meet national standards, while other toys may not have to meet a defined safety standard. In countries where standards exist, they exist in order to prevent accidents, but there have still been some high-profile product recalls after such problems have occurred. The danger is often not due to faulty design; usage and chance both play a role in injury and death incidents as well.

The regulation of chemicals is the legislative intent of a variety of national laws or international initiatives such as agreements, strategies or conventions. These international initiatives define the policy of further regulations to be implemented locally as well as exposure or emission limits. Often, regulatory agencies oversee the enforcement of these laws.

Hazard statements form part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). They are intended to form a set of standardized phrases about the hazards of chemical substances and mixtures that can be translated into different languages. As such, they serve the same purpose as the well-known R-phrases, which they are intended to replace.

Construction Products Directive (CPD) is a now repealed European Union Directive with the aim to remove technical barriers to trade in construction products between Member States in the European Union.

The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) promotes the application of Russell and Burch’s 3Rs principles in meeting regulatory requirements for products such as pharmaceuticals, chemicals, soaps, detergents and cosmetics. The EPAA covers research and development, as well as the use of 3Rs approaches in regulatory compliance and communication and dissemination.

Technical Guidance WM2: Hazardous Waste: Interpretation of the definition and classification of hazardous waste is a guidance document developed and jointly published by the English Environment Agency, Natural Resources Wales, Scottish Environment Protection Agency and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency to provide guidance on the assessment and classification of hazardous waste based on the revised Waste Framework Directive definition of hazardous waste. Waste producers, consultants, contractors and waste management companies use the guidance to a) identify the correct waste code for their waste and b) determine whether the waste is hazardous or not based on its chemical composition.

The Radio Equipment Directive deals with the placing on the market of radio-electric equipment. All product in scope of this directive and placed on the EU market must be compliant with this directive from 13 June 2017.

References

  1. "EUR-Lex - 32001L0059 - EN". europa.eu.