Iodine trichloride

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Iodine trichloride
Iodine trichloride.svg
Iodine trichloride cropped.jpg
IUPAC name
Iodine trichloride
Other names
Diiodine hexachloride
3D model (JSmol)
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PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/Cl3I/c1-4(2)3 Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/Cl3I/c1-4(2)3
Molar mass 466.5281 g/mol
Appearanceyellow solid
Density 3.11 g/cm3
Melting point 63 °C (145 °F; 336 K)
−90.2×10−6 cm3/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Iodine trichloride is an interhalogen compound of iodine and chlorine. It is bright yellow but upon time and exposure to light it turns red due to the presence of elemental iodine. In the solid state is present as a planar dimer I2Cl6, with two bridging Cl atoms. [1]

It can be prepared by reacting iodine with an excess of liquid chlorine at −70 °C. In the molten state it is conductive, which may indicate dissociation: [2]

+ ICl

Iodine trichloride can be created by heating a mixture of liquid iodine and chlorine gas to 105 °C.

It is an oxidizing agent, capable of causing fire on contact with organic materials.

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Bromine Chemical element, symbol Br and atomic number 35

Bromine is a chemical element with the symbol Br and atomic number 35. It is the third-lightest halogen, and is a volatile red-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates readily to form a similarly coloured vapour. Its properties are intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine. Isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Jérôme Balard, its name was derived from the Ancient Greek βρῶμος ("stench"), referring to its sharp and pungent smell.

Chlorine Chemical element, symbol Cl and atomic number 17

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the revised Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine. On several scales other than the revised Pauling scale, nitrogen's electronegativity is also listed as greater than chlorine's, such as on the Allen, Allred-Rochow, Martynov-Batsanov, Mulliken-Jaffe, Nagle, and Noorizadeh-Shakerzadeh electronegativity scales.

Iodine Chemical element, symbol I and atomic number 53

Iodine is a chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53. The heaviest of the stable halogens, it exists as a semi-lustrous, non-metallic solid at standard conditions that melts to form a deep violet liquid at 114 degrees Celsius, and boils to a violet gas at 184 degrees Celsius. The element was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811, and was named two years later by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, after the Greek Ιώδης "violet-coloured".

The chloride ion is the anion Cl. It is formed when the element chlorine gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body liquids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating liquid flow in and out of cells. Less frequently, the word chloride may also form part of the "common" name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded. For example, methyl chloride, with the standard name chloromethane is an organic compound with a covalent C−Cl bond in which the chlorine is not an anion.

Sodium hypochlorite Chemical compound

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl or NaClO, comprising a sodium cation and a hypochlorite anion. It may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. The anhydrous compound is unstable and may decompose explosively. It can be crystallized as a pentahydrate NaOCl·5H
, a pale greenish-yellow solid which is not explosive and is stable if kept refrigerated.

In chemistry, halogenation is a chemical reaction that entails the introduction of one or more halogens into a compound. Halide-containing compounds are pervasive, making this type of transformation important, e.g. in the production of polymers, drugs. This kind of conversion is in fact so common that a comprehensive overview is challenging. This article mainly deals with halogenation using elemental halogens (F2, Cl2, Br2, I2). Halides are also commonly introduced using salts of the halides and halogen acids. Many specialized reagents exist for and introducing halogens into diverse substrates, e.g. thionyl chloride.

Nitrogen trichloride Chemical compound

Nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, is the chemical compound with the formula NCl3. This yellow, oily, pungent-smelling and explosive liquid is most commonly encountered as a byproduct of chemical reactions between ammonia-derivatives and chlorine (for example, in swimming pools). Alongside monochloramine and dichloramine, trichloramine is responsible for the distinctive 'chlorine smell' associated with swimming pools, where the compound is readily formed as a product from hypochlorous acid reacting with ammonia and other nitrogenous substances in the water, such as urea from urine.

An interhalogen compound is a molecule which contains two or more different halogen atoms and no atoms of elements from any other group.

Aluminium chloride Chemical compound

Aluminium chloride (AlCl3), also known as aluminium trichloride, describe compounds with the formula AlCl3(H2O)n (n = 0 or 6). They consist of aluminium and chlorine atoms in a 1:3 ratio, and one form also contains six waters of hydration. Both are white solids, but samples are often contaminated with iron(III) chloride, giving a yellow color.

Phosphorus trichloride Chemical compound

Phosphorus trichloride is a inorganic compound with the chemical formula PCl3. A colorless liquid when pure, it is an important industrial chemical, being used for the manufacture of phosphites and other organophosphorus compounds. It is toxic and reacts violently with water to release hydrogen chloride.

Iodic acid Chemical compound

Iodic acid, is a white water-soluble solid with the chemical formula HIO3. Its robustness contrasts with the instability of chloric acid and bromic acid. Iodic acid features iodine in the oxidation state +5 and is one of the most stable oxo-acids of the halogens. When heated, samples dehydrate to give iodine pentoxide. On further heating, the iodine pentoxide further decomposes, giving a mix of iodine, oxygen and lower oxides of iodine.

Percent active chlorine is a unit of concentration used for hypochlorite-based bleaches. One gram of a 100% active chlorine bleach has the quantitative bleaching capacity as one gram of free chlorine. The term "active chlorine" is used because most commercial bleaches also contain chlorine in the form of chloride ions, which have no bleaching properties.

Chloral, also known as trichloroacetaldehyde or trichloroethanal, is the organic compound with the formula Cl3CCHO. This aldehyde is a colourless oily liquid that is soluble in a wide range of solvents. It reacts with water to form chloral hydrate, a once widely used sedative and hypnotic substance.

Antimony trichloride Chemical compound

Antimony trichloride is the chemical compound with the formula SbCl3. It is a soft colorless solid with a pungent odor and was known to alchemists as butter of antimony.

Iodine monochloride Chemical compound

Iodine monochloride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ICl. It is a red-brown chemical compound that melts near room temperature. Because of the difference in the electronegativity of iodine and chlorine, this molecule is highly polar and behaves as a source of I+.

Iodane generally refers to any organic derivative of iodine. Without modifier, iodane is the systematic name for the parent hydride of iodine, HI. Thus, any organoiodine compound with general formula RI (e.g., CH3I or C6H5I) is a substituted iodane. However, as used in the context of organic synthesis, the term iodane more specifically refers to organoiodine compounds with nonstandard bond number (i.e., bond number greater than one), making this term a synonym for hypervalent iodine. These iodine compounds are hypervalent because the iodine atom formally contains more than the 8 electrons in the valence shell required for the octet rule. When iodine is ligated to an organic residue and electronegative ligands (e.g. halides or carboxylates), hypervalent iodine compounds occur with a +3 oxidation number as iodine(III) or λ3-iodanes or as a +5 oxidation number as iodine(V) or λ5-iodanes. (Here, lambda convention is used to give the nonstandard bond number.)

Chlorine perchlorate Chemical compound

Chlorine perchlorate is a chemical compound with the formula Cl2O4. This chlorine oxide is an asymmetric oxide, with one chlorine atom in +1 oxidation state and the other +7, with proper formula ClOClO3. It is produced by the photolysis of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) at room temperature by 436 nm ultraviolet light :

Trichloride may refer to:

Polyhologen ions are a group of polyatomic cations and anions containing halogens only. The ions can be classified into two classes, isopolyhalogen ions which contain one type of halogen only, and heteropolyhalogen ions with more than one type of halogen.

Chlorine-releasing compounds

Chlorine-releasing compounds, also known as chlorine base compounds, is jargon to describe certain chlorine-containing substances that are used as disinfectants and bleaches. They include the following chemicals: sodium hypochlorite, chloramine, halazone, and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. They are widely used to disinfect water and medical equipment, and surface areas as well as bleaching materials such as cloth. The presence of organic matter can make them less effective as disinfectants. They come as a liquid solution, or as a powder that is mixed with water before use.


  1. K. H. Boswijk; E. H. Wiebenga (1954). "The crystal structure of I2Cl6 (ICl3)". Acta Crystallographica. 7 (5): 417–423. doi: 10.1107/S0365110X54001260 .
  2. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN   978-0-08-037941-8.