Erbium(III) chloride

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Erbium(III) chloride
Erbium(III)chloride sunlight.jpg
IUPAC name
Erbium(III) chloride
Other names
Erbium trichloride
3D model (JSmol)
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PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/3ClH.Er/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3 Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/3ClH.Er/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3
  • Cl[Er](Cl)Cl
ErCl3 (anhydrous)
ErCl3·6H2O (hexahydrate)
Molar mass 273.62 g/mol (anhydrous)
381.71 g/mol (hexahydrate)
Appearanceviolet hygroscopic monoclinic crystals (anhydrous)
pink hygroscopic crystals (hexahydrate)
Density 4.1 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
Melting point 776 °C (1,429 °F; 1,049 K) (anhydrous)
decomposes (hexahydrate)
Boiling point 1,500 °C (2,730 °F; 1,770 K)
soluble in water (anhydrous)
slightly soluble in ethanol (hexahydrate) [1]
Structure [2]
C2/m, No. 12
a = 6.80 Å, b = 11.79 Å, c = 6.39 Å
α = 90°, β = 110.7°, γ = 90°
479 Å3
Related compounds
Other anions
Erbium(III) oxide
Other cations
Holmium(III) chloride, Thulium(III) chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Erbium(III) chloride is a violet solid with the formula ErCl3. It is used in the preparation of erbium metal.



Erbium(III) chloride hydrate photographed under a fluorescent lamp Erbium(III) chloride in fluorescent light.jpg
Erbium(III) chloride hydrate photographed under a fluorescent lamp

Anhydrous erbium(III) chloride can be produced by the ammonium chloride route. [3] [4] [5] In the first step, erbium(III) oxide is heated with ammonium chloride to produce the ammonium salt of the pentachloride:

Er2O3 + 10 [NH4]Cl → 2 [NH4]2ErCl5 + 6 H2O + 6 NH3

In the second step, the ammonium chloride salt is converted to the trichloride by heating in a vacuum at 350-400 ºC:

[NH4]2ErCl5 → ErCl3 + 2 HCl + 2 NH3

Structural data

Erbium(III) chloride forms crystals of the AlCl3 type, with monoclinic crystals and the point group C2/m. [2]

Erbium(III) chloride hexahydrate also forms monoclinic crystals with the point group of P2/n (P2/c) - C42h. In this compound, erbium is octa-coordinated to form [Er(H2O)6Cl2]+ ions with the isolated Cl completing the structure. [6]

Optical properties

Erbium(III) chloride solutions show a negative nonlinear absorption effect. [7] [ clarification needed ]

Catalytic properties

The use of erbium(III) chloride as a catalyst has been demonstrated in the acylation of alcohols and phenols [8] and in an amine functionalisation of furfural. [9] It is a catalyst for Friedel–Crafts-type reactions, and can be used in place of cerium(III) chloride for Luche reductions. [10]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zinc chloride</span> Chemical compound

Zinc chloride is the name of inorganic chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates. Zinc chlorides, of which nine crystalline forms are known, are colorless or white, and are highly soluble in water. This salt is hygroscopic and even deliquescent. Zinc chloride finds wide application in textile processing, metallurgical fluxes, and chemical synthesis. No mineral with this chemical composition is known aside from the very rare mineral simonkolleite, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cerium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3), also known as cerous chloride or cerium trichloride, is a compound of cerium and chlorine. It is a white hygroscopic salt; it rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a hydrate, which appears to be of variable composition, though the heptahydrate CeCl3·7H2O is known. It is highly soluble in water, and (when anhydrous) it is soluble in ethanol and acetone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Praseodymium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Praseodymium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula PrCl3. Like other lanthanide trichlorides, it exists both in the anhydrous and hydrated forms. It is a blue-green solid that rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a light green heptahydrate.

Neodymium(III) chloride or neodymium trichloride is a chemical compound of neodymium and chlorine with the formula NdCl3. This anhydrous compound is a mauve-colored solid that rapidly absorbs water on exposure to air to form a purple-colored hexahydrate, NdCl3·6H2O. Neodymium(III) chloride is produced from minerals monazite and bastnäsite using a complex multistage extraction process. The chloride has several important applications as an intermediate chemical for production of neodymium metal and neodymium-based lasers and optical fibers. Other applications include a catalyst in organic synthesis and in decomposition of waste water contamination, corrosion protection of aluminium and its alloys, and fluorescent labeling of organic molecules (DNA).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Samarium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Samarium(III) chloride, also known as samarium trichloride, is an inorganic compound of samarium and chloride. It is a pale yellow salt that rapidly absorbs water to form a hexahydrate, SmCl3.6H2O. The compound has few practical applications but is used in laboratories for research on new compounds of samarium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Europium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Europium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula EuCl3. The anhydrous compound is a yellow solid. Being hygroscopic it rapidly absorbs water to form a white crystalline hexahydrate, EuCl3·6H2O, which is colourless. The compound is used in research.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aluminium chloride</span> Chemical compound

Aluminium chloride, also known as aluminium trichloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula AlCl3. It forms hexahydrate with the formula [Al(H2O)6]Cl3, containing six water molecules of hydration. Both are colourless crystals, but samples are often contaminated with iron(III) chloride, giving a yellow color.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dysprosium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Dysprosium(III) chloride (DyCl3), also known as dysprosium trichloride, is a compound of dysprosium and chlorine. It is a white to yellow solid which rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a hexahydrate, DyCl3·6H2O. Simple rapid heating of the hydrate causes partial hydrolysis to an oxychloride, DyOCl.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chromium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) describes any of several chemical compounds with the formula CrCl3 · xH2O, where x can be 0, 5, and 6. The anhydrous compound with the formula CrCl3 is a violet solid. The most common form of the trichloride is the dark green hexahydrate, CrCl3 · 6 H2O. Chromium chlorides find use as catalysts and as precursors to dyes for wool.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Iridium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Iridium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula IrCl3. The anhydrous compound is relatively rare, but the related hydrate is useful for preparing other iridium compounds. The anhydrous salt is a dark green crystalline solid. More commonly encountered is the trihydrate IrCl3(H2O)3.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Terbium(III,IV) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Terbium(III,IV) oxide, occasionally called tetraterbium heptaoxide, has the formula Tb4O7, though some texts refer to it as TbO1.75. There is some debate as to whether it is a discrete compound, or simply one phase in an interstitial oxide system. Tb4O7 is one of the main commercial terbium compounds, and the only such product containing at least some Tb(IV) (terbium in the +4 oxidation state), along with the more stable Tb(III). It is produced by heating the metal oxalate, and it is used in the preparation of other terbium compounds. Terbium forms three other major oxides: Tb2O3, TbO2, and Tb6O11.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gadolinium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Gadolinium(III) chloride, also known as gadolinium trichloride, is GdCl3. It is a colorless, hygroscopic, water-soluble solid. The hexahydrate GdCl3∙6H2O is commonly encountered and is sometimes also called gadolinium trichloride. Gd3+ species are of special interest because the ion has the maximum number of unpaired spins possible, at least for known elements. With seven valence electrons and seven available f-orbitals, all seven electrons are unpaired and symmetrically arranged around the metal. Because of the similarity in their coordination chemistry, gallium(III) compounds have been used as diamagnetic analogs of ferric compounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yttrium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Yttrium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound of yttrium and chloride. It exists in two forms, the hydrate (YCl3(H2O)6) and an anhydrous form (YCl3). Both are colourless solids that are highly soluble in water and deliquescent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ytterbium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Ytterbium(III) chloride (YbCl3) is an inorganic chemical compound. It reacts with NiCl2 to form a very effective catalyst for the reductive dehalogenation of aryl halides. It is poisonous if injected, and mildly toxic by ingestion. It is an experimental teratogen, known to irritate the skin and eyes. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl.

Lanthanum chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula LaCl3. It is a common salt of lanthanum which is mainly used in research. It is a white solid that is highly soluble in water and alcohols.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lutetium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Lutetium(III) chloride or lutetium trichloride is the chemical compound composed of lutetium and chlorine with the formula LuCl3. It forms hygroscopic white monoclinic crystals and also a hydroscopic hexahydrate LuCl3·6H2O. Anhydrous lutetium(III) chloride has the YCl3 (AlCl3) layer structure with octahedral lutetium ions.

Lanthanide trichlorides are a family of inorganic compound with the formula LnCl3, where Ln stands for a lanthanide metal. The trichlorides are standard reagents in applied and academic chemistry of the lanthanides. They exist as anhydrous solids and as hydrates.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Berkelium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Berkelium(III) chloride also known as berkelium trichloride, is a chemical compound with the formula BkCl3. It is a water-soluble green solid with a melting point of 603 °C. This compound forms the hexahydrate, BkCl3·6H2O.

Manganese(III) chloride is the hypothetical inorganic compound with the formula MnCl3.

Erbium compounds are compounds containing the element erbium (Er). These compounds are usually dominated by erbium in the +3 oxidation state, although the +2, +1 and 0 oxidation states have also been reported.


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