GHS hazard pictograms

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Hazard pictograms form part of the international Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). Two sets of pictograms are included within the GHS: one for the labelling of containers and for workplace hazard warnings, and a second for use during the transport of dangerous goods. Either one or the other is chosen, depending on the target audience, but the two are not used together. [1] The two sets of pictograms use the same symbols for the same hazards, although certain symbols are not required for transport pictograms. Transport pictograms come in wider variety of colors and may contain additional information such as a subcategory number.

Contents

Hazard pictograms are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with: [2]

The GHS chemical hazard pictograms are intended to provide the basis for or to replace national systems of hazard pictograms. It has still to be implemented by the European Union (CLP regulation) in 2009.

The GHS transport pictograms are the same as those recommended in the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, widely implemented in national regulations such as the U.S. Federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 5101–5128) and D.O.T. regulations at 49 C.F.R. 100–185.

Physical hazards pictograms

Pictogram Usage
GHS-pictogram-explos.svg  
  • Unstable explosives
  • Explosives, divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6
  • Self-reactive substances and mixtures, types A, B
  • Organic peroxides, types A, B
e.g. azidoazide azide, TNT, chromyl chloride, nitroglycerin
GHS01: Explosive
GHS-pictogram-flamme.svg  
  • Flammable gases, category 1
  • Flammable aerosols, categories 1, 2
  • Flammable liquids, categories 1, 2, 3, 4
  • Flammable solids, categories 1, 2
  • Self-reactive substances and mixtures, types B, C, D, E, F
  • Pyrophoric liquids, category 1
  • Pyrophoric solids, category 1
  • Combustible solids, category 3
  • Combustible liquids, category 3
  • Self-heating substances and mixtures, categories 1, 2
  • Substances and mixtures, which in contact with water, emit flammable gases, categories 1, 2, 3
  • Organic peroxides, types B, C, D, E, F
e.g. acetone, methanol, generally most solvents.
GHS02: Flammable
GHS-pictogram-rondflam.svg  
  • Oxidizing gases, category 1
  • Oxidizing liquids, categories 1, 2, 3
  • Oxidizing solids, categories 1, 2, 3
e.g. sulfur dioxide, most halogens, potassium permanganate, nitric acid
GHS03: Oxidizing
GHS-pictogram-bottle.svg  
GHS04: Compressed Gas
GHS-pictogram-acid.svg  
  • Corrosive to metals, category 1
Strong acids/bases (nitric acid, sodium hydroxide), calcium oxide, anhydrous zinc chloride can be corrosive
GHS05: Corrosive
  
no pictogram required

Health hazards pictograms

Pictogram Usage
GHS-pictogram-skull.svg  
  • Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), categories 1, 2, 3
  • e.g. Manganese heptoxide (fire diamond rating at health hazard is 4)
GHS06: Toxic
GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg  
  • Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), category 4
  • Skin irritation, categories 2, 3
  • Eye irritation, category 2A
  • Skin sensitization, category 1
  • Specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, category 3
    • Respiratory tract irritation
    • Narcotic effects

Not used [3]

  • with the "skull and crossbones" pictogram
  • for skin or eye irritation if:
    • the "corrosion" pictogram also appears
    • the "health hazard" pictogram is used to indicate respiratory sensitization
GHS07: Harmful
GHS-pictogram-silhouette.svg  
  • Respiratory sensitization, category 1
  • Germ cell mutagenicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Carcinogenicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Reproductive toxicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, categories 1, 2
  • Specific target organ toxicity following repeated exposure, categories 1, 2
  • Aspiration hazard, categories 1, 2
  • e.g. Chromium
GHS08: Health hazard
  
  • Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), category 5
  • Eye irritation, category 2B
  • Reproductive toxicity – effects on or via lactation
no pictogram required

Physical and health hazard pictograms

Pictogram Usage
  GHS-pictogram-acid.svg  
GHS05: Corrosive

Environmental hazards pictograms

Pictogram Usage
GHS-pictogram-pollu.svg  
  • Acute hazards to the aquatic environment, category 1
  • Chronic hazards to the aquatic environment, categories 1, 2
  • Environmental toxicity, categories 1, 2
GHS09: Environmental hazard
  
  • Acute hazards to the aquatic environment, categories 2, 3
  • Chronic hazards to the aquatic environment, categories 3, 4
no pictogram required

Transport pictograms

Class 1: Explosives

Pictogram Usage
ADR 1.svg  
Explosives
Division 1.1: Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.2: Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.3: Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard

Note: The asterisks are replaced by the class number and compatibility code

Divisions 1.1–1.3
ADR 1.4.svg  

Explosives – Substances and articles which are classified as explosives but which present no significant hazard

Note: The asterisk is replaced by the compatibility code

Division 1.4
ADR 1.5.svg  

Explosives – Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard

Note: The asterisk is replaced by the compatibility code

Division 1.5
ADR 1.6.svg  

Explosives – No hazard statement

Note: The asterisk is replaced by the compatibility code

Division 1.6

Class 2: Gases

Pictogram Usage
ADR 2.1.svg  

Flammable gases – Gases which at 20 °C and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa:

  • are ignitable when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air; or
  • have a flammable range with air of at least 12 percentage points regardless of the lower flammable limit.

UN transport pictogram - 2 (white).svg Alternative sign

Division 2.1
ADR 2.2.svg  

Non-flammable non-toxic gases – Gases which:

  • are asphyxiant – gases which dilute or replace the oxygen normally in the atmosphere; or
  • are oxidizing – gases which may, generally by providing oxygen, cause or contribute to the combustion of other material more than air does; or
  • do not come under the other divisions.

UN transport pictogram - 2 (gas-white).svg Alternative sign

Division 2.2
ADR 2.3.svg  

Toxic gases – Gases which:

  • are known to be so toxic or corrosive to humans as to pose a hazard to health; or
  • are presumed to be toxic or corrosive to humans because they have an LC50 value equal to or less than 5000 ml/m3 (ppm).

e.g. hydrogen cyanide

Division 2.3

Classes 3 and 4: Flammable liquids and solids

Pictogram Usage
ADR 3.svg  

Flammable liquids – Liquids which have a flash point of less than 60 °C and which are capable of sustaining combustion

UN transport pictogram - 3 (white).svg Alternative sign

Class 3
ADR 4.1.svg  

Flammable solids, self-reactive substances and solid desensitized explosives – Solids which, under conditions encountered in transport, are readily combustible or may cause or contribute to fire through friction; self-reactive substances which are liable to undergo a strongly exothermic reaction; solid desensitized explosives which may explode if not diluted sufficiently

Division 4.1
ADR 4.2.svg  

Substances liable to spontaneous combustion – Substances which are liable to spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up in contact with air, and being then liable to catch fire

e.g. manganese heptoxide

Division 4.2
ADR 4.3.svg  

Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases – Substances which, by interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities

UN transport pictogram - 4 (white).svg Alternative sign

Division 4.3

Other GHS transport classes

Pictogram Usage
ADR 5.1.svg  

Oxidizing substances – Substances which, while in themselves not necessarily combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause, or contribute to, the combustion of other material

Division 5.1
UN transport pictogram - 5.2 (black).svg  

Organic peroxides – Organic substances which contain the bivalent –O–O– structure and may be considered derivatives of hydrogen peroxide, where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals

UN transport pictogram - 5.2 (white).svg Alternative sign

Division 5.2
UN transport pictogram - 6.svg  

Toxic substances – Substances with an LD50 value ≤ 300 mg/kg (oral) or ≤ 1000 mg/kg (dermal) or an LC50 value ≤ 4000 ml/m3 (inhalation of dusts or mists)

e.g. nearly everything that contains cyanide groups

Division 6.1
UN transport pictogram - 8.svg  

Corrosive substances – Substances which:

  • cause full thickness destruction of intact skin tissue on exposure time of less than 4 hours; or
  • exhibit a corrosion rate of more than 6.25 mm per year on either steel or aluminium surfaces at 55 °C
Class 8

Non-GHS transport pictograms

The following pictograms are included in the UN Model Regulations but have not been incorporated into the GHS because of the nature of the hazards.

ADR 6.2.svg ADR 7A.svg ADR 7B.svg ADR 7C.svg ADR 7E.svg ADR 9.svg
Class 6.2Class 7Class 9
Infectious substancesRadioactive materialMiscellaneous dangerous substances and articles

Notes

  1. Part 1, section 1.4.10.5.1, GHS Rev.2
  2. Part 1, section 1.4.10.5.2, GHS Rev.2
  3. Part 1, section 1.4.10.5.3.1, GHS Rev.2

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References