Molybdenum(III) chloride

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Molybdenum(III) chloride
Molybdenum(III) chloride alpha polymorph Alpha-MoCl3.png
Molybdenum(III) chloride alpha polymorph
α-MoCl3
Molybdenum(III) chloride beta polymorph MoCl3.png
Molybdenum(III) chloride beta polymorph
β-MoCl3
Names
IUPAC names
Molybdenum(III) chloride
Molybdenum trichloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.033.418 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 236-775-9
PubChem CID
UNII
  • InChI=1S/3ClH.Mo/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3
    Key: ZSSVQAGPXAAOPV-UHFFFAOYSA-K
  • InChI=1/3ClH.Mo/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3
    Key: ZSSVQAGPXAAOPV-DFZHHIFOAN
  • Cl[Mo](Cl)Cl
Properties
MoCl3
Molar mass 202.30 g/mol
Appearancedark red solid
paramagnetic
Density 3.58 g/cm3
Melting point 410 °C (770 °F; 683 K) (decomposes)
insoluble
Solubility insoluble in ethanol, diethyl ether
+43.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Hazards
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions
Molybdenum(III) fluoride
Molybdenum(III) bromide
Molybdenum(III) iodide
Other cations
Chromium(IV) chloride
Tungsten(V) chloride
Related molybdenum chlorides
Molybdenum(II) chloride
Molybdenum(IV) chloride
Molybdenum(V) chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Molybdenum(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula MoCl3. It forms purple crystals. [1]

Contents

Synthesis and structure

Molybdenum(III) chloride is synthesized by the reduction of molybdenum(V) chloride with hydrogen. [2] A higher yield is produced by the reduction of pure molybdenum(V) chloride with anhydrous tin(II) chloride as the reducing agent. [3]

Molybdenum trichloride exists as two polymorphs: alpha (α) and beta (β). The alpha structure is similar to that of aluminum chloride (AlCl3). In this structure, molybdenum has octahedral coordination geometry and exhibits cubic close-packing in its crystalline structure. The beta structure, however, exhibits hexagonal close packing. [4]

Ether complexes

Molybdenum trichloride gives a ether complexes MoCl3(thf)3 and MoCl3(Et2O)3. They are beige, paramagnetic solids. Both feature octahedral Mo centers. The diethyl ether complex is synthesized by reducing a Et2O solution of MoCl5 with tin powder. [5] Older procedures involve stepwise reduction involving isolation of the Mo(IV)-thf complex. [6]

Hexa(tert-butoxy)dimolybdenum(III) is prepared by the salt metathesis reaction from MoCl3(thf)3: [7]

2 MoCl3(thf)3 + 6 LiOBu-t → Mo2(OBu-t)6 + 6 LiCl + 6 thf

Related Research Articles

Chromium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) describes any of several chemical compounds with the formula CrCl3 · xH2O, where x can be 0, 5, and 6. The anhydrous compound with the formula CrCl3 is a violet solid. The most common form of the trichloride is the dark green hexahydrate, CrCl3 · 6 H2O. Chromium chlorides find use as catalysts and as precursors to dyes for wool.

Octahedral clusters are inorganic or organometallic cluster compounds composed of six metals in an octahedral array. Many types of compounds are known, but all are synthetic.

Tantalum(V) chloride Chemical compound

Tantalum(V) chloride, also known as tantalum pentachloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula TaCl5. It takes the form of a white powder and is commonly used as a starting material in tantalum chemistry. It readily hydrolyzes to form tantalum(V) oxychloride (TaOCl3) and eventually tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5); this requires that it be synthesised and manipulated under anhydrous conditions, using air-free techniques.

Scandium chloride Chemical compound

Scandium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula ScCl3. It is a white, high-melting ionic compound, which is deliquescent and highly water-soluble. This salt is mainly of interest in the research laboratory. Both the anhydrous form and hexahydrate (ScCl3•6H2O) are commercially available.

Titanium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl3. At least four distinct species have this formula; additionally hydrated derivatives are known. TiCl3 is one of the most common halides of titanium and is an important catalyst for the manufacture of polyolefins.

Molybdenum(V) chloride Chemical compound

Molybdenum(V) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula [MoCl5]2. This dark volatile solid is used in research to prepare other molybdenum compounds. It is moisture-sensitive and soluble in chlorinated solvents. Usually called molybdenum pentachloride, it is in fact a dimer with the formula Mo2Cl10.

Molybdenum tetrachloride Chemical compound

Molybdenum tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the empirical formula MoCl4. The material exists as two polymorphs, both being dark-colored paramagnetic solids. These compounds are mainly of interest as precursors to other molybdenum complexes.

Sodium <i>tert</i>-butoxide Chemical compound

Sodium tert-butoxide is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)3CONa. It is a strong base and a non-nucleophilic base. It is flammable and moisture sensitive. It is sometimes written in chemical literature as sodium t-butoxide. It is similar in reactivity to the more common potassium tert-butoxide.

Metal halides

Metal halides are compounds between metals and halogens. Some, such as sodium chloride are ionic, while others are covalently bonded. A few metal halides are discrete molecules, such as uranium hexafluoride, but most adopt polymeric structures, such as palladium chloride.

Bis(dinitrogen)bis(1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane)molybdenum(0) Chemical compound

trans-Bis(dinitrogen)bis[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]molybdenum(0) is a coordination complex with the formula Mo(N2)2(dppe)2. It is a relatively air stable yellow-orange solid. It is notable as being the first discovered dinitrogen containing complex of molybdenum.

Tungsten(IV) chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula WCl4. It is a diamagnetic black solid. The compound is of interest in research as one of a handful of binary tungsten chlorides.

Transition metal nitrile complexes Class of coordination compounds containing nitrile ligands (coordinating via N)

Transition metal nitrile complexes are coordination compounds containing nitrile ligands. Because nitriles are weakly basic, the nitrile ligands in these complexes are often labile.

Tungsten(II) chloride Chemical compound

Tungsten(II) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula W6Cl12. It is a polymeric cluster compound. The material dissolves in concentrated hydrochloric acid, forming (H3O)2[W6Cl14](H2O)x. Heating this salt gives yellow-brown W6Cl12. The structural chemistry resembles that observed for molybdenum(II) chloride.

Tungsten(III) chloride Chemical compound

Tungsten(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula W6Cl18. It is a cluster compound. It is a brown solid, obtainable by chlorination of tungsten(II) chloride. Featuring twelve doubly bridging chloride ligands, the cluster adopts a structure related to the corresponding chlorides of niobium and tantalum. In contrast, W6Cl12 features eight triply bridging chlorides.

Niobium(III) chloride also known as niobium trichloride is a compound of niobium and chlorine. The binary phase NbCl3 is not well characterized but many adducts are known.

Tantalum(III) chloride Chemical compound

Tantalum(III) chloride or tantalum trichloride is non-stoichiometric with a range of composition from TaCl2.9 to TaCl3.1 Anionic and neutral clusters containing Ta(III) chloride include [Ta6Cl18]4− and [Ta6Cl14](H2O)4.

Hexa(tert-butoxy)dimolybdenum(III) Chemical compound

Hexa(tert-butoxy)dimolybdenum(III) is a coordination complex of molybdenum(III). It is one of the homoleptic alkoxides of molybdenum. An orange, air-sensitive solid, the complex has attracted academic attention as the precursor to many organomolybdenum derivatives. It an example of a charge-neutral complex featuring a molybdenum to molybdenum triple bond (Mo≡Mo), arising from the coupling of a pair of d3 metal centers. It can be prepared by a salt metathesis reaction from the THF complex of molybdenum trichloride and lithium tert-butoxide:

Hexa(tert-butoxy)ditungsten(III) Chemical compound

Hexa(tert-butoxy)ditungsten(III) is a coordination complex of tungsten(III). It is one of the homoleptic alkoxides of tungsten. A red, air-sensitive solid, the complex has attracted academic attention as the precursor to many organotungsten derivatives. It an example of a charge-neutral complex featuring a W≡W bond, arising from the coupling of a pair of d3 metal centers. It has attracted particular attention for its reactions with alkynes, leading to alkyne metathesis.

Lithium <i>tert</i>-butoxide Chemical compound

Lithium tert-butoxide is the metalloorganic compound with the formula LiOC(CH3)3. A white solid, it is used as a strong base in organic synthesis. The compound is often depicted as a salt, and it often behaves as such, but it is not ionized in solution. Both octameric and hexameric forms have been characterized by X-ray crystallography

Transition metal chloride complex Coordination complex

In chemistry, a transition metal chloride complex is a coordination complex that consists of a transition metal coordinated to one or more chloride ligand. The class of complexes is extensive.

References

  1. Perry DL (2011). Handbook of Inorganic Compounds (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis. p. 279. ISBN   978-1-4398-1461-1.
  2. Couch DE, Brenner A (1959). "Preparation of Trichloride and Tetrachloride of Molybdenum". Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards Section A. 63A (2): 185–188. doi:10.6028/jres.063A.013. PMC   5287202 . PMID   31216151.
  3. Larson ML (1970). "Preparation of Some Metal Halides- Anhydrous Molybdenum Halides and Oxide Halides - A Summary". Inorganic Syntheses, Volume 12. pp. 178–181.
  4. Hillebrecht H, Schmidt PJ, Rotter HW, Thiele G, Zönnchen P, Bengel H, Cantow HJ, Magonov SN, Whangbo MH (1997). "Structural and scanning microscopy studies of layered compounds MCl3 (M= Mo, Ru, Cr) and MOCl2 (M= V, Nb, Mo, Ru, Os)". Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 246 (1–2): 70–79. doi:10.1016/S0925-8388(96)02465-6.
  5. Maria, Sébastien; Poli, Rinaldo (2014). "Ether Complexes of Molybdenum(III) and Molybdenum(IV) chlorides". Inorganic Syntheses: Volume 36. 36: 15–18. doi:10.1002/9781118744994.ch03.
  6. Dilworth, Jonathan R.; Richards, Raymond L. (1990). "The Synthesis of Molybdenum and Tungsten Dinitrogen Complexes". Inorganic Syntheses. 28: 33–43. doi:10.1002/9780470132593.ch7. ISBN   9780470132593.
  7. Broderick, Erin M.; Browne, Samuel C.; Johnson, Marc J. A. (2014). "Dimolybdenum and Ditungsten Hexa(Alkoxides)". Inorganic Syntheses: Volume 36. Inorganic Syntheses. Vol. 36. pp. 95–102. doi:10.1002/9781118744994.ch18. ISBN   9781118744994.