Diphosphorus tetrachloride

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Diphosphorus tetrachloride
3D model (JSmol)
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/Cl4P2/c1-5(2)6(3)4
  • P(P(Cl)Cl)(Cl)Cl
Molar mass 203.75 g·mol−1
Appearancecolorless liquid
Melting point −28 °C; −19 °F; 245 K
Boiling point 180 °C; 356 °F; 453 K
Related compounds
Other anions
Diphosphorus tetrafluoride
Diphosphorus tetraiodide
Related compounds
Diphosphorus tetrafluoride
Diphosphorus tetraiodide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Diphosphorus tetrachloride is an inorganic compound with a chemical formula P2Cl4. It is a colorless liquid that decomposes near room temperature and ignites in air. [1]



It was first prepared in 1910 by Gauthier by the following reaction:

2 PCl3 + H2 → P2Cl4 + 2 HCl

An improved method involves coevaporation of phosphorus trichloride and copper, as described by the following: [1]

2 PCl3 + 2 Cu → P2Cl4 + 2 CuCl


Near room temperature, the compound degrades to give phosphorus trichloride and an ill-defined phosphorus monochloride:

P2Cl4 → PCl3 + 1/n [PCl]n

The compound adds to cyclohexene to give trans-C6H10-1,2-(PCl2)2. [1]

Related Research Articles

In chemistry, the phosphonium cation describes polyatomic cations with the chemical formula PR+
. These cations have tetrahedral structures. The salts are generally colorless or take the color of the anions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phosphorus pentachloride</span> Chemical compound

Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5. It is one of the most important phosphorus chlorides, others being PCl3 and POCl3. PCl5 finds use as a chlorinating reagent. It is a colourless, water-sensitive and moisture-sensitive solid, although commercial samples can be yellowish and contaminated with hydrogen chloride.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phosphorus trichloride</span> Chemical compound

Phosphorus trichloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula PCl3. A colorless liquid when pure, it is an important industrial chemical, being used for the manufacture of phosphites and other organophosphorus compounds. It is toxic and reacts readily with water to release hydrogen chloride.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Triphenylphosphine</span> Chemical compound

Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 and often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P. It is widely used in the synthesis of organic and organometallic compounds. PPh3 exists as relatively air stable, colorless crystals at room temperature. It dissolves in non-polar organic solvents such as benzene and diethyl ether.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phosphorus triiodide</span> Chemical compound

Phosphorus triiodide (PI3) is an inorganic compound with the formula PI3. A red solid, it is a common misconception that PI3 is too unstable to be stored; it is, in fact, commercially available. It is widely used in organic chemistry for converting alcohols to alkyl iodides. It is also a powerful reducing agent. Note that phosphorus also forms a lower iodide, P2I4, but the existence of PI5 is doubtful at room temperature.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phosphoryl chloride</span> Chemical compound

Phosphoryl chloride is a colourless liquid with the formula POCl3. It hydrolyses in moist air releasing phosphoric acid and fumes of hydrogen chloride. It is manufactured industrially on a large scale from phosphorus trichloride and oxygen or phosphorus pentoxide. It is mainly used to make phosphate esters such as tricresyl phosphate.

Boron trichloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BCl3. This colorless gas is a reagent in organic synthesis. It is highly reactive toward water.

Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds containing phosphorus. They are used primarily in pest control as an alternative to chlorinated hydrocarbons that persist in the environment. Some organophosphorus compounds are highly effective insecticides, although some are extremely toxic to humans, including sarin and VX nerve agents.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arsenic trichloride</span> Chemical compound

Arsenic trichloride is an inorganic compound with the formula AsCl3, also known as arsenous chloride or butter of arsenic. This poisonous oil is colourless, although impure samples may appear yellow. It is an intermediate in the manufacture of organoarsenic compounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phosphorus trioxide</span> Chemical compound

Phosphorus trioxide is the chemical compound with the molecular formula P4O6. Although the molecular formula suggests the name tetraphosphorus hexoxide, the name phosphorus trioxide preceded the knowledge of the compound's molecular structure, and its usage continues today. This colorless solid is structurally related to adamantane. It is formally the anhydride of phosphorous acid, H3PO3, but cannot be obtained by the dehydration of the acid. A white solid that melts at room temperature, it is waxy, crystalline and highly toxic, with garlic odour.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hexachlorophosphazene</span> Chemical compound

Hexachlorophosphazene is an inorganic compound with the formula (NPCl2)3. The molecule has a cyclic, unsaturated backbone consisting of alternating phosphorus and nitrogen centers, and can be viewed as a trimer of the hypothetical compound N≡PCl2. Its classification as a phosphazene highlights its relationship to benzene. There is large academic interest in the compound relating to the phosphorus-nitrogen bonding and phosphorus reactivity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thiophosphoryl chloride</span> Chemical compound

Thiophosphoryl chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula PSCl3. It is a colorless pungent smelling liquid that fumes in air. It is synthesized from phosphorus chloride and used to thiophosphorylate organic compounds, such as to produce insecticides.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tributylphosphine</span> Chemical compound

Tributylphosphine is the organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C
. Abbreviated or PBu
, it is a tertiary phosphine. It is an oily liquid at room temperature, with a nauseating odor. It reacts slowly with atmospheric oxygen, and rapidly with other oxidizing agents, to give the corresponding phosphine oxide. It is usually handled using air-free techniques.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Triethyl phosphite</span> Chemical compound

Triethyl phosphite is an organophosphorus compound with the formula P(OCH2CH3)3, often abbreviated P(OEt)3. It is a colorless, malodorous liquid. It is used as a ligand in organometallic chemistry and as a reagent in organic synthesis

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chlorodiphenylphosphine</span> Chemical compound

Chlorodiphenylphosphine is an organophosphorus compound with the formula (C6H5)2PCl, abbreviated Ph2PCl. It is a colourless oily liquid with a pungent odor that is often described as being garlic-like and detectable even in the ppb range. It is useful reagent for introducing the Ph2P group into molecules, which includes many ligands. Like other halophosphines, Ph2PCl is reactive with many nucleophiles such as water and easily oxidized even by air.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Triphosphorus pentanitride</span> Chemical compound

Triphosphorus pentanitride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula P3N5. Containing only phosphorus and nitrogen, this material is classified as a binary nitride. While it has been investigated for various applications this has not led to any significant industrial uses. It is a white solid, although samples often appear colored owing to impurities.

In organophosphorus chemistry, an aminophosphine is a compound with the formula R3−nP(NR2)n where R = H or an organic substituent, and n = 0, 1, 2. At one extreme, the parent H2PNH2 is lightly studied and fragile, but at the other extreme tris(dimethylamino)phosphine (P(NMe2)3) is commonly available. Intermediate members are known, such as Ph2PN(H)Ph. These compounds are typically colorless and reactive toward oxygen. They have pyramidal geometry at phosphorus.

In organophosphorus chemistry, the Kinnear–Perren reaction (sometimes the Clay-Kinnear-Perren reaction) is used to prepare alkylphosphonyl dichlorides (RP(O)Cl2) and alkylphosphonate esters (RP(O)(OR')2). The reactants are alkyl chloride, phosphorus trichloride, and aluminium trichloride as catalyst. The reaction proceeds via the alkyltrichlorophosphonium salt:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bis(diethylamino)chlorophosphine</span> Chemical compound

Bis(diethylamino)chlorophosphine is an organophosphorus compound with the formula (Et2N)2PCl (Et = ethyl). A colorless liquid, it serves as a masked source of PCl2+.

Gallium compounds compounds containing the element gallium. These compounds are found primarily in the +3 oxidation state. The +1 oxidation state is also found in some compounds, although it is less common than it is for gallium's heavier congeners indium and thallium. For example, the very stable GaCl2 contains both gallium(I) and gallium(III) and can be formulated as GaIGaIIICl4; in contrast, the monochloride is unstable above 0 °C, disproportionating into elemental gallium and gallium(III) chloride. Compounds containing Ga–Ga bonds are true gallium(II) compounds, such as GaS (which can be formulated as Ga24+(S2−)2) and the dioxan complex Ga2Cl4(C4H8O2)2.


  1. 1 2 3 Driess, M.; Haiber, G. (1993). "Eine neue Synthese von Tetrachlordiphosphan sowie Untersuchungen zur 1,2-Addition an Cycloalkene". Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie. 619: 215–219. doi:10.1002/zaac.19936190135.