Technetium(IV) chloride

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Technetium(IV) chloride
TcCl4.svg
Names
IUPAC name
Technetium(IV) chloride
Other names
Technetium tetrachloride, Technetium chloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/4ClH.Tc/h4*1H;/q;;;;+4/p-4
    Key: DCEWLADEQKZQQZ-UHFFFAOYSA-J
  • [Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-].[Tc+4]
Properties
TcCl4
Molar mass 239.718 g/mol
AppearanceRed solid
Boiling point 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K) [1]
Structure
Orthorhombic, oP40
Pbca, No. 61
a = 0.603 nm, b = 1.165 nm, c = 1.406 nm
α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 90°
Related compounds
Other anions
Technetium(VI) fluoride
Other cations
Manganese(II) chloride
Rhenium(V) chloride
Ruthenium(III) chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Technetium(IV) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TcCl4. It was discovered in 1957 as the first binary halide of technetium. It is the highest oxidation binary chloride of technetium that has been isolated as a solid. It is volatile at elevated temperatures and its volatility has been used for separating technetium from other metal chlorides. [2] Colloidal solutions of technetium(IV) chloride are oxidized to form Tc(VII) ions when exposed to gamma rays. [3]

Technetium tetrachloride can be synthesized from the reaction of Cl2 with technetium metal at elevated temperatures between 300 and 500 °C: [4]

Tc + 2 Cl2 → TcCl4

Technetium tetrachloride has also been prepared from the reaction of technetium(VII) oxide with carbon tetrachloride in a sealed vessel at elevated temperature:

Tc2O7 + 7 CCl4 → 2 TcCl4 + 7 COCl2 + 3 Cl2

At 450 °C under vacuum, TcCl4 decomposes to TcCl3 and TcCl2. [5]

As verified by X-ray crystallography, the compound is an inorganic polymer consisting of interconnected TcCl6 octahedra.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Technetium</span> Chemical element, symbol Tc and atomic number 43

Technetium is a chemical element with the symbol Tc and atomic number 43. It is the lightest element whose isotopes are all radioactive. Nearly all available technetium is produced as a synthetic element. Naturally occurring technetium is a spontaneous fission product in uranium ore and thorium ore, the most common source, or the product of neutron capture in molybdenum ores. This silvery gray, crystalline transition metal lies between manganese and rhenium in group 7 of the periodic table, and its chemical properties are intermediate between those of both adjacent elements. The most common naturally occurring isotope is 99Tc, in traces only.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium tetrachloride</span> Inorganic chemical compound

Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms thick clouds of titanium dioxide and hydrochloric acid, a reaction that was formerly exploited for use in smoke machines. It is sometimes referred to as "tickle" or "tickle 4" due to the phonetic resemblance of its molecular formula to the word.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cerium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3), also known as cerous chloride or cerium trichloride, is a compound of cerium and chlorine. It is a white hygroscopic salt; it rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a hydrate, which appears to be of variable composition, though the heptahydrate CeCl3·7H2O is known. It is highly soluble in water, and (when anhydrous) it is soluble in ethanol and acetone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tantalum(V) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Tantalum(V) chloride, also known as tantalum pentachloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula TaCl5. It takes the form of a white powder and is commonly used as a starting material in tantalum chemistry. It readily hydrolyzes to form tantalum(V) oxychloride (TaOCl3) and eventually tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5); this requires that it be synthesised and manipulated under anhydrous conditions, using air-free techniques.

Technetium (43Tc) is one of the two elements with Z < 83 that have no stable isotopes; the other such element is promethium. It is primarily artificial, with only trace quantities existing in nature produced by spontaneous fission or neutron capture by molybdenum. The first isotopes to be synthesized were 97Tc and 99Tc in 1936, the first artificial element to be produced. The most stable radioisotopes are 97Tc, 98Tc, and 99Tc.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hafnium tetrachloride</span> Chemical compound

Hafnium(IV) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula HfCl4. This colourless solid is the precursor to most hafnium organometallic compounds. It has a variety of highly specialized applications, mainly in materials science and as a catalyst.

Boron trichloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BCl3. This colorless gas is a reagent in organic synthesis. It is highly reactive toward water.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zirconium(IV) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Zirconium(IV) chloride, also known as zirconium tetrachloride, is an inorganic compound frequently used as a precursor to other compounds of zirconium. This white high-melting solid hydrolyzes rapidly in humid air.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Molybdenum(V) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Molybdenum(V) chloride is the inorganic compound with the empirical formula MoCl5. This dark volatile solid is used in research to prepare other molybdenum compounds. It is moisture-sensitive and soluble in chlorinated solvents.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Technetium hexafluoride</span> Chemical compound

Technetium hexafluoride or technetium(VI) fluoride (TcF6) is a yellow inorganic compound with a low melting point. It was first identified in 1961. In this compound, technetium has an oxidation state of +6, the highest oxidation state found in the technetium halides. The other such compound is technetium(VI) chloride, TcCl6. In this respect, technetium differs from rhenium, which forms a heptafluoride, ReF7. Technetium hexafluoride occurs as an impurity in uranium hexafluoride, as technetium is a fission product of uranium (spontaneous fission in natural uranium, possible contamination from induced fission inside the reactor in reprocessed uranium). The fact that the boiling point of the hexafluorides of uranium and technetium are very close to each other presents a problem in using fluoride volatility in nuclear reprocessing.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rhenium pentachloride</span> Chemical compound

Rhenium pentachloride is an inorganic compound of chlorine and rhenium. The compound has the formula Re2Cl10 but it is usually referred to as rhenium pentachloride. It is a red-brown solid.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pertechnetic acid</span> Chemical compound

Pertechnetic acid (HTcO4) is a compound of technetium that is produced by reacting technetium(VII) oxide (Tc2O7) with water or strong oxidizing acids, such as nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid or aqua regia. The dark red hygroscopic substance is a strong acid, with a pKa of 0.32, as such it exists almost entirely as the pertechnetate ion in aqueous solution. The red color in solution is thought to be due to the formation of the polyoxometallate Tc20O4−68.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Niobium(IV) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Niobium(IV) chloride, also known as niobium tetrachloride, is the chemical compound of formula NbCl4. This compound exists as dark violet crystals, is highly sensitive to air and moisture, and disproportiates into niobium(III) chloride and niobium(V) chloride when heated.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zirconium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Zirconium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound with formula ZrCl3. It is a blue-black solid that is highly sensitive to air.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metal halides</span>

Metal halides are compounds between metals and halogens. Some, such as sodium chloride are ionic, while others are covalently bonded. A few metal halides are discrete molecules, such as uranium hexafluoride, but most adopt polymeric structures, such as palladium chloride.

Technetium trichloride is an inorganic compound of technetium and chlorine with the formula TcCl3.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transition metal chloride complex</span> Coordination complex

In chemistry, a transition metal chloride complex is a coordination complex that consists of a transition metal coordinated to one or more chloride ligand. The class of complexes is extensive.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Technetium(IV) bromide</span> Chemical compound

Technetium(IV) bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula TcBr4. A brown solid, it is moderately soluble in water.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transition metal ether complex</span>

In chemistry, a transition metal ether complex is a coordination complex consisting of a transition metal bonded to one or more ether ligand. The inventory of complexes is extensive. Common ether ligands are diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran. Common chelating ether ligands include the glymes, dimethoxyethane (dme) and diglyme, and the crown ethers. Being lipophilic, metal-ether complexes often exhibit solubility in organic solvents, a property of interest in synthetic chemistry.

Protactinium compounds are compounds containing the element protactinium. These compounds usually have protactinium in the +5 oxidation state, although these compounds can also exist in the +2, +3 and +4 oxidation states.

References

  1. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN   0-8493-0486-5.
  2. Schwochau, Klaus (2000). Technetium. Wiley-VCH. p. 67. ISBN   978-3-527-29496-1.
  3. Fattahi, M.; Vichot, L.; Poineau, F.; Houée-Levin, C.; Grambow, B. (2005). "Speciation of technetium(IV) chloride under gamma irradiation". Radiochimica Acta. 93 (7): 409–413. doi:10.1524/ract.2005.93.7.409. S2CID   96640348.
  4. Johnstone, Erik V.; Poineau, Frederic; Forster, Paul M.; Ma, Longzou; Hartmann, Thomas; Cornelius, Andrew; Antonio, Daniel; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Czerwinski, Kenneth R. (2012-07-09). "Technetium Tetrachloride Revisited: A Precursor to Lower-Valent Binary Technetium Chlorides". Inorganic Chemistry. 51 (15): 8462–8467. doi:10.1021/ic301011c. OSTI   1307429. PMID   22775538.
  5. Poineau, Frederic; Johnstone, Erik V.; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Sattelberger, Alfred P. (2014). "Recent Advances in Technetium Halide Chemistry". Accounts of Chemical Research. 47 (2): 624–632. doi:10.1021/ar400225b. PMID   24393028.