Platinum(IV) chloride

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Platinum(IV) chloride
Platinum(IV)-chloride-2D.png
Names
IUPAC name
Platinum tetrachloride
Other names
Platinum(IV) chloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.033.300 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
PubChem CID
UNII
  • InChI=1/4ClH.2Pt/h4*1H;;/q;;;;2*+2/p-4
    Key: KBPRWZWTZAMEIF-XBHQNQODAX
  • ionic monomer:[Pt+4].[Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-]
  • coordination monomer:Cl[Pt](Cl)(Cl)Cl
  • coordination polymer:Cl[Pt-]1(Cl)(Cl)(Cl)[Cl+][Pt-2]2([Cl+]1)(Cl)(Cl)[Cl+][Pt-2]1([Cl+]2)(Cl)(Cl)[Cl+][Pt-2]2([Cl+]1)(Cl)(Cl)[Cl+][Pt-2]1([Cl+]2)(Cl)(Cl)[Cl+][Pt-2]2([Cl+]1)(Cl)(Cl)[Cl+][Pt-2]1([Cl+]2)(Cl)(Cl)[Cl+][Pt-2]2([Cl+]1)(Cl)(Cl)[Cl+][Pt-2]1([Cl+]2)(Cl)(Cl)[Cl+][Pt-]([Cl+]1)(Cl)(Cl)(Cl)Cl
Properties
PtCl4
Molar mass 336.89 g/mol
Appearancebrown-red powder
Density 4.303 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.43 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)
Melting point 370 °C (698 °F; 643 K)decomposes
Boiling point decomposes
58.7 g/100 mL (anhydrous)
very soluble (pentahydrate)
Solubility anhydrous
soluble in acetone
slightly soluble in ethanol
insoluble in ether
pentahydrate
soluble in alcohol, ether
93.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
Square planar
Hazards
not listed
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
276 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Other anions
Platinum(IV) bromide
Platinum(IV) fluoride
Platinum(IV) sulfide
Other cations
Iridium(IV) chloride
Related compounds
Platinum(II) chloride
Platinum(VI) fluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Platinum(IV) chloride is the inorganic compound of platinum and chlorine with the empirical formula PtCl4. This brown solid features platinum in the 4+ oxidation state.

Contents

Structure

Typical of Pt(IV), the metal centers adopt an octahedral coordination geometry, {PtCl6}. This geometry is achieved by forming a polymer wherein half of the chloride ligands bridge between the platinum centers. Because of its polymeric structure, PtCl4 dissolves only upon breaking the chloride bridging ligands. Thus, addition of HCl give H2PtCl6. Lewis base adducts of Pt(IV) of the type cis-PtCl4L2 are known, but most are prepared by oxidation of the Pt(II) derivatives.

Platinum(IV)-chloride-CM-3D-balls.png
Part of a (PtCl4) chain from the crystal structure of platinum(IV) chloride

Formation and reactions

PtCl4 is mainly encountered in the handling of chloroplatinic acid, obtained by dissolving of Pt metal in aqua regia. Heating H2PtCl6 gives PtCl4:

H2PtCl6 → PtCl4 + 2 HCl

If excess acids are removed, PtCl4 crystallizes from aqueous solutions in large red crystals of pentahydrate PtCl4·5(H2O), [1] which can be dehydrated by heating to about 300 °C in a current of dry chlorine. The pentahydrate is stable and is used as the commercial form of PtCl4.

Treatment of PtCl4 with aqueous base gives the [Pt(OH)6]2− ion. With methyl Grignard reagents followed by partial hydrolysis, PtCl4 converts to the cuboidal cluster [Pt(CH3)3(OH)]4. [2] Upon heating PtCl4 evolves chlorine to give PtCl2:

PtCl4 → PtCl2 + Cl2

The heavier halides, PtBr4 and PtI4, are also known.

Related Research Articles

Aqua regia Mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid in a 1:3 ratio

Aqua regia is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3. Aqua regia is a yellow-orange fuming liquid, so named by alchemists because it can dissolve the noble metals gold and platinum, though not all metals.

The chlorite ion, or chlorine dioxide anion, is the halite with the chemical formula of ClO
2
. A chlorite (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in the oxidation state of +3. Chlorites are also known as salts of chlorous acid.

Zinc chloride Chemical compound

Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates. Zinc chlorides, of which nine crystalline forms are known, are colorless or white, and are highly soluble in water. This white salt is hygroscopic and even deliquescent. Samples should therefore be protected from sources of moisture, including the water vapor present in ambient air. Zinc chloride finds wide application in textile processing, metallurgical fluxes, and chemical synthesis. No mineral with this chemical composition is known aside from the very rare mineral simonkolleite, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O.

Titanium tetrachloride Inorganic chemical compound

Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms spectacular opaque clouds of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hydrated hydrogen chloride. It is sometimes referred to as "tickle" or "tickle 4" due to the phonetic resemblance of its molecular formula (TiCl4) to the word.

Lead(II) chloride Chemical compound

Lead(II) chloride (PbCl2) is an inorganic compound which is a white solid under ambient conditions. It is poorly soluble in water. Lead(II) chloride is one of the most important lead-based reagents. It also occurs naturally in the form of the mineral cotunnite.

Praseodymium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Praseodymium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula PrCl3. It is a blue-green solid that rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a light green heptahydrate.

Neodymium(III) chloride or neodymium trichloride is a chemical compound of neodymium and chlorine with the formula NdCl3. This anhydrous compound is a mauve-colored solid that rapidly absorbs water on exposure to air to form a purple-colored hexahydrate, NdCl3·6H2O. Neodymium(III) chloride is produced from minerals monazite and bastnäsite using a complex multistage extraction process. The chloride has several important applications as an intermediate chemical for production of neodymium metal and neodymium-based lasers and optical fibers. Other applications include a catalyst in organic synthesis and in decomposition of waste water contamination, corrosion protection of aluminium and its alloys, and fluorescent labeling of organic molecules (DNA).

Aluminium chloride Chemical compound

Aluminium chloride (AlCl3), also known as aluminium trichloride, describe compounds with the formula AlCl3(H2O)n (n = 0 or 6). They consist of aluminium and chlorine atoms in a 1:3 ratio, and one form also contains six waters of hydration. Both are white solids, but samples are often contaminated with iron(III) chloride, giving a yellow color.

Manganese(II) chloride Chemical compound

Manganese(II) chloride is the dichloride salt of manganese, MnCl2. This inorganic chemical exists in the anhydrous form, as well as the dihydrate (MnCl2·2H2O) and tetrahydrate (MnCl2·4H2O), with the tetrahydrate being the most common form. Like many Mn(II) species, these salts are pink, with the paleness of the color being characteristic of transition metal complexes with high spin d5 configurations. It is a paramagnetic salt.

Cobalt(II) chloride Chemical compound

Cobalt(II) chloride is an inorganic compound of cobalt and chlorine, with the formula CoCl
2
. It is a red crystalline solid.

Copper(I) chloride Chemical compound

Copper(I) chloride, commonly called cuprous chloride, is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl. The substance is a white solid sparingly soluble in water, but very soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Impure samples appear green due to the presence of copper(II) chloride (CuCl2).

Copper(II) chloride Chemical compound

Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuCl2. The anhydrous form is yellowish brown but slowly absorbs moisture to form a blue-green dihydrate.

Phosphorous acid is the compound described by the formula H3PO3. This acid is diprotic (readily ionizes two protons), not triprotic as might be suggested by this formula. Phosphorous acid is an intermediate in the preparation of other phosphorus compounds. Organic derivatives of phosphorous acid, compounds with the formula RPO3H2, are called phosphonic acids.

Vanadium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Vanadium trichloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VCl3. This purple salt is a common precursor to other vanadium(III) complexes.

Platinum(II) chloride Chemical compound

Platinum(II) chloride is the chemical compound PtCl2. It is an important precursor used in the preparation of other platinum compounds. It exists in two crystalline forms, but the main properties are somewhat similar: dark brown, insoluble in water, diamagnetic, and odorless.

Ammonium hexachloroplatinate Chemical compound

Ammonium hexachloroplatinate, also known as ammonium chloroplatinate, is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2[PtCl6]. It is a rare example of a soluble platinum(IV) salt that is not hygroscopic. It forms intensely yellow solutions in water. In the presence of 1M NH4Cl, its solubility is only 0.0028 g/100 mL.

Nitrosyl chloride Chemical compound

Nitrosyl chloride is the chemical compound with the formula NOCl. It is a yellow gas that is commonly encountered as a component of aqua regia, a mixture of 3 parts concentrated hydrochloric acid and 1 part of concentrated nitric acid. It is a strong electrophile and oxidizing agent. It is sometimes called Tilden's reagent.

Trirhenium nonachloride Chemical compound

Trirhenium nonachloride is a compound with the formula ReCl3, sometimes also written Re3Cl9. It is a dark red hygroscopic solid that is insoluble in ordinary solvents. The compound is important in the history of inorganic chemistry as an early example of a cluster compound with metal-metal bonds. It is used as a starting material for synthesis of other rhenium complexes.

Chloroauric acid Chemical compound

Chloroauric acid refers to inorganic compounds with the chemical formula HAuCl
4
·(H
2
O)
x
. Both the trihydrate and tetrahydrate are known. Both are orange-yellow solids consisting of the planar [AuCl4] anion. Often chloroauric acid is handled as a solution, such as those obtained by dissolution of gold in aqua regia. These solutions can be converted to other gold complexes or reduced to metallic gold or gold nanoparticles.

Metal halides

Metal halides are compounds between metals and halogens. Some, such as sodium chloride are ionic, while others are covalently bonded. Covalently bonded metal halides may be discrete molecules, such as uranium hexafluoride, or they may form polymeric structures, such as palladium chloride.

References

  1. George Samuel Newth (1920). A text-book of inorganic chemistry. Longmans, Green, and co. p. 694.
  2. Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN   0-7506-3365-4.