Antimony pentachloride

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Antimony pentachloride
Antimony pentachloride Antimony-pentachloride-3D-balls.png
Antimony pentachloride
Antimony pentachloride in an ampoule.jpg
IUPAC names
Antimony pentachloride
Antimony(V) chloride
Other names
Antimonic chloride
Antimony perchloride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.729 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 231-601-8
PubChem CID
RTECS number
  • CC5075000
  • InChI=1S/5ClH.Sb/h5*1H;/q;;;;;+3/p-5 Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/5ClH.Sb.3H/h5*1H;;;;/q;;;;;+3;;;/p-5/r5ClH.H3Sb/h5*1H;1H3/q;;;;;+3/p-5
  • InChI=1/5ClH.Sb/h5*1H;/q;;;;;+3/p-5
  • [Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-].[SbH3+3]
  • [SbH3+3].[Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-]
Molar mass 299.01 g·mol−1
Appearancecolorless or reddish-yellow (fuming) liquid, oily
Odor pungent, offensive
Density 2.336 g/cm3 (20 °C) [1]
2.36 g/cm3 (25 °C) [2]
Melting point 2.8 °C (37.0 °F; 275.9 K)
Boiling point 140 °C (284 °F; 413 K)
decomposes from 106 °C [3]
79 °C (174 °F; 352 K)
at 22 mmHg [1]
92 °C (198 °F; 365 K)
at 30 mmHg [2]
Solubility soluble in alcohol, HCl, tartaric acid, CHCl3, CS2, CCl4
Solubility in selenium(IV) oxychloride 62.97 g/100 g (25 °C)
Vapor pressure 0.16 kPa (25 °C)
4 kPa (40 °C)
7.7 kPa (100 °C) [4]
-120.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Viscosity 2.034 cP (29.4 °C) [1]
1.91 cP (35 °C)
Trigonal bipyramidal
0 D
Thermochemistry [3]
120.9 J/mol·K (gas)
295 J/mol·K
-437.2 kJ/mol
-345.35 kJ/mol
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Inhalation hazards
GHS labelling: [2]
GHS-pictogram-acid.svg GHS-pictogram-pollu.svg
H314, H411
P273, P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flash point 77 °C (171 °F; 350 K)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1115 mg/kg, (rat, oral) [3]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb) [5]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb) [5]
Related compounds
Other anions
Antimony pentafluoride
Other cations
Phosphorus pentachloride
Related compounds
Antimony trichloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
X mark.svgN  verify  (what is  Yes check.svgYX mark.svgN ?)

Antimony pentachloride is a chemical compound with the formula SbCl5. It is a colourless oil, but typical samples are yellowish due to dissolved chlorine. Owing to its tendency to hydrolyse to hydrochloric acid, SbCl5 is a highly corrosive substance and must be stored in glass or PTFE containers.


Preparation and structure

Antimony pentachloride is prepared by passing chlorine gas into molten antimony trichloride:

SbCl3 + Cl2 → SbCl5

Gaseous SbCl5 has a trigonal bipyramidal structure. [6]


This compounds reacts with water to form antimony pentoxide and hydrochloric acid: [7]

2 SbCl5 + 5 H2O → Sb2O5 + 10 HCl

The mono- and tetrahydrates are known, SbCl5·H2O and SbCl5·4H2O.

This compound forms adducts with many Lewis bases. SbCl5 is a soft Lewis acid and its ECW model parameters are EA = 3.64 and CA = 10.42. It is used as the standard Lewis acid in the Gutmann scale of Lewis basicity. [8] [9]

It is also a strong oxidizing agent. [10] For example aromatic ethers are oxidized to their radical cations according to the following stoichiometry: [11]

3 SbCl5 + 2 ArH → 2 (ArH+)(SbCl6) + SbCl3


Antimony pentachloride is used as a polymerization catalyst and for the chlorination of organic compounds.


Antimony pentachloride is a highly corrosive substance that should be stored away from heat and moisture. It is a chlorinating agent and, in the presence of moisture, it releases hydrogen chloride gas. Because of this, it may etch even stainless-steel tools (such as needles), if handled in a moist atmosphere. It should not be handled with non-fluorinated plastics (such as plastic syringes, plastic septa, or needles with plastic fittings), since it melts and carbonizes plastic materials. [12]

Related Research Articles

Chlorine Chemical element, symbol Cl and atomic number 17

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the revised Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine. On several scales other than the revised Pauling scale, nitrogen's electronegativity is also listed as greater than chlorine's, such as on the Allen, Allred-Rochow, Martynov-Batsanov, Mulliken-Jaffe, Nagle, and Noorizadeh-Shakerzadeh electronegativity scales.

The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula HCl and as such is a hydrogen halide. At room temperature, it is a colourless gas, which forms white fumes of hydrochloric acid upon contact with atmospheric water vapor. Hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid are important in technology and industry. Hydrochloric acid, the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride, is also commonly given the formula HCl.

Dichloromethane Chemical compound

Dichloromethane is an organochlorine compound with the formula CH2Cl2. This colorless, volatile liquid with a chloroform-like, sweet odour is widely used as a solvent. Although it is not miscible with water, it is polar, and miscible with many organic solvents.

An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine. The chloroalkane class provides common examples. The wide structural variety and divergent chemical properties of organochlorides lead to a broad range of names, applications, and properties. Organochlorine compounds have wide use in many applications, though some are of profound environmental concern, with TCDD being one of the most notorious.

Chromium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) describes any of several chemical compounds with the formula CrCl3 · xH2O, where x can be 0, 5, and 6. The anhydrous compound with the formula CrCl3 is a violet solid. The most common form of the trichloride is the dark green hexahydrate, CrCl3 · 6 H2O. Chromium chlorides find use as catalysts and as precursors to dyes for wool.

Thionyl chloride Chemical compound

Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl
. It is a moderately volatile colourless liquid with an unpleasant acrid odour. Thionyl chloride is primarily used as a chlorinating reagent, with approximately 45,000 tonnes per year being produced during the early 1990s, but is occasionally also used as a solvent. It is toxic, reacts with water, and is also listed under the Chemical Weapons Convention as it may be used for the production of chemical weapons.

Phosphorus pentachloride Chemical compound

Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5. It is one of the most important phosphorus chlorides, others being PCl3 and POCl3. PCl5 finds use as a chlorinating reagent. It is a colourless, water-sensitive and moisture-sensitive solid, although commercial samples can be yellowish and contaminated with hydrogen chloride.

Phosphorus trichloride Chemical compound

Phosphorus trichloride is a inorganic compound with the chemical formula PCl3. A colorless liquid when pure, it is an important industrial chemical, being used for the manufacture of phosphites and other organophosphorus compounds. It is toxic and reacts readily with water to release hydrogen chloride.

The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane, commonly known as ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon. It is a colourless liquid with a chloroform-like odour. The most common use of 1,2-dichloroethane is in the production of vinyl chloride, which is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automobile parts. 1,2-Dichloroethane is also used generally as an intermediate for other organic chemical compounds, and as a solvent. It forms azeotropes with many other solvents, including water and other chlorocarbons.

Niobium(V) chloride Chemical compound

Niobium(V) chloride, also known as niobium pentachloride, is a yellow crystalline solid. It hydrolyzes in air, and samples are often contaminated with small amounts of NbOCl3. It is often used as a precursor to other compounds of niobium. NbCl5 may be purified by sublimation.

Tantalum(V) chloride Chemical compound

Tantalum(V) chloride, also known as tantalum pentachloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula TaCl5. It takes the form of a white powder and is commonly used as a starting material in tantalum chemistry. It readily hydrolyzes to form tantalum(V) oxychloride (TaOCl3) and eventually tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5); this requires that it be synthesised and manipulated under anhydrous conditions, using air-free techniques.

Phosphoryl chloride Chemical compound

Phosphoryl chloride is a colourless liquid with the formula POCl3. It hydrolyses in moist air releasing phosphoric acid and fumes of hydrogen chloride. It is manufactured industrially on a large scale from phosphorus trichloride and oxygen or phosphorus pentoxide. It is mainly used to make phosphate esters such as tricresyl phosphate.

In chemistry a donor number (DN) is a quantitative measure of Lewis basicity. A donor number is defined as the negative enthalpy value for the 1:1 adduct formation between a Lewis base and the standard Lewis acid SbCl5 (antimony pentachloride), in dilute solution in the noncoordinating solvent 1,2-dichloroethane with a zero DN. The units are kilocalories per mole for historical reasons. The donor number is a measure of the ability of a solvent to solvate cations and Lewis acids. The method was developed by V. Gutmann in 1976. Likewise Lewis acids are characterized by acceptor numbers (AN, see Gutmann–Beckett method).

Antimony pentafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF5. This colourless, viscous liquid is a valuable Lewis acid and a component of the superacid fluoroantimonic acid, formed when mixing liquid HF with liquid SbF5 in a 2:1 ratio. It is notable for its Lewis acidity and its ability to react with almost all known compounds.

Benzyl chloride, or α-chlorotoluene, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2Cl. This colorless liquid is a reactive organochlorine compound that is a widely used chemical building block.

Antimony trichloride Chemical compound

Antimony trichloride is the chemical compound with the formula SbCl3. It is a soft colorless solid with a pungent odor and was known to alchemists as butter of antimony.

Lanthanum chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula LaCl3. It is a common salt of lanthanum which is mainly used in research. It is a white solid that is highly soluble in water and alcohols.

Antimony trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF3. Sometimes called Swarts' reagent, is one of two principal fluorides of antimony, the other being SbF5. It appears as a white solid. As well as some industrial applications, it is used as a reagent in inorganic and organofluorine chemistry.

Nitrosyl chloride Chemical compound

Nitrosyl chloride is the chemical compound with the formula NOCl. It is a yellow gas that is commonly encountered as a component of aqua regia, a mixture of 3 parts concentrated hydrochloric acid and 1 part of concentrated nitric acid. It is a strong electrophile and oxidizing agent. It is sometimes called Tilden's reagent, after William A. Tilden, who was the first to produce it as a pure compound.

Perchloromethyl mercaptan Chemical compound

Perchloromethyl mercaptan is the organosulfur compound with the formula CCl3SCl. It is mainly used as an intermediate for the synthesis of dyes and fungicides (captan, folpet). It is a colorless oil, although commercial samples are yellowish. It is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. It has a foul, unbearable, acrid odor. Perchloromethyl mercaptan is the original name. The systematic name is trichloromethanesulfenyl chloride, because the compound is a sulfenyl chloride, not a mercaptan.


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  2. 1 2 3 Sigma-Aldrich Co., Antimony(V) chloride. Retrieved on 2014-05-29.
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  11. Rathore, R.; Kumar, A. S.; Lindeman, S. V.; Kochi, J. K. (1998). "Preparation and Structures of Crystalline Aromatic Cation-Radical Salts. Triethyloxonium Hexachloroantimonate as a Novel (One-Electron) Oxidant". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 63 (17): 5847–5856. doi:10.1021/jo980407a. PMID   11672186.
  12. Shekarchi, M.; Behbahani, F. K Catal. Lett.2017147 2950. doi:10.1007/s10562-017-2194-2