Americium(II) chloride

Last updated
Americium(II) chloride
Names
IUPAC name
Americium(II) chloride
Other names
Dichloroamericium
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/Am.2ClH/h;2*1H/q+2;;/p-2
    Key: ORMLYNFOLJPXLR-UHFFFAOYSA-L
  • Cl[Am]Cl
Properties
AmCl2
Molar mass 313.96 g/mol
AppearanceBlack
Related compounds
Other anions
Americium(II) bromide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Americium(II) chloride, also known as dichloroamericium, is the chemical compound composed of americium and chloride with the formula AmCl2. [1]

Related Research Articles

Americium Chemical element with atomic number 95

Americium is a synthetic radioactive chemical element with the symbol Am and atomic number 95. It is a transuranic member of the actinide series, in the periodic table located under the lanthanide element europium, and thus by analogy was named after the Americas.

The actinoid series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium. The actinoid series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. The informal chemical symbol An is used in general discussions of actinoid chemistry to refer to any actinoid.

Berkelium Chemical element with atomic number 97

Berkelium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the symbol Bk and atomic number 97. It is a member of the actinide and transuranium element series. It is named after the city of Berkeley, California, the location of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory where it was discovered in December 1949. Berkelium was the fifth transuranium element discovered after neptunium, plutonium, curium and americium.

Curium Chemical element with atomic number 96

Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the symbol Cm and atomic number 96. This element of the actinide series was named after Marie and Pierre Curie, both known for their research on radioactivity. Curium was first intentionally produced and identified in July 1944 by the group of Glenn T. Seaborg at the University of California, Berkeley. The discovery was kept secret and only released to the public in November 1947. Most curium is produced by bombarding uranium or plutonium with neutrons in nuclear reactors – one tonne of spent nuclear fuel contains about 20 grams of curium.

The chloride ion is the anion Cl. It is formed when the element chlorine gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating fluid in and out of cells. Less frequently, the word chloride may also form part of the "common" name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded. For example, methyl chloride, with the standard name chloromethane is an organic compound with a covalent C−Cl bond in which the chlorine is not an anion.

Potassium chloride

Potassium chloride is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. It is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance. The solid dissolves readily in water, and its solutions have a salt-like taste. Potassium chloride can be obtained from ancient dried lake deposits. KCl is used as a fertilizer, in medicine, in scientific applications, and in food processing, where it may be known as E number additive E508.

A period 7 element is one of the chemical elements in the seventh row of the periodic table of the chemical elements. The periodic table is laid out in rows to illustrate recurring (periodic) trends in the chemical behaviour of the elements as their atomic number increases: a new row is begun when chemical behaviour begins to repeat, meaning that elements with similar behaviour fall into the same vertical columns. The seventh period contains 32 elements, tied for the most with period 6, beginning with francium and ending with oganesson, the heaviest element currently discovered. As a rule, period 7 elements fill their 7s shells first, then their 5f, 6d, and 7p shells in that order, but there are exceptions, such as uranium.

Ion exchange Exchange of ions between an electrolyte solution and a solid

Ion exchange usually describes a process of purification of aqueous solutions using solid polymeric ion exchange resin. More precisely, the term encompasses a large variety of processes where ions are exchanged between two electrolytes. Aside from its use to purify drinking water, the technique is widely applied for purification and separation of a variety of industrially and medicinally important chemicals. Although the term usually refers to applications of synthetic (man-made) resins, it can include many other materials such as soil.

Triazine Aromatic, heterocyclic compound

Triazines are a class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles. The parent molecules' molecular formula is C3H3N3. They exist in three isomeric forms, 1,3,5-triazines being common.

Americium (95Am) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given. Like all artificial elements, it has no known stable isotopes. The first isotope to be synthesized was 241Am in 1944. The artificial element decays by ejecting alpha particles. Americium has an atomic number of 95.

241 is the natural number between 240 and 242. It is also a prime number.

Minor actinide

The minor actinides are the actinide elements in used nuclear fuel other than uranium and plutonium, which are termed the major actinides. The minor actinides include neptunium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium. The most important isotopes of these elements in spent nuclear fuel are neptunium-237, americium-241, americium-243, curium-242 through -248, and californium-249 through -252.

Americium dioxide (AmO2) is a black compound of americium. In the solid state AmO2 adopts the fluorite, CaF2 structure. It is used as a source of alpha particles.

Actinides in the environment refer to the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in Earth's environment. Environmental radioactivity is not limited solely to actinides; non-actinides such as radon and radium are of note. While all actinides are radioactive, there are a lot of actinides or actinide-relating minerals in the Earth's crust such as uranium and thorium. These minerals are helpful in many ways, such as carbon-dating, most detectors, X-rays, and more.

Americium(III) chloride

Americium(III) chloride or americium trichloride is the chemical compound composed of americium and chlorine with the formula AmCl3. It forms pink hexagonal crystals. In the solid state each americium atom has nine chlorine atoms as near neighbours, at approximately the same distance, in a tricapped trigonal prismatic configuration.

Americium chloride can refer to:

Americium(III) fluoride

Americium(III) fluoride or americium trifluoride is the chemical compound composed of americium and fluorine with the formula AmF3.

Americium(III) bromide or americium tribromide is the chemical compound composed of americium and bromine with the formula AmBr3, with americium in a +3 oxidation state. The compound is a crystalline solid.

Americium-241

Americium-241 (241Am, Am-241) is an isotope of americium. Like all isotopes of americium, it is radioactive, with a half-life of 432.2 years. 241Am is the most common isotope of americium as well as the most prevalent isotope of americium in nuclear waste. It is commonly found in ionization type smoke detectors and is a potential fuel for long-lifetime radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Its common parent nuclides are β from 241Pu, EC from 241Cm, and α from 245Bk. 241Am is fissile and the critical mass of a bare sphere is 57.6–75.6 kilograms and a sphere diameter of 19–21 centimeters. Americium-241 has a specific activity of 3.43 Ci/g (curies per gram or 126.8 gigabecquerels (GBq) per gram). It is commonly found in the form of americium-241 dioxide (241AmO2). This isotope also has one meta state, 241mAm, with an excitation energy of 2.2 MeV and a half-life of 1.23 μs. The presence of americium-241 in plutonium is determined by the original concentration of plutonium-241 and the sample age. Because of the low penetration of alpha radiation, americium-241 only poses a health risk when ingested or inhaled. Older samples of plutonium containing plutonium-241 contain a buildup of 241Am. A chemical removal of americium-241 from reworked plutonium (e.g. during reworking of plutonium pits) may be required in some cases.

Americium(III) oxide

Americium(III) oxide or americium sesquioxide is an oxide of the element americium. It has the empirical formula Am2O3. Since all isotopes of americium are only artificially produced, americium (III) oxide has no natural occurrence. The colour depends on the crystal structure, of which there are more than one. It is soluble in acids.

References

  1. Baybarz, R.D. (April 11, 1972). "The preparation and crystal structures of americium dichloride and dibromide". Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry. 35 (2): 483–487. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(73)80560-3.