Vanadium(II) chloride

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Vanadium(II) chloride
Plan view of a single layer in the crystal structure of vanadium(II) chloride VCl2-layer-in-xtal-1959-3D-balls.png
Plan view of a single layer in the crystal structure of vanadium(II) chloride
Layer stacking in the crystal structure of vanadium(II) chloride VCl2-xtal-1959-3D-balls.png
Layer stacking in the crystal structure of vanadium(II) chloride
IUPAC name
Vanadium(II) chloride
Other names
Vanadous chloride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.057 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 234-176-7
PubChem CID
RTECS number
  • YW1575000
  • InChI=1S/2ClH.V/h2*1H;/q;;+2/p-2 Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/2ClH.V/h2*1H;/q;;+2/p-2
  • Cl[V]Cl
Molar mass 121.847 g/mol
Appearancepale green solid
Density 3.230 g/cm3
Melting point 1,027 °C (1,881 °F; 1,300 K)
Boiling point 1,506 °C (2,743 °F; 1,779 K)
+2410.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
Reacts with oxygen rapidly
GHS labelling: [1]
GHS-pictogram-acid.svg GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg
H302, H314
P260, P264, P270, P280, P301+P312, P301+P330+P331, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P310, P330, P363, P405
Related compounds
Other anions
vanadium(II) fluoride,
vanadium(II) bromide,
vanadium(II) iodide
Other cations
titanium(II) chloride, chromium(II) chloride
Related compounds
vanadium(III) chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Vanadium(II) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VCl2, and is the most reduced vanadium chloride. Vanadium(II) chloride is an apple-green solid that dissolves in water to give purple solutions. [2]


Solid VCl2 is prepared by thermal decomposition of VCl3, which leaves a residue of VCl2: [2]

2 VCl3 → VCl2 + VCl4

VCl2 dissolves in water to give the purple hexaaquo ion [V(H2O)6]2+. Evaporation of such solutions produces crystals of [V(H2O)6]Cl2. [3]


Solid VCl2 adopts the cadmium iodide structure, featuring octahedral coordination geometry. VBr2 and VI2 are structurally and chemically similar to the dichloride. All have the d3 configuration, with a quartet ground state, akin to Cr(III). [4]

Vanadium dichloride is a powerful reducing species, being able to convert sulfoxides to sulfides, organic azides to amines, as well as reductively coupling some alkyl halides.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Iron(III) chloride</span> Inorganic compound

Iron(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula FeCl3. Also called ferric chloride, it is a common compound of iron in the +3 oxidation state. The anhydrous compound is a crystalline solid with a melting point of 307.6 °C. The color depends on the viewing angle: by reflected light the crystals appear dark green, but by transmitted light they appear purple-red.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium tetrachloride</span> Inorganic chemical compound

Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms thick clouds of titanium dioxide and hydrochloric acid, a reaction that was formerly exploited for use in smoke machines. It is sometimes referred to as "tickle" or "tickle 4" due to the phonetic resemblance of its molecular formula to the word.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hydrogen bromide</span> Chemical compound

Hydrogen bromide is the inorganic compound with the formula HBr. It is a hydrogen halide consisting of hydrogen and bromine. A colorless gas, it dissolves in water, forming hydrobromic acid, which is saturated at 68.85% HBr by weight at room temperature. Aqueous solutions that are 47.6% HBr by mass form a constant-boiling azeotrope mixture that boils at 124.3 °C. Boiling less concentrated solutions releases H2O until the constant-boiling mixture composition is reached.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manganese(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Manganese(II) chloride is the dichloride salt of manganese, MnCl2. This inorganic chemical exists in the anhydrous form, as well as the dihydrate (MnCl2·2H2O) and tetrahydrate (MnCl2·4H2O), with the tetrahydrate being the most common form. Like many Mn(II) species, these salts are pink, with the paleness of the color being characteristic of transition metal complexes with high spin d5 configurations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cobalt(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Cobalt(II) chloride is an inorganic compound of cobalt and chlorine, with the formula CoCl
. The compound forms several hydrates CoCl
, for n = 1, 2, 6, and 9. Claims of the formation of tri- and tetrahydrates have not been confirmed. The anhydrous form is a blue crystalline solid; the dihydrate is purple and the hexahydrate is pink. Commercial samples are usually the hexahydrate, which is one of the most commonly used cobalt compounds in the lab.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chromium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) describes any of several chemical compounds with the formula CrCl3 · xH2O, where x can be 0, 5, and 6. The anhydrous compound with the formula CrCl3 is a violet solid. The most common form of the trichloride is the dark green hexahydrate, CrCl3 · 6 H2O. Chromium chlorides find use as catalysts and as precursors to dyes for wool.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nickel(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Nickel(II) chloride (or just nickel chloride) is the chemical compound NiCl2. The anhydrous salt is yellow, but the more familiar hydrate NiCl2·6H2O is green. Nickel(II) chloride, in various forms, is the most important source of nickel for chemical synthesis. The nickel chlorides are deliquescent, absorbing moisture from the air to form a solution. Nickel salts have been shown to be carcinogenic to the lungs and nasal passages in cases of long-term inhalation exposure.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Iron(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Iron(II) chloride, also known as ferrous chloride, is the chemical compound of formula FeCl2. It is a paramagnetic solid with a high melting point. The compound is white, but typical samples are often off-white. FeCl2 crystallizes from water as the greenish tetrahydrate, which is the form that is most commonly encountered in commerce and the laboratory. There is also a dihydrate. The compound is highly soluble in water, giving pale green solutions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Triphenylphosphine</span> Chemical compound

Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 and often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P. It is widely used in the synthesis of organic and organometallic compounds. PPh3 exists as relatively air stable, colorless crystals at room temperature. It dissolves in non-polar organic solvents such as benzene and diethyl ether.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rhodium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Rhodium(III) chloride refers to inorganic compounds with the formula RhCl3(H2O)n, where n varies from 0 to 3. These are diamagnetic solids featuring octahedral Rh(III) centres. Depending on the value of n, the material is either a dense brown solid or a soluble reddish salt. The soluble trihydrated (n = 3) salt is widely used to prepare compounds used in homogeneous catalysis, notably for the industrial production of acetic acid and hydroformylation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Palladium(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Palladium(II) chloride, also known as palladium dichloride and palladous chloride, are the chemical compounds with the formula PdCl2. PdCl2 is a common starting material in palladium chemistry – palladium-based catalysts are of particular value in organic synthesis. It is prepared by the reaction of chlorine with palladium metal at high temperatures.

A salt metathesis reaction, sometimes called a double displacement reaction, is a chemical process involving the exchange of bonds between two reacting chemical species which results in the creation of products with similar or identical bonding affiliations. This reaction is represented by the general scheme:

Vanadium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VCl4. This bright red liquid serves as a useful reagent for the preparation of other vanadium compounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vanadium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Vanadium trichloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VCl3. This purple salt is a common precursor to other vanadium(III) complexes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Molybdenum(V) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Molybdenum(V) chloride is the inorganic compound with the empirical formula MoCl5. This dark volatile solid is used in research to prepare other molybdenum compounds. It is moisture-sensitive and soluble in chlorinated solvents.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium(II) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Titanium(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula TiCl2. The black solid has been studied only moderately, probably because of its high reactivity. Ti(II) is a strong reducing agent: it has a high affinity for oxygen and reacts irreversibly with water to produce H2. The usual preparation is the thermal disproportionation of TiCl3 at 500 °C. The reaction is driven by the loss of volatile TiCl4:

Organovanadium chemistry is the chemistry of organometallic compounds containing a carbon (C) to vanadium (V) chemical bond. Organovanadium compounds find only minor use as reagents in organic synthesis but are significant for polymer chemistry as catalysts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides</span>

Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides are coordination complexes composed of a cationic metal with anionic bis(trimethylsilyl)amide ligands and are part of a broader category of metal amides.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Molybdenum(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Molybdenum(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula MoCl3. It forms purple crystals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vanadium(II) sulfate</span> Chemical compound

Vanadium(II) sulfate describes a family of inorganic compounds with the formula VSO4(H2O)x where 0 ≤ x ≤ 7. The hexahydrate is most commonly encountered. It is a violet solid that dissolves in water to give air-sensitive solutions of the aquo complex. The salt is isomorphous with [Mg(H2O)6]SO4. Compared to the V–O bond length of 191 pm in [V(H2O)6]3+, the V–O distance is 212 pm in the [V(H2O)6]SO4. This nearly 10% elongation reflects the effect of the lower charge, hence weakened electrostatic attraction.


  1. "Vanadium dichloride". Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  2. 1 2 Young, R. C.; Smith, M. E. "Vanadium(II) Chloride" Inorganic Syntheses, 1953, volume IV, page 126-127. doi : 10.1002/9780470132357.ch42
  3. Martin Pomerantz, Gerald L. Combs, N. L. Dassanayake, "Vanadium Dichloride Solution" Inorganic Syntheses, 1982, vol. XXI, pp. 185–187. doi : 10.1002/9780470132524.ch42
  4. Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN   0-12-352651-5.