Yttrium(III) chloride

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Yttrium(III) chloride
Yttrium(III)-chloride-xtal-one-layer-3D-bs-17.png
Part of a layer in the crystal structure of YCl3 [1]
Yttrium(III)-chloride-xtal-unit-cell-3D-bs-17.png
Yttrium(III)-chloride-xtal-layers-3D-bs-17.png
Layer packing
Names
IUPAC names
Yttrium(III) chloride
Yttrium trichloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.030.716 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • hexahydrate::233-801-0
PubChem CID
RTECS number
  • ZG3150000
UNII
  • InChI=1S/3ClH.Y/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3 Yes check.svgY
    Key: PCMOZDDGXKIOLL-UHFFFAOYSA-K Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/3ClH.Y/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3
    Key: PCMOZDDGXKIOLL-DFZHHIFOAW
  • hexahydrate::InChI=1S/3ClH.6H2O.Y/h3*1H;6*1H2;/q;;;;;;;;;+3/p-3
    Key: IINACGXCEZNYTF-UHFFFAOYSA-K
  • Cl[Y](Cl)Cl
  • hexahydrate::O.O.O.O.O.O.Cl[Y](Cl)Cl
Properties
YCl3
Molar mass 195.265 g/mol [2]
Appearancewhite solid
Density 2.61 g/cm3 [2]
Melting point 721 °C (1,330 °F; 994 K) [2]
Boiling point 1,482 °C (2,700 °F; 1,755 K) [2]
751 g/L (20 °C) [2]
Solubility 601 g/L ethanol (15 °C)
606 g/L pyridine (15 °C) [3]
Structure [4]
Monoclinic, mS16
C2/m, No. 12
a = 0.692 nm, b = 1.194 nm, c = 0.644 nm
α = 90°, β = 111°, γ = 90°
4
Hazards
GHS labelling:
GHS-pictogram-acid.svg GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg GHS-pictogram-pollu.svg
Danger
H302, H312, H315, H319, H332, H335
P261, P264, P270, P271, P280, P301+P312, P302+P352, P304+P312, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P312, P321, P322, P330, P332+P313, P337+P313, P362, P363, P403+P233, P405, P501
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions
Yttrium(III) fluoride
Yttrium(III) bromide
Yttrium(III) iodide
Other cations
Scandium(III) chloride
Lutetium(III) chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Yes check.svgY  verify  (what is  Yes check.svgYX mark.svgN ?)
Infobox references

Yttrium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound of yttrium and chloride. It exists in two forms, the hydrate (YCl3(H2O)6) and an anhydrous form (YCl3). Both are colourless solids that are highly soluble in water and deliquescent.

Contents

Structure

Solid YCl3 adopts a cubic structure with close-packed chloride ions and yttrium ions filling one third of the octahedral holes and the resulting YCl6 octahedra sharing three edges with adjacent octahedra, giving it a layered structure. [5] [1] This structure is shared by a range of compounds, notably AlCl3.

Preparation and reactions

YCl3 is often prepared by the "ammonium chloride route," starting from either Y2O3 or hydrated chloride or oxychloride. [6] [7] or YCl3·6H2O. [8] These methods produce (NH4)2[YCl5]:

10 NH4Cl + Y2O3 → 2 (NH4)2[YCl5] + 6 NH3 + 3 H2O
YCl3·6H2O + 2 NH4Cl → (NH4)2[YCl5] + 6 H2O

The pentachloride decomposes thermally according to the following equation:

(NH4)2[YCl5] → 2 NH4Cl + YCl3

The thermolysis reaction proceeds via the intermediacy of (NH4)[Y2Cl7].

Treating Y2O3 with aqueous HCl produces the hydrated chloride (YCl3·6H2O). When heated, this salt yields yttrium oxychloride rather than reverting to the anhydrous form.

Related Research Articles

Zinc chloride Chemical compound

Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates. Zinc chlorides, of which nine crystalline forms are known, are colorless or white, and are highly soluble in water. This white salt is hygroscopic and even deliquescent. Samples should therefore be protected from sources of moisture, including the water vapor present in ambient air. Zinc chloride finds wide application in textile processing, metallurgical fluxes, and chemical synthesis. No mineral with this chemical composition is known aside from the very rare mineral simonkolleite, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O.

Cerium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3), also known as cerous chloride or cerium trichloride, is a compound of cerium and chlorine. It is a white hygroscopic salt; it rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a hydrate, which appears to be of variable composition, though the heptahydrate CeCl3·7H2O is known. It is highly soluble in water, and (when anhydrous) it is soluble in ethanol and acetone.

Praseodymium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Praseodymium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula PrCl3. It is a blue-green solid that rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a light green heptahydrate.

Neodymium(III) chloride or neodymium trichloride is a chemical compound of neodymium and chlorine with the formula NdCl3. This anhydrous compound is a mauve-colored solid that rapidly absorbs water on exposure to air to form a purple-colored hexahydrate, NdCl3·6H2O. Neodymium(III) chloride is produced from minerals monazite and bastnäsite using a complex multistage extraction process. The chloride has several important applications as an intermediate chemical for production of neodymium metal and neodymium-based lasers and optical fibers. Other applications include a catalyst in organic synthesis and in decomposition of waste water contamination, corrosion protection of aluminium and its alloys, and fluorescent labeling of organic molecules (DNA).

Samarium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Samarium(III) chloride, also known as samarium trichloride, is an inorganic compound of samarium and chloride. It is a pale yellow salt that rapidly absorbs water to form a hexahydrate, SmCl3.6H2O. The compound has few practical applications but is used in laboratories for research on new compounds of samarium.

Europium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Europium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula EuCl3. The anhydrous compound is a yellow solid. Being hygroscopic it rapidly absorbs water to form a white crystalline hexahydrate, EuCl3·6H2O, which is colourless. The compound is used in research.

Aluminium chloride Chemical compound

Aluminium chloride (AlCl3), also known as aluminium trichloride, describe compounds with the formula AlCl3(H2O)n (n = 0 or 6). They consist of aluminium and chlorine atoms in a 1:3 ratio, and one form also contains six waters of hydration. Both are white solids, but samples are often contaminated with iron(III) chloride, giving a yellow color.

Dysprosium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Dysprosium(III) chloride (DyCl3), also known as dysprosium trichloride, is a compound of dysprosium and chlorine. It is a white to yellow solid which rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a hexahydrate, DyCl3·6H2O. Simple rapid heating of the hydrate causes partial hydrolysis to an oxychloride, DyOCl.

Chromium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) describes any of several compounds with the formula CrCl3 · xH2O, where x can be 0, 5, and 6. The anhydrous compound with the formula CrCl3 is a violet solid. The most common form of the trichloride is the dark green hexahydrate, CrCl3 · 6 H2O. Chromium chlorides find use as catalysts and as precursors to dyes for wool.

Iridium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Iridium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula IrCl3. The anhydrous compound is relatively rare, but the related hydrate is useful for preparing other iridium compounds. The anhydrous salt is a dark green crystalline solid. More commonly encountered is the trihydrate IrCl3(H2O)3.

Tantalum(V) chloride Chemical compound

Tantalum(V) chloride, also known as tantalum pentachloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula TaCl5. It takes the form of a white powder and is commonly used as a starting material in tantalum chemistry. It readily hydrolyzes to form tantalum(V) oxychloride (TaOCl3) and eventually tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5); this requires that it be synthesised and manipulated under anhydrous conditions, using air-free techniques.

Scandium oxide Chemical compound

Scandium(III) oxide or scandia is a inorganic compound with formula Sc2O3. It is one of several oxides of rare earth elements with a high melting point. It is used in the preparation of other scandium compounds as well as in high-temperature systems (for its resistance to heat and thermal shock), electronic ceramics, and glass composition (as a helper material).

Terbium(III,IV) oxide Chemical compound

Terbium(III,IV) oxide, occasionally called tetraterbium heptaoxide, has the formula Tb4O7, though some texts refer to it as TbO1.75. There is some debate as to whether it is a discrete compound, or simply one phase in an interstitial oxide system. Tb4O7 is one of the main commercial terbium compounds, and the only such product containing at least some Tb(IV) (terbium in the +4 oxidation state), along with the more stable Tb(III). It is produced by heating the metal oxalate, and it is used in the preparation of other terbium compounds. Terbium forms three other major oxides: Tb2O3, TbO2, and Tb6O11.

Erbium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Erbium(III) chloride is a violet solid with the formula ErCl3. It is used in the preparation of erbium metal.

Gadolinium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Gadolinium(III) chloride, also known as gadolinium trichloride, is GdCl3. It is a colorless, hygroscopic, water-soluble solid. The hexahydrate GdCl3∙6H2O is commonly encountered and is sometimes also called gadolinium trichloride. Gd3+ species are of special interest because the ion has the maximum number of unpaired spins possible, at least for known elements. With seven valence electrons and seven available f-orbitals, all seven electrons are unpaired and symmetrically arranged around the metal. The high magnetism and high symmetry combine to make Gd3+ a useful component in NMR spectroscopy and MRI.

Antimony trichloride Chemical compound

Antimony trichloride is the chemical compound with the formula SbCl3. It is a soft colorless solid with a pungent odor and was known to alchemists as butter of antimony.

Ytterbium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Ytterbium(III) chloride (YbCl3) is an inorganic chemical compound. It reacts with NiCl2 to form a very effective catalyst for the reductive dehalogenation of aryl halides. It is poisonous if injected, and mildly toxic by ingestion. It is an experimental teratogen, known to irritate the skin and eyes. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl.

Lanthanum chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula LaCl3. It is a common salt of lanthanum which is mainly used in research. It is a white solid that is highly soluble in water and alcohols.

Bismuth chloride Chemical compound

Bismuth chloride (or butter of bismuth) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula BiCl3. It is a covalent compound and is the common source of the Bi3+ ion. In the gas phase and in the crystal, the species adopts a pyramidal structure, in accord with VSEPR theory.

An yttrium compound is a chemical compound containing yttrium. Among these compounds, yttrium generally has a +3 valence. The solubility properties of yttrium compounds are similar to those of the lanthanides. For example oxalates and carbonates are hardly soluble in water, but soluble in excess oxalate or carbonate solutions as complexes are formed. Sulfates and double sulfates are generally soluble. They resemble the "yttrium group" of heavy lanathanide elements.

References

  1. 1 2 Templeton, D. H.; Carter, Giles F. (1954). "The Crystal Structures of Yttrium Trichloride and Similar Compounds". J. Phys. Chem. 58 (11): 940–944. doi:10.1021/j150521a002.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 4.99. ISBN   978-1439855119.
  3. Spencer, James F. (1919), The Metals of the Rare Earths, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co, p. 135
  4. Templeton, D. H.; Carter, Giles F. (1954). "The Crystal Structures of Yttrium Trichloride and Similar Compounds". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 58 (11): 940–944. doi:10.1021/j150521a002.
  5. Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN   0-19-855370-6
  6. Meyer, G. (1989). The Ammonium Chloride Route to Anhydrous Rare Earth Chlorides-The Example of YCl3. Inorganic Syntheses. 25. pp. 146–150. doi:10.1002/9780470132562.ch35. ISBN   978-0-470-13256-2.
  7. Edelmann, F. T.; Poremba, P. (1997). Herrmann, W. A. (ed.). Synthetic Methods of Organometallic and Inorganic Chemistry. VI. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag. ISBN   978-3-13-103021-4.
  8. Taylor, M.D.; Carter, C.P. (1962). "Preparation of anhydrous lanthanide halides, especially iodides". Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry. 24 (4): 387–391. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(62)80034-7.