Potassium chloride

Last updated
Potassium chloride
Potassium chloride.jpg
Potassium-chloride-3D-ionic.png
Names
Other names
Sylvite
Muriate of potash
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.374 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
E number E508 (acidity regulators, ...)
KEGG
PubChem CID
RTECS number
  • TS8050000
UNII
  • InChI=1S/ClH.K/h1H;/q;+1/p-1 Yes check.svgY
    Key: WCUXLLCKKVVCTQ-UHFFFAOYSA-M Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/ClH.K/h1H;/q;+1/p-1
    Key: WCUXLLCKKVVCTQ-REWHXWOFAZ
  • [Cl-].[K+]
Properties
KCl
Molar mass 74.555 g·mol−1
Appearancewhite crystalline solid
Odor odorless
Density 1.984 g/cm3
Melting point 770 °C (1,420 °F; 1,040 K)
Boiling point 1,420 °C (2,590 °F; 1,690 K)
27.77 g/100mL (0 °C)
33.97 g/100mL (20 °C)
54.02 g/100mL (100 °C)
Solubility Soluble in glycerol, alkalies
Slightly soluble in alcohol Insoluble in ether [1]
Solubility in ethanol 0.288 g/L (25 °C) [2]
Acidity (pKa)~7
39.0·10−6 cm3/mol
1.4902 (589 nm)
Structure
face centered cubic
Fm3m, No. 225
a = 629.2 pm [3]
Octahedral (K+)
Octahedral (Cl)
Thermochemistry
Std molar
entropy
(S298)
83 J·mol−1·K−1 [4]
−436 kJ·mol−1 [4]
Pharmacology
A12BA01 ( WHO ) B05XA01 ( WHO )
Oral, IV, IM
Pharmacokinetics:
Kidney: 90%; Fecal: 10% [5]
Hazards
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
1
0
0
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
2600 mg/kg (oral, rat) [6]
Safety data sheet (SDS) ICSC 1450
Related compounds
Other anions
Potassium fluoride
Potassium bromide
Potassium iodide
Other cations
Lithium chloride
Sodium chloride
Rubidium chloride
Caesium chloride
Ammonium chloride
Related compounds
Potassium chlorate
Potassium perchlorate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
X mark.svgN  verify  (what is  Yes check.svgYX mark.svgN ?)

Potassium chloride (KCl, or potassium salt) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. It is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance. The solid dissolves readily in water, and its solutions have a salt-like taste. Potassium chloride can be obtained from ancient dried lake deposits. [7] KCl is used as a fertilizer, [8] in medicine, in scientific applications, domestic water softeners (as a substitute for sodium chloride salt), and in food processing, where it may be known as E number additive E508.

Contents

It occurs naturally as the mineral sylvite, and in combination with sodium chloride as sylvinite. [9]

Uses

Fertilizer

The majority of the potassium chloride produced is used for making fertilizer, called potash, since the growth of many plants is limited by potassium availability. Potassium chloride sold as fertilizer is known as muriate of potash. The vast majority of potash fertilizer worldwide is sold as muriate of potash.

Potassium chloride, compacted, fertilizer grade. Compacted potassium chloride, fertilizer grade.jpg
Potassium chloride, compacted, fertilizer grade.

Medical use

Potassium is vital in the human body, and potassium chloride by mouth is the common means to treat low blood potassium, although it can also be given intravenously. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. [10] Overdose causes hyperkalemia which can disrupt cell signaling to the extent that the heart will stop, reversibly in the case of some open heart surgeries.

Culinary use

It can be used as a salt substitute for food, but due to its weak, bitter, unsalty flavor, it is often mixed with ordinary table salt (sodium chloride) to improve the taste to form low sodium salt. The addition of 1 ppm of thaumatin considerably reduces this bitterness. [11] Complaints of bitterness or a chemical or metallic taste are also reported with potassium chloride used in food. [12]

Industrial

As a chemical feedstock, it is used for the manufacture of potassium hydroxide and potassium metal. It is also used in medicine, lethal injections, scientific applications, food processing, soaps, and as a sodium-free substitute for table salt for people concerned about the health effects of sodium.

It is used as a supplement in animal feed to boost the potassium level in the feed. As an added benefit, it is known to increase milk production.

It is sometimes used in solution as a completion fluid in petroleum and natural gas operations, as well as being an alternative to sodium chloride in household water softener units.

Glass manufacturers use granular potash as a flux, lowering the temperature at which a mixture melts. Because potash imparts excellent clarity to glass, it is commonly used in eyeglasses, glassware, televisions, and computer monitors.

KCl is useful as a beta radiation source for calibration of radiation monitoring equipment, because natural potassium contains 0.0118% of the isotope 40K. One kilogram of KCl yields 16350 becquerels of radiation, consisting of 89.28% beta and 10.72% gamma, with 1.46083 MeV. In order to use off-the-shelf materials, it needs to be crystallized sequentially, using controlled temperature, in order to extract KCl, which is the subject of ongoing research. It also emits a relatively low level of 511 keV gamma rays from positron annihilation, which can be used to calibrate medical scanners.

Potassium chloride is used in some de-icing products designed to be safer for pets and plants, though these are inferior in melting quality to calcium chloride [lowest usable temperature 12 °F (−11 °C) v. −25 °F (−32 °C)]. It is also used in various brands of bottled water.

Potassium chloride was once used as a fire extinguishing agent, and in portable and wheeled fire extinguishers. Known as Super-K dry chemical, it was more effective than sodium bicarbonate-based dry chemicals and was compatible with protein foam. This agent fell out of favor with the introduction of potassium bicarbonate (Purple-K) dry chemical in the late 1960s, which was much less corrosive, as well as more effective. It is rated for B and C fires.

Along with sodium chloride and lithium chloride, potassium chloride is used as a flux for the gas welding of aluminium.

Potassium chloride is also an optical crystal with a wide transmission range from 210 nm to 20 µm. While cheap, KCl crystals are hygroscopic. This limits its application to protected environments or short-term uses such as prototyping. Exposed to free air, KCl optics will "rot". Whereas KCl components were formerly used for infrared optics, it has been entirely replaced by much tougher crystals such as zinc selenide.

Potassium chloride is used as a scotophor with designation P10 in dark-trace CRTs, e.g. in the Skiatron.

Toxicity

The typical amounts of potassium chloride found in the diet appear to be generally safe. [13] In larger quantities, however, potassium chloride is toxic. The LD50 of orally ingested potassium chloride is approximately 2.5 g/kg, or 190 grams (6.7 oz) for a body mass of 75 kilograms (165 lb). In comparison, the LD50 of sodium chloride (table salt) is 3.75 g/kg.

Intravenously, the LD50 of potassium chloride is far smaller, at about 57.2 mg/kg to 66.7 mg/kg; this is found by dividing the lethal concentration of positive potassium ions (about 30 to 35 mg/kg) [14] by the proportion by mass of potassium ions in potassium chloride (about 0.52445 mg K+/mg KCl). [15]

Chemical properties

Solubility

KCl is soluble in a variety of polar solvents.

Solubility [16]
SolventSolubility
(g/kg of solvent at 25 °C)
Water 360
Liquid ammonia 0.4
Liquid sulfur dioxide 0.41
Methanol 5.3
Ethanol 0.37
Formic acid 192
Sulfolane 0.04
Acetonitrile 0.024
Acetone 0.00091
Formamide 62
Acetamide 24.5
Dimethylformamide 0.17–0.5

Solutions of KCl are common standards, for example for calibration of the electrical conductivity of (ionic) solutions, since KCl solutions are stable, allowing for reproducible measurements. In aqueous solution, it is essentially fully ionized into solvated K+ and Cl ions.

Redox and the conversion to potassium metal

Although potassium is more electropositive than sodium, KCl can be reduced to the metal by reaction with metallic sodium at 850 °C because the more volatile potassium can be removed by distillation (see Le Chatelier's principle):

This method is the main method for producing metallic potassium. Electrolysis (used for sodium) fails because of the high solubility of potassium in molten KCl. [9]

Physical properties

"Raise banana yields using Israeli potassium chloride!", an ad above a highway in a banana-growing district of Hekou County, Yunnan, China Red River valley between Manhao and Lianhuatan - P1380210.JPG
"Raise banana yields using Israeli potassium chloride!", an ad above a highway in a banana-growing district of Hekou County, Yunnan, China

Under ambient conditions the crystal structure of potassium chloride is like that of NaCl. It adopts a face-centered cubic structure known as the B1 phase with a lattice constant of roughly 6.3 Å. Crystals cleave easily in three directions. Other polymorphic and hydrated phases are adopted at high pressures. [17]

Some other properties are

As with other compounds containing potassium, KCl in powdered form gives a lilac flame.

Production

Sylvite Sylvin (aka).jpg
Sylvite
Sylvinite Sylvinite.jpg
Sylvinite

Potassium chloride is extracted from minerals sylvite, carnallite, and potash. It is also extracted from salt water and can be manufactured by crystallization from solution, flotation or electrostatic separation from suitable minerals. It is a by-product of the production of nitric acid from potassium nitrate and hydrochloric acid.

The vast majority of potassium chloride is produced as agricultural and industrial grade potash in Saskatchewan, Canada, as well as Russia and Belarus. Saskatchewan alone accounted for over 25% of the world's potash production in 2017. [18]

Laboratory methods

Potassium chloride is inexpensively available and is rarely prepared intentionally in the laboratory. It can be generated by treating potassium hydroxide (or other potassium bases) with hydrochloric acid:

This conversion is an acid-base neutralization reaction. The resulting salt can then be purified by recrystallization. Another method would be to allow potassium to burn in the presence of chlorine gas, also a very exothermic reaction:

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potassium</span> Chemical element, symbol K and atomic number 19

Potassium is the chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number 19. Potassium is a silvery-white metal that is soft enough to be cut with a knife with little force. Potassium metal reacts rapidly with atmospheric oxygen to form flaky white potassium peroxide in only seconds of exposure. It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals, all of which have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, that is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, that combines with anions to form salts. Potassium in nature occurs only in ionic salts. Elemental potassium reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction, and burning with a lilac-colored flame. It is found dissolved in sea water, and occurs in many minerals such as orthoclase, a common constituent of granites and other igneous rocks.

In chemistry, a salt is a chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, which results in a compound with no net electric charge. A common example is table salt, with positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged chloride ions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potassium ferrocyanide</span> Chemical compound

Potassium ferrocyanide is the inorganic compound with formula K4[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O. It is the potassium salt of the coordination complex [Fe(CN)6]4−. This salt forms lemon-yellow monoclinic crystals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potash</span> Salt mixture

Potash includes various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. The name derives from pot ash, plant ashes or wood ash soaked in water in a pot, the primary means of manufacturing potash before the Industrial Era. The word potassium is derived from potash.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potassium nitrate</span> Chemical compound

Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO
3
. This alkali metal nitrate salt is also known as Indian saltpetre (large deposits of which were historically mined in India). It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3, and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate. It occurs in nature as a mineral, niter (or nitre in the UK). It is a source of nitrogen, and nitrogen was named after niter. Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter (or saltpetre in the UK).

The chloride ion is the anion Cl. It is formed when the element chlorine gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating liquid flow in and out of cells. Less frequently, the word chloride may also form part of the "common" name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded. For example, methyl chloride, with the standard name chloromethane is an organic compound with a covalent C−Cl bond in which the chlorine is not an anion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium chloride</span> Chemical compound with formula NaCl

Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In its edible form, salt is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. Another major application of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium hypochlorite</span> Chemical compound (known in solution as bleach)

Sodium hypochlorite is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula NaOCl, comprising a sodium cation and a hypochlorite anion. It may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. The anhydrous compound is unstable and may decompose explosively. It can be crystallized as a pentahydrate NaOCl·5H
2
O
, a pale greenish-yellow solid which is not explosive and is stable if kept refrigerated.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potassium hydroxide</span> Inorganic compound (KOH)

Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Precipitation (chemistry)</span> Chemical process leading to the settling of an insoluble solid from a solution

In an aqueous solution, precipitation is the process of transforming a dissolved substance into an insoluble solid from a super-saturated solution. The solid formed is called the precipitate. In case of an inorganic chemical reaction leading to precipitation, the chemical reagent causing the solid to form is called the precipitant.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potassium chlorate</span> Chemical compound

Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the molecular formula KClO3. In its pure form, it is a white crystalline substance. After sodium chlorate, it is the second most common chlorate in industrial use. It is a strong oxidizing agent and its most important application is in safety matches. In other applications it is mostly obsolete and has been replaced by safer alternatives in recent decades. It has been used

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Calcium chloride</span> Chemical compound

Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a white crystalline solid at room temperature, and it is highly soluble in water. It can be created by neutralising hydrochloric acid with calcium hydroxide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium sulfate</span> Chemical compound with formula Na2SO4

Sodium sulfate (also known as sodium sulphate or sulfate of soda) is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates. All forms are white solids that are highly soluble in water. With an annual production of 6 million tonnes, the decahydrate is a major commodity chemical product. It is mainly used as a filler in the manufacture of powdered home laundry detergents and in the Kraft process of paper pulping for making highly alkaline sulfides.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potassium perchlorate</span> Chemical compound

Potassium perchlorate is the inorganic salt with the chemical formula KClO4. Like other perchlorates, this salt is a strong oxidizer although it usually reacts very slowly with organic substances. This, usually obtained as a colorless, crystalline solid, is a common oxidizer used in fireworks, ammunition percussion caps, explosive primers, and is used variously in propellants, flash compositions, stars, and sparklers. It has been used as a solid rocket propellant, although in that application it has mostly been replaced by the higher performance ammonium perchlorate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potassium sulfate</span> Chemical compound

Potassium sulfate (US) or potassium sulphate (UK), also called sulphate of potash (SOP), arcanite, or archaically potash of sulfur, is the inorganic compound with formula K2SO4, a white water-soluble solid. It is commonly used in fertilizers, providing both potassium and sulfur.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caesium chloride</span> Chemical compound

Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula CsCl. This colorless salt is an important source of caesium ions in a variety of niche applications. Its crystal structure forms a major structural type where each caesium ion is coordinated by 8 chloride ions. Caesium chloride dissolves in water. CsCl changes to NaCl structure on heating. Caesium chloride occurs naturally as impurities in carnallite, sylvite and kainite. Less than 20 tonnes of CsCl is produced annually worldwide, mostly from a caesium-bearing mineral pollucite.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carnallite</span> Evaporite mineral

Carnallite (also carnalite) is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated potassium magnesium chloride with formula KMgCl3·6(H2O). It is variably colored yellow to white, reddish, and sometimes colorless or blue. It is usually massive to fibrous with rare pseudohexagonal orthorhombic crystals. The mineral is deliquescent (absorbs moisture from the surrounding air) and specimens must be stored in an airtight container.

A balanced salt solution (BSS) is a solution made to a physiological pH and isotonic salt concentration. Solutions most commonly include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and chloride. Balanced salt solutions are used for washing tissues and cells and are usually combined with other agents to treat the tissues and cells. They provide the cells with water and inorganic ions, while maintaining a physiological pH and osmotic pressure.

Potassium hypochlorite is the potassium salt of hypochlorous acid. It is used in variable concentrations, often diluted in water solution. It has a light grey color and a strong chlorine smell. It can be used as a disinfectant.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leonite</span> Hydrated double sulfate of magnesium and potassium

Leonite is a hydrated double sulfate of magnesium and potassium. It has the formula K2SO4·MgSO4·4H2O. The mineral was named after Leo Strippelmann, who was director of the salt works at Westeregeln in Germany. The mineral is part of the blodite group of hydrated double sulfate minerals.

References

  1. "Potassium chloride (PIM 430)". International Programme on Chemical Safety. 3.3.1 Properties of the substance. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
  2. "periodic-table-of-elements.org" (website shows values in g/100ml). Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  3. Sirdeshmukh DB, Sirdeshmukh L, Subhadra KG (2001). Alkali Halides: A Handbook of Physical Properties. Berlin: Springer. ISBN   978-3-540-42180-1.
  4. 1 2 Zumdahl SS (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A22. ISBN   978-0-618-94690-7.
  5. "Compound Summary for Potassium Chloride". PubChem. U.S. National Libary of Medicine. CID 4873. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  6. Chambers M. "7447-40-7 - WCUXLLCKKVVCTQ-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Potassium chloride [USP:JAN]". ChemIDplus. U.S. National Libary of Medicine. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  7. Rayner-Canham G (22 December 2013). Descriptive inorganic chemistry. Overton, Tina (Sixth ed.). New York, NY. ISBN   978-1-4641-2557-7. OCLC   882867766.
  8. "Potassium Fertilizers (Penn State Agronomy Guide)". Penn State Agronomy Guide (Penn State Extension). Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-10.
  9. 1 2 Burkhardt ER (2006). "Potassium and Potassium Alloys". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_031.pub2. ISBN   978-3-527-30673-2.
  10. World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl: 10665/325771 . WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  11. Lorient D, Linden G (1999). New ingredients in food processing: biochemistry and agriculture . Boca Raton: CRC Press. p.  357. ISBN   978-1-85573-443-2. ... in dietary food containing potassium chloride, thaumatin added in the ratio of 1 ppm considerably reduces the sensation of bitterness. ...
  12. Sinopoli DA, Lawless HT (September 2012). "Taste properties of potassium chloride alone and in mixtures with sodium chloride using a check-all-that-apply method". Journal of Food Science. 77 (9): S319–S322. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02862.x. PMID   22901084.
  13. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. "GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Database - Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Potassium chloride". www.fda.gov. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  14. Bhatkhande CY, Joglekar VD (1977-01-01). "Fatal poisoning by potassium in human and rabbit". Forensic Science. 9 (1): 33–36. doi:10.1016/0300-9432(77)90062-0. PMID   838413.
  15. "Molecular weight of KCl". www.convertunits.com. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
  16. Burgess J (1978). Metal Ions in Solution. New York: Ellis Horwood. ISBN   978-0-85312-027-8.[ page needed ]
  17. Yamashita K, Komatsu K, Kagi H (December 2022). "Crystal structure of potassium chloride monohydrate: water intercalation into the B1 structure of KCl under high pressure". Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry. 78 (Pt 12): 749–754. doi:10.1107/S2053229622011135. PMC   9720884 . PMID   36468558.
  18. "Mineral Commodity Summaries" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. January 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 January 2019.

Further reading

123456789