Iridium tetrachloride

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Iridium tetrachloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.030.032
EC Number
  • 233-048-8
PubChem CID
UNII
Properties
Cl4Ir
Molar mass 334.02 g·mol−1
Appearanceamorphous brown solid
good
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Iridium tetrachloride is an inorganic compound with the approximate formula IrCl4(H2O)n. It is a water-soluble dark brown amorphous solid. A well defined derivative is ammonium hexachloroiridate ((NH4)2IrCl6). [1] It is used to prepare catalysts, such as the Henbest Catalyst for transfer hydrogenation of cyclohexanones. [2]

Related Research Articles

Iridium Chemical element with atomic number 77

Iridium is a chemical element with the symbol Ir and atomic number 77. A very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is the second-densest metal with a density of 22.56 g/cm3 as defined by experimental X-ray crystallography. At room temperature and standard atmospheric pressure, iridium has a calculated density around 0.03 g/cm3 lower than osmium measured the same way. It is the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C. Although only certain molten salts and halogens are corrosive to solid iridium, finely divided iridium dust is much more reactive and can be flammable.

Magnesium chloride chemical compound

Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compound with the formula MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2O)x. These salts are typical ionic halides, being highly soluble in water. The hydrated magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water. In North America, magnesium chloride is produced primarily from Great Salt Lake brine. It is extracted in a similar process from the Dead Sea in the Jordan Valley. Magnesium chloride, as the natural mineral bischofite, is also extracted (by solution mining) out of ancient seabeds, for example, the Zechstein seabed in northwest Europe. Some magnesium chloride is made from solar evaporation of seawater. Anhydrous magnesium chloride is the principal precursor to magnesium metal, which is produced on a large scale. Hydrated magnesium chloride is the form most readily available.

Tin(IV) chloride, also known as tin tetrachloride or stannic chloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula SnCl4. It is a colorless hygroscopic liquid, which fumes on contact with air. It is used as a precursor to other tin compounds. It was first discovered by Andreas Libavius (1550–1616) and was known as spiritus fumans libavii.

Vaskas complex chemical compound

Vaska's complex is the trivial name for the chemical compound trans-carbonylchlorobis(triphenylphosphine)iridium(I), which has the formula IrCl(CO)[P(C6H5)3]2. This square planar diamagnetic organometallic complex consists of a central iridium atom bound to two mutually trans triphenylphosphine ligands, carbon monoxide, and a chloride ion. The complex was first reported by J. W. DiLuzio and Lauri Vaska in 1961. Vaska's complex can undergo oxidative addition and is notable for its ability to bind to O2 reversibly. It is a bright yellow crystalline solid.

Rhodium(III) chloride chemical compound

Rhodium(III) chloride refers to inorganic compounds with the formula RhCl3(H2O)n, where n varies from 0 to 3. These are diamagnetic solids featuring octahedral Rh(III) centres. Depending on the value of n, the material is either a dense brown solid or a soluble reddish salt. The soluble trihydrated (n = 3) salt is widely used to prepare compounds used in homogeneous catalysis, notably for the industrial production of acetic acid and hydroformylation.

Iridium(III) chloride chemical compound

Iridium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula IrCl3. The anhydrous compound is relatively rare, but the related hydrate is useful for preparing other iridium compounds. The anhydrous salt is a dark green crystalline solid. More commonly encountered is the trihydrate IrCl3(H2O)3.

Erbium(III) chloride chemical compound

Erbium(III) chloride, is a violet solid with the formula ErCl3. It is used in the preparation of erbium metal.

Crabtrees catalyst complex of iridium

Crabtree's catalyst is an organoiridium compound with the formula [C8H12IrP(C6H11)3C5H5N]PF6. It is a homogeneous catalyst for hydrogenation and hydrogen-transfer reactions, developed by Robert H. Crabtree. This air stable orange solid is available commercially.

Pentamethylcyclopentadiene chemical compound

1,2,3,4,5-Pentamethylcyclopentadiene is a cyclic dialkene with the formula C5Me5H (Me = CH3). 1,2,3,4,5-Pentamethylcyclopentadiene is the precursor to the ligand 1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, which is often denoted Cp* (C5Me5) and read as "C P star", the "star" signifying the five methyl groups radiating from the core of the ligand. In contrast to less-substituted cyclopentadiene derivatives, Cp*H is not prone to dimerization.

Titanium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl3. At least four distinct species have this formula; additionally hydrated derivatives are known. TiCl3 is one of the most common halides of titanium and is an important catalyst for the manufacture of polyolefins.

Lanthanum chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula LaCl3. It is a common salt of lanthanum which is mainly used in research. It is a white solid that is highly soluble in water and alcohols.

Tetrairidium dodecacarbonyl chemical compound

Tetrairidium dodecacarbonyl is the chemical compound with the formula Ir4(CO)12. This tetrahedral cluster is the most common and most stable "binary" carbonyl of iridium. This air-stable species is only poorly soluble in organic solvents. It has been used to prepare bimetallic clusters and catalysts, e.g. for the water gas shift reaction, and reforming, but these studies are of purely academic interest.

Martin Arthur Bennett FRS is an Australian inorganic chemist. He gained recognition for studies on the co-ordination chemistry of tertiary phosphines, olefins, and acetylenes, and the relationship of their behaviour to homogeneous catalysis.

Organoiridium compound

Organoiridium chemistry is the chemistry of organometallic compounds containing a iridium-carbon chemical bond. Organoiridium compounds are relevant to many important processes including olefin hydrogenation and the industrial synthesis of acetic acid. They are also of great academic interest because of the diversity of the reactions and their relevance to the synthesis of fine chemicals.

Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl iridium dichloride dimer chemical compound

Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl iridium dichloride is an organometallic compound with the formula [(C5(CH3)5IrCl2)]2, commonly abbreviated [Cp*IrCl2]2 This bright orange air-stable diamagnetic solid is a reagent in organometallic chemistry.

Metal acetylacetonates are coordination complexes derived from the acetylacetonate anion (CH
3
COCHCOCH
3
) and metal ions, usually transition metals. The bidentate ligand acetylacetonate is often abbreviated acac. Typically both oxygen atoms bind to the metal to form a six-membered chelate ring. The simplest complexes have the formula M(acac)3 and M(acac)2. Mixed-ligand complexes, e.g. VO(acac)2, are also numerous. Variations of acetylacetonate have also been developed with myriad substituents in place of methyl (RCOCHCOR′). Many such complexes are soluble in organic solvents, in contrast to the related metal halides. Because of these properties, acac complexes are sometimes used as catalyst precursors and reagents. Applications include their use as NMR "shift reagents" and as catalysts for organic synthesis, and precursors to industrial hydroformylation catalysts. C
5
H
7
O
2
in some cases also binds to metals through the central carbon atom; this bonding mode is more common for the third-row transition metals such as platinum(II) and iridium(III).

2-Phenylpyridine chemical compound

2-Phenylpyridine is an organic compound with the formula C6H5C5H4N. It is a colourless viscous liquid. The compound and related derivatives have attracted interest as precursors to highly fluorescent metal complexes of possible value as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs).

Cyclooctadiene iridium chloride dimer chemical compound

Cyclooctadiene iridium chloride dimer is an organoiridium compound with the formula Ir2Cl2(C8H12)2, where C8H12 is the diene 1,5-cyclooctadiene. It is an orange solid that is soluble in organic solvents. The complex is used as a precursor to other iridium complexes, some of which are used in homogeneous catalysis. The solid is air-stable but its solutions degrades in air.

Chlorobis(cyclooctene)iridium dimer chemical compound

Chlorobis(cyclooctene)iridium dimer is an organoiridium compound with the formula Ir2Cl2(C8H14)4, where C8H14 is cis-cyclooctene. Sometimes abbreviated Ir2Cl2(coe)4, it is a yellow, air-sensitive solid that is used as a precursor to many other organoiridium compounds and catalysts.

Ammonium hexachloroiridate(IV) chemical compound

Ammonium hexachloroiridate(IV) is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2[IrCl6]. This dark brown solid is the ammonium salt of the iridium(IV) complex [IrCl6]2−. It is a commercially important iridium compound one of the most common complexes of iridium(IV). A related but ill-defined compound is iridium tetrachloride, which is often used interchangeably.

References

  1. Thomas R. B. Mitchell (2001). "Iridium(IV) Chloride". e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. doi:10.1002/047084289X.ri050.
  2. E. L. Eliel, T. W. Doyle, R. O. Hutchins, E. C. Gilbert (1970). "cis-4-tert-Butylecyclohexanol". Org. Synth. 50: 13. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.050.0013.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)