Niobium(III) chloride

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Niobium(III) chloride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.033.608 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 236-985-0
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/3ClH.Nb/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3
  • 1,2-dimethoxyethane complex:InChI=1S/C4H10O2.3ClH.Nb/c1-5-3-4-6-2;;;;/h3-4H2,1-2H3;3*1H;/q;;;;+3/p-3
  • [Cl-].[Cl-].[Cl-].[Nb+3]
  • 1,2-dimethoxyethane complex:COCCOC.Cl[Nb](Cl)Cl
Molar mass 199.26 g·mol−1
Appearanceblack solid
Density 3.75
Structure [1]
a = 6.744, c = 12.268
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Niobium(III) chloride also known as niobium trichloride is a compound of niobium and chlorine. The binary phase NbCl3 is not well characterized but many adducts are known.



Structure of NbCl3(dimethoxyethane)(3-hexyne). NbCl3(dme)(hexyne).png
Structure of NbCl3(dimethoxyethane)(3-hexyne).

Nb3Cl8 is produced by reduction of niobium(V) chloride with hydrogen, or just by heating.

Salt-free reduction of dimethoxyethane solution of NbCl5 with 1,4-disilyl-cyclohexadiene in the presence of 3-hexyne produces the coordination complex NbCl3(dimethoxyethane)(3-hexyne):

NbCl5 + C6H6(SiMe3)2 + C2Et2 + dme → NbCl3(dme)(C2Et2) + C6H6 + 2 Me3SiCl

An impure dimethoxyethane (dme) adduct of niobium trichloride was produced by reduction of a dme solution of niobium pentachloride with tributyltin hydride: [3]

NbCl5 + 2 Bu3SnH + MeOCH2CH2OMe → NbCl3(MeOCH2CH2OMe) + 2 Bu3SnCl


Nb3Cl8 has a hexagonal close packed array of chloride ions. Triangles of niobium occur in octahedral spaces in the chloride array. The compositions with higher chloride have some niobium atoms missing from the structure, creating vacancies and giving rise to nonstoichiometric compounds. NbCl4 has this pattern of vacancies stretched until the niobium atoms are in pairs rather than triangles. So NbCl3 can be considered as a solid solution of Nb3Cl8 and Nb2Cl8. [4]

The colour of niobium trichloride varies depending on the niobium:chloride ratio. NbCl2.67 is green, while NbCl3.13 is brown. [1]


Structure of Nb2Cl6(SMe2)3. Nb2Cl6(SMe2)3.svg
Structure of Nb2Cl6(SMe2)3.

When heated to over 600 °C niobium trichloride disproportionates to niobium metal and niobium pentachloride.


NbCl3(dimethoxyethane) has received significant attention as a reagent for reductive coupling of carbonyls and imines. [6] It is sold as a 1,2-dimethoxyethane complex. Nb(III) adducts are also known for 1,4-dioxane and diethyl ether.

Niobium(III) chloride forms a series of compounds with the formula Nb2Cl6Lx with Nb=Nb double bond. With tertiary phosphines and arsines, the complexes are edge-share bioctahedra, e.g., Nb2Cl6(PPhMe2)4. [7] Thioethers form adducts with one bridging thioether (R2S). These face-sharing bioctahedra have the formula Nb2X6(R2S)3 (X = Cl, Br).

Related Research Articles

Chromium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) describes any of several chemical compounds with the formula CrCl3 · xH2O, where x can be 0, 5, and 6. The anhydrous compound with the formula CrCl3 is a violet solid. The most common form of the trichloride is the dark green hexahydrate, CrCl3 · 6 H2O. Chromium chlorides find use as catalysts and as precursors to dyes for wool.

Nickel(II) chloride Chemical compound

Nickel(II) chloride (or just nickel chloride) is the chemical compound NiCl2. The anhydrous salt is yellow, but the more familiar hydrate NiCl2·6H2O is green. Nickel(II) chloride, in various forms, is the most important source of nickel for chemical synthesis. The nickel chlorides are deliquescent, absorbing moisture from the air to form a solution. Nickel salts have been shown to be carcinogenic to the lungs and nasal passages in cases of long-term inhalation exposure.

In chemistry, the phosphonium cation describes polyatomic cations with the chemical formula PR+
. These cations have tetrahedral structures. The salts are generally colorless or take the color of the anions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phosphorus trichloride</span> Chemical compound

Phosphorus trichloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula PCl3. A colorless liquid when pure, it is an important industrial chemical, being used for the manufacture of phosphites and other organophosphorus compounds. It is toxic and reacts readily with water to release hydrogen chloride.

Triphenylphosphine Chemical compound

Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 and often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P. It is widely used in the synthesis of organic and organometallic compounds. PPh3 exists as relatively air stable, colorless crystals at room temperature. It dissolves in non-polar organic solvents such as benzene and diethyl ether.

Rhodium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Rhodium(III) chloride refers to inorganic compounds with the formula RhCl3(H2O)n, where n varies from 0 to 3. These are diamagnetic solids featuring octahedral Rh(III) centres. Depending on the value of n, the material is either a dense brown solid or a soluble reddish salt. The soluble trihydrated (n = 3) salt is widely used to prepare compounds used in homogeneous catalysis, notably for the industrial production of acetic acid and hydroformylation.

Niobium(V) chloride Chemical compound

Niobium(V) chloride, also known as niobium pentachloride, is a yellow crystalline solid. It hydrolyzes in air, and samples are often contaminated with small amounts of NbOCl3. It is often used as a precursor to other compounds of niobium. NbCl5 may be purified by sublimation.

Tantalum(V) chloride Chemical compound

Tantalum(V) chloride, also known as tantalum pentachloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula TaCl5. It takes the form of a white powder and is commonly used as a starting material in tantalum chemistry. It readily hydrolyzes to form tantalum(V) oxychloride (TaOCl3) and eventually tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5); this requires that it be synthesised and manipulated under anhydrous conditions, using air-free techniques.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ruthenium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Ruthenium(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula RuCl3. "Ruthenium(III) chloride" more commonly refers to the hydrate RuCl3·xH2O. Both the anhydrous and hydrated species are dark brown or black solids. The hydrate, with a varying proportion of water of crystallization, often approximating to a trihydrate, is a commonly used starting material in ruthenium chemistry.

Phosphoryl chloride Chemical compound

Phosphoryl chloride is a colourless liquid with the formula POCl3. It hydrolyses in moist air releasing phosphoric acid and fumes of hydrogen chloride. It is manufactured industrially on a large scale from phosphorus trichloride and oxygen or phosphorus pentoxide. It is mainly used to make phosphate esters such as tricresyl phosphate.

McMurry reaction

The McMurry reaction is an organic reaction in which two ketone or aldehyde groups are coupled to form an alkene using a titanium chloride compound such as titanium(III) chloride and a reducing agent. The reaction is named after its co-discoverer, John E. McMurry. The McMurry reaction originally involved the use of a mixture TiCl3 and LiAlH4, which produces the active reagents. Related species have been developed involving the combination of TiCl3 or TiCl4 with various other reducing agents, including potassium, zinc, and magnesium. This reaction is related to the Pinacol coupling reaction which also proceeds by reductive coupling of carbonyl compounds.

Boron trichloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BCl3. This colorless gas is a reagent in organic synthesis. It is highly reactive toward water.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Molybdenum(V) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Molybdenum(V) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula [MoCl5]2. This dark volatile solid is used in research to prepare other molybdenum compounds. It is moisture-sensitive and soluble in chlorinated solvents. Usually called molybdenum pentachloride, it is in fact a dimer with the formula Mo2Cl10.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I)</span> Chemical compound

Chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I) or triphenylphosphinegold(I) chloride is a coordination complex with the formula (Ph3P)AuCl. This colorless solid is a common reagent for research on gold compounds.

Molybdenum tetrachloride Chemical compound

Molybdenum tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the empirical formula MoCl4. The material exists as two polymorphs, both being dark-colored paramagnetic solids. These compounds are mainly of interest as precursors to other molybdenum complexes.

Niobium(IV) chloride Chemical compound

Niobium(IV) chloride, also known as niobium tetrachloride, is the chemical compound of formula NbCl4. This compound exists as dark violet crystals, is highly sensitive to air and moisture, and disproportiates into niobium(III) chloride and niobium(V) chloride when heated.

Organoniobium chemistry is the chemistry of compounds containing niobium-carbon (Nb-C) bonds. Compared to the other group 5 transition metal organometallics, the chemistry of organoniobium compounds most closely resembles that of organotantalum compounds. Organoniobium compounds of oxidation states +5, +4, +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, and -3 have been prepared, with the +5 oxidation state being the most common.

Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl rhodium dichloride dimer Chemical compound

Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl rhodium dichloride dimer is an organometallic compound with the formula [(C5(CH3)5RhCl2)]2, commonly abbreviated [Cp*RhCl2]2 This dark red air-stable diamagnetic solid is a reagent in organometallic chemistry.

Metal arene complexes are organometallic compounds of the formula (C6R6)xMLy. Common classes of are of the type (C6R6)ML3 and (C6R6)2M. These compounds are reagents in inorganic and organic synthesis. The principles that describe arene complexes extend to related organic ligands such as many heterocycles (e.g. thiophene) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (e.g. naphthalene).

Transition metal thioether complex

Transition metal thioether complexes comprise coordination complexes of thioether (R2S) ligands. The inventory is extensive.


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