Polonium dichloride

Last updated
Polonium dichloride
3D model (JSmol)
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/2ClH.Po/h2*1H;/q;;+2/p-2
  • Cl[Po]Cl
Molar mass 279.91 g mol−1
Appearanceruby-red solid [1]
Density 6.50 g cm−3 [2]
Melting point 355 °C (671 °F; 628 K)(sublimes at 130 °C) [1]
orthorhombic, oP3 [2]
Pmmm (No 47)
a = 0.367 nm, b = 0.435 nm, c = 0.450 nm
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Yes check.svgY  verify  (what is  Yes check.svgYX mark.svgN ?)
Infobox references

Polonium dichloride is a chemical compound of the radioactive metalloid, polonium and chlorine. Its chemical formula is PoCl2. It is an ionic salt.



Polonium dichloride appears to crystallise with an orthorhombic unit cell in either the P222, Pmm2 or Pmmm space group, although this is likely a pseudo-cell. Alternatively, the true space group may be monoclinic or triclinic, with one or more cell angles close to 90°. [2] Assuming the space group is P222, the structure exhibits distorted cubic coordination of Po as {PoCl8} and distorted square planar coordination of Cl as {ClPo4}.

Polonium-dichloride-xtal-1955-3D-Po-coordination-3D-balls.png Polonium-dichloride-xtal-2x2x2-1955-3D-SF.png


PoCl2 can be obtained either by halogenation of polonium metal or by dehalogenation of polonium tetrachloride, PoCl4. [1] Methods for dehalogenating PoCl4 include thermal decomposition at 300 °C, reduction of cold, slightly moist PoCl4 by sulfur dioxide; and heating PoCl4 in a stream of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide at 150 °C. [2]


PoCl2 dissolves in dilute hydrochloric acid to give a pink solution, which autoxidises to Po(IV). PoCl2 is rapidly oxidised by hydrogen peroxide or chlorine water. Addition of potassium hydroxide to the pink solution results in a dark brown precipitate – possibly hydrated PoO or Po(OH)2 – which is rapidly oxidised to Po(IV). With dilute nitric acid, PoCl2 forms a dark red solution followed by a flaky white precipitate of unknown composition. [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

Chlorine Chemical element with atomic number 17

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine.

Sodium hypochlorite Chemical compound

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl or NaClO, comprising a sodium cation and a hypochlorite anion. It may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. The anhydrous compound is unstable and may decompose explosively. It can be crystallized as a pentahydrate NaOCl·5H
, a pale greenish-yellow solid which is not explosive and is stable if kept refrigerated.

Iron(III) chloride chemical compound

Iron(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula. Also called ferric chloride, it is a common compound of iron in the +3 oxidation state. The anhydrous compound is a crystalline solid with a melting point of 307.6 °C. The color depends on the viewing angle: by reflected light the crystals appear dark green, but by transmitted light they appear purple-red.


In chemistry, hypochlorite is an anion with the chemical formula ClO. It combines with a number of cations to form hypochlorite salts. Common examples include sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) and calcium hypochlorite (a component of bleaching powder, swimming pool "chlorine"). The Cl-O distance in ClO- is 210 pm.

Titanium tetrachloride Inorganic chemical compound

Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms spectacular opaque clouds of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hydrated hydrogen chloride. It is sometimes referred to as "tickle" or "tickle 4" due to the phonetic resemblance of its molecular formula (TiCl4) to the word.

The chloralkali process is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions. It is the technology used to produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide, which are commodity chemicals required by industry. 35 million tons of chlorine were prepared by this process in 1987. The chlorine and sodium hydroxide produced in this process are widely used in the chemical industry.

Tin(IV) chloride, also known as tin tetrachloride or stannic chloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula SnCl4. It is a colorless hygroscopic liquid, which fumes on contact with air. It is used as a precursor to other tin compounds. It was first discovered by Andreas Libavius (1550–1616) and was known as spiritus fumans libavii.

Manganese(II) chloride

Manganese(II) chloride is the dichloride salt of manganese, MnCl2. This inorganic chemical exists in the anhydrous form, as well as the dihydrate (MnCl2·2H2O) and tetrahydrate (MnCl2·4H2O), with the tetrahydrate being the most common form. Like many Mn(II) species, these salts are pink, with the paleness of the color being characteristic of transition metal complexes with high spin d5 configurations.

Cobalt(II) chloride

Cobalt(II) chloride is an inorganic compound of cobalt and chlorine, with the formula CoCl
. It is a sky blue crystalline solid.

Copper(II) chloride

Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuCl2. This is a green blue solid, which slowly absorbs moisture to form a blue-green dihydrate.

Gold(III) chloride

Gold(III) chloride, traditionally called auric chloride, is a chemical compound of gold and chlorine. With the molecular formula Au2Cl6, the name gold trichloride is a simplification, referring to the empirical formula, AuCl3. The Roman numerals in the name indicate that the gold has an oxidation state of +3, which is common for gold compounds. There is also another related chloride of gold, gold(I) chloride (AuCl). Chloroauric acid, HAuCl4, the product formed when gold dissolves in aqua regia, is sometimes referred to as "gold chloride" or "acid gold trichloride". Gold(III) chloride is very hygroscopic and highly soluble in water as well as ethanol. It decomposes above 160 °C or in light.

Chlorine gas can be produced by extracting from natural materials, including the electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution (brine) and other ways.

Germanium dichloride is a chemical compound of germanium and chlorine with the formula GeCl2. It is a solid and contains germanium in the +2 oxidation state.

Polonium hydride (also known as polonium dihydride, hydrogen polonide, or polane) is a chemical compound with the formula PoH2. It is a liquid at room temperature, the second hydrogen chalcogenide with this property after water. It is very unstable chemically and tends to decompose into elemental polonium and hydrogen; like all polonium compounds, it is highly radioactive. It is a volatile and very labile compound, from which many polonides can be derived.

Sulfur tetrachloride

Sulfur tetrachloride is an inorganic compound with chemical formula SCl4. It has only been obtained as an unstable pale yellow solid. The corresponding SF4 is a stable, useful reagent.

Compounds of lead exist with lead in two main oxidation states: +2 and +4. The former is more common. Inorganic lead(IV) compounds are typically strong oxidants or exist only in highly acidic solutions.

Polonium tetrachloride (also known as polonium(IV) chloride) is a chemical compound with the formula PoCl4. The salt is a hygroscopic bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Above 200 °C, it tends to decompose into polonium dichloride and excess chlorine, similar to selenium tetrachloride and tellurium tetrachloride.

Polonium dibromide (also known as polonium(II) bromide) is a chemical compound with the formula PoBr2. This salt is a purple-brown crystalline solid at room temperature. It sublimes (decomposing slightly) at 110 °C/30 μ and decomposes when melted in nitrogen gas at 270–280 °C.

Lead(IV) chloride

Lead tetrachloride, also known as lead(IV) chloride, has the molecular formula PbCl4. It is a yellow, oily liquid which is stable below 0 °C, and decomposes at 50 °C. It has a tetrahedral configuration, with lead as the central atom. The Pb–Cl covalent bonds have been measured to be 247 pm and the bond energy is 243 kJ⋅mol−1.

Compounds of thorium

Many compounds of thorium are known: this is because thorium and uranium are the most stable and accessible actinides and are the only actinides that can be studied safely and legally in bulk in a normal laboratory. As such, they have the best-known chemistry of the actinides, along with that of plutonium, as the self-heating and radiation from them is not enough to cause radiolysis of chemical bonds as it is for the other actinides. While the later actinides from americium onwards are predominantly trivalent and behave more similarly to the corresponding lanthanides, as one would expect from periodic trends, the early actinides up to plutonium have relativistically destabilised and hence delocalised 5f and 6d electrons that participate in chemistry in a similar way to the early transition metals of group 3 through 8: thus, all their valence electrons can participate in chemical reactions, although this is not common for neptunium and plutonium.


  1. 1 2 3 Holleman, Arnold Frederik; Wiberg, Egon (2001), Wiberg, Nils (ed.), Inorganic Chemistry, translated by Eagleson, Mary; Brewer, William, San Diego/Berlin: Academic Press/De Gruyter, p. 594, ISBN   0-12-352651-5
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Bagnall, K. W.; d'Eye, R. W. M.; Freeman, J. H. (1955). "The polonium halides. Part I. Polonium chlorides". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 2320. doi:10.1039/JR9550002320.