Francium chloride

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Francium chloride [1]
Other names
  • Francium(I) chloride
3D model (JSmol)
  • InChI=1S/ClH.Fr/h1H;/q;+1/p-1
  • [Fr+].[Cl-]
Molar mass 258.45 g/mol
AppearanceWhite solid
Melting point 590 °C (1,094 °F; 863 K)
Boiling point 1,275 °C (2,327 °F; 1,548 K)
Vapor pressure 23.90
Related compounds
Other anions
Francium hydroxide
Other cations
Lithium chloride
Sodium chloride
Potassium chloride
Rubidium chloride
Caesium chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Francium chloride is a radioactive chemical compound with the formula FrCl. It is a salt predicted to be a white solid and is soluble in water. Its properties resemble caesium chloride. [1]


It is produced by the reaction of hydrochloric acid with francium metal: [1]

2Fr + 2HCl → 2FrCl + H2

It is also expected to be produced by the violent reaction of francium and chlorine gas. [2]

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alkali metal</span> Group of highly reactive chemical elements

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). Together with hydrogen they constitute group 1, which lies in the s-block of the periodic table. All alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital: this shared electron configuration results in their having very similar characteristic properties. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well-characterised homologous behaviour. This family of elements is also known as the lithium family after its leading element.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chlorine</span> Chemical element, symbol Cl and atomic number 17

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the revised Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Francium</span> Chemical element, symbol Fr and atomic number 87

Francium is a chemical element with the symbol Fr and atomic number 87. It is extremely radioactive; its most stable isotope, francium-223, has a half-life of only 22 minutes. It is the second-most electropositive element, behind only caesium, and is the second rarest naturally occurring element. The isotopes of francium decay quickly into astatine, radium, and radon. The electronic structure of a francium atom is [Rn] 7s1, and so the element is classed as an alkali metal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aqua regia</span> Mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid in a 1:3 molar ratio

Aqua regia is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3. Aqua regia is a fuming liquid. Freshly prepared aqua regia is colorless, but it turns yellow, orange or red within seconds from the formation of nitrosyl chloride and nitrogen dioxide. It was named by alchemists because it can dissolve the noble metals gold and platinum, though not all metals.

A period 7 element is one of the chemical elements in the seventh row of the periodic table of the chemical elements. The periodic table is laid out in rows to illustrate recurring (periodic) trends in the chemical behavior of the elements as their atomic number increases: a new row is begun when chemical behavior begins to repeat, meaning that elements with similar behavior fall into the same vertical columns. The seventh period contains 32 elements, tied for the most with period 6, beginning with francium and ending with oganesson, the heaviest element currently discovered. As a rule, period 7 elements fill their 7s shells first, then their 5f, 6d, and 7p shells in that order, but there are exceptions, such as uranium.

The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula HCl and as such is a hydrogen halide. At room temperature, it is a colourless gas, which forms white fumes of hydrochloric acid upon contact with atmospheric water vapor. Hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid are important in technology and industry. Hydrochloric acid, the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride, is also commonly given the formula HCl.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Electrolytic cell</span> Cell that uses electrical energy to drive a non-spontaneous redox reaction

An electrolytic cell is an electrochemical cell that utilizes an external source of electrical energy to force a chemical reaction that would otherwise not occur. The external energy source is a voltage applied between the cell′s two electrodes; an anode and a cathode, which are immersed in an electrolyte solution. This is in contrast to a galvanic cell, which itself is a source of electrical energy and the foundation of a battery. The net reaction taking place in a galvanic cell is a spontaneous reaction, i.e, the Gibbs free energy remains -ve, while the net reaction taking place in an electrolytic cell is the reverse of this spontaneous reaction, i.e, the Gibbs free energy is +ve.

Iron(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula FeCl3. Also called ferric chloride, it is a common compound of iron in the +3 oxidation state. The anhydrous compound is a crystalline solid with a melting point of 307.6 °C. The colour depends on the viewing angle: by reflected light the crystals appear dark green, but by transmitted light they appear purple-red.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silver chloride</span> Chemical compound with the formula AgCl

Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl. This white crystalline solid is well known for its low solubility in water (this behavior being reminiscent of the chlorides of Tl+ and Pb2+). Upon illumination or heating, silver chloride converts to silver (and chlorine), which is signaled by grey to black or purplish coloration to some samples. AgCl occurs naturally as a mineral chlorargyrite.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aluminium chloride</span> Chemical compound

Aluminium chloride, also known as aluminium trichloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula AlCl3. It forms hexahydrate with the formula [Al(H2O)6]Cl3, containing six water molecules of hydration. Both are colourless crystals, but samples are often contaminated with iron(III) chloride, giving a yellow color.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Copper(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuCl2. The anhydrous form is pinkish brown but slowly absorbs moisture to form a Black-green dihydrate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thionyl chloride</span> Inorganic compound (SOCl2)

Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl2. It is a moderately volatile, colourless liquid with an unpleasant acrid odour. Thionyl chloride is primarily used as a chlorinating reagent, with approximately 45,000 tonnes per year being produced during the early 1990s, but is occasionally also used as a solvent. It is toxic, reacts with water, and is also listed under the Chemical Weapons Convention as it may be used for the production of chemical weapons.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gold(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Gold(III) chloride, traditionally called auric chloride, is a compound of gold and chlorine with the molecular formula Au2Cl6. The "III" in the name indicates that the gold has an oxidation state of +3, typical for many gold compounds. Gold(III) chloride is hygroscopic and decomposes in visible light. This compound is a dimer of AuCl3. This compound has few uses, although it catalyzes various organic reactions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caesium perchlorate</span> Chemical compound

Caesium perchlorate or cesium perchlorate (CsClO4), is a perchlorate of caesium. It forms white crystals, which are sparingly soluble in cold water and ethanol. It dissolves more easily in hot water.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phosphoryl chloride</span> Chemical compound

Phosphoryl chloride is a colourless liquid with the formula POCl3. It hydrolyses in moist air releasing phosphoric acid and fumes of hydrogen chloride. It is manufactured industrially on a large scale from phosphorus trichloride and oxygen or phosphorus pentoxide. It is mainly used to make phosphate esters such as tricresyl phosphate.

Benzyl chloride, or α-chlorotoluene, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2Cl. This colorless liquid is a reactive organochlorine compound that is a widely used chemical building block.

Titanium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl3. At least four distinct species have this formula; additionally hydrated derivatives are known. TiCl3 is one of the most common halides of titanium and is an important catalyst for the manufacture of polyolefins.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Promethium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Promethium(III) chloride is a chemical compound of promethium and chlorine with the formula PmCl3. It is an ionic, water soluble, crystalline salt that glows in the dark with a pale blue or green light due to promethium's intense radioactivity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Francium hydroxide</span> Chemical compound

Francium hydroxide is a hypothetical inorganic compound with a chemical formula FrOH. It is a hydroxide of francium.

Francium compounds are compounds containing the element francium (Fr). Due to francium being very unstable, its salts are only known to a small extent. Francium coprecipitates with several caesium salts, such as caesium perchlorate, which results in small amounts of francium perchlorate. This coprecipitation can be used to isolate francium, by adapting the radiocaesium coprecipitation method of Lawrence E. Glendenin and C. M. Nelson. It will additionally coprecipitate with many other caesium salts, including the iodate, the picrate, the tartrate, the chloroplatinate, and the silicotungstate. It also coprecipitates with silicotungstic acid, and with perchloric acid, without another alkali metal as a carrier, which leads to other methods of separation.


  1. 1 2 3 Analytical Chemistry of Technetium, Promethium, Astatine and Francium by Avgusta Konstantinovna. Lavrukhina, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Pozdnyakov ISBN   0250399237
  2. Paul Collison (2003). Nelson Modular Science. Nelson Thornes Limited. p. 130. ISBN   9780748767977.