Arsenic pentachloride

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Arsenic pentachloride
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Names
IUPAC name
arsenic pentachloride
Other names
arsenic(v) chloride
Identifiers
  • 22441-45-8 Yes check.svgY
3D model (JSmol)
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/AsCl5/c2-1(3,4,5)6
    Key: ZSRZHCIWJJKHAU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Cl[As](Cl)(Cl)(Cl)Cl
Properties
AsCl5
Molar mass 252.1866 g/mol
Melting point −50 °C (−58 °F; 223 K)
Hazards
GHS labelling:
GHS-pictogram-silhouette.svg
Danger
H280, H350, H361, H370, H372
P201, P202, P260, P264, P270, P281, P307+P311, P308+P313, P314, P321, P405, P410+P403, P501
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
[1910.1018] TWA 0.010 mg/m3 [1]
REL (Recommended)
Ca C 0.002 mg/m3 [15-minute] [1]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Ca [5 mg/m3 (as As)] [1]
Structure
Trigonal Bipyramidal (D3h)
Related compounds
Related group 5 chlorides
Phosphorus pentachloride
Antimony pentachloride
Related compounds
Arsenic pentafluoride
Arsenic trichloride
Arsenic pentoxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Arsenic pentachloride is a chemical compound of arsenic and chlorine. [2] This compound was first prepared in 1976 through the UV irradiation of arsenic trichloride, AsCl3, in liquid chlorine at −105 °C. [3] AsCl5 decomposes at around −50 °C. The structure of the solid was finally determined in 2001. [4] AsCl5 is similar to phosphorus pentachloride, PCl5 in having a trigonal bipyramidal structure where the equatorial bonds are shorter than the axial bonds (As-Cleq = 210.6 pm, 211.9 pm; As-Clax= 220.7 pm).

The pentachlorides of the elements above and below arsenic in group 15, phosphorus pentachloride and antimony pentachloride are much more stable and the instability of AsCl5 appears anomalous. The cause is believed to be due to incomplete shielding of the nucleus in the 4p elements following the first transition series (i.e. gallium, germanium, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and krypton) which leads to stabilisation of their 4s electrons making them less available for bonding. This effect has been termed the d-block contraction and is similar to the f-block contraction normally termed the lanthanide contraction.

Related Research Articles

Bromine Chemical element, symbol Br and atomic number 35

Bromine is a chemical element with the symbol Br and atomic number 35. It is the third-lightest halogen, and is a volatile red-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates readily to form a similarly coloured vapour. Its properties are intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine. Isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Jérôme Balard, its name was derived from the Ancient Greek βρῶμος ("stench"), referring to its sharp and pungent smell.

Chlorine Chemical element, symbol Cl and atomic number 17

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the revised Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine. On several scales other than the revised Pauling scale, nitrogen's electronegativity is also listed as greater than chlorine's, such as on the Allen, Allred-Rochow, Martynov-Batsanov, Mulliken-Jaffe, Nagle, and Noorizadeh-Shakerzadeh electronegativity scales.

Arsine Chemical compound

Arsine (IUPAC name: arsane) is an inorganic compound with the formula AsH3. This flammable, pyrophoric, and highly toxic pnictogen hydride gas is one of the simplest compounds of arsenic. Despite its lethality, it finds some applications in the semiconductor industry and for the synthesis of organoarsenic compounds. The term arsine is commonly used to describe a class of organoarsenic compounds of the formula AsH3−xRx, where R = aryl or alkyl. For example, As(C6H5)3, called triphenylarsine, is referred to as "an arsine".

Chlorine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ClF3. This colorless, poisonous, corrosive, and extremely reactive gas condenses to a pale-greenish yellow liquid, the form in which it is most often sold (pressurized at room temperature). The compound is primarily of interest as a component in rocket fuels, in plasmaless cleaning and etching operations in the semiconductor industry, in nuclear reactor fuel processing, and other industrial operations.

Thionyl chloride Chemical compound

Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl
2
. It is a moderately volatile colourless liquid with an unpleasant acrid odour. Thionyl chloride is primarily used as a chlorinating reagent, with approximately 45,000 tonnes per year being produced during the early 1990s, but is occasionally also used as a solvent. It is toxic, reacts with water, and is also listed under the Chemical Weapons Convention as it may be used for the production of chemical weapons.

In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is the measure of its combining capacity with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.

Phosphorus pentachloride Chemical compound

Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5. It is one of the most important phosphorus chlorides, others being PCl3 and POCl3. PCl5 finds use as a chlorinating reagent. It is a colourless, water-sensitive and moisture-sensitive solid, although commercial samples can be yellowish and contaminated with hydrogen chloride.

Phosphorus trichloride Chemical compound

Phosphorus trichloride is a inorganic compound with the chemical formula PCl3. A colorless liquid when pure, it is an important industrial chemical, being used for the manufacture of phosphites and other organophosphorus compounds. It is toxic and reacts violently with water to release hydrogen chloride.

Stibine Chemical compound

Stibine (IUPAC name: stibane) is a chemical compound with the formula SbH3. A pnictogen hydride, this colourless gas is the principal covalent hydride of antimony, and a heavy analogue of ammonia. The molecule is pyramidal with H–Sb–H angles of 91.7° and Sb–H distances of 170.7 pm (1.707 Å). This gas has an offensive smell like hydrogen sulfide (rotten eggs).

Niobium(V) chloride Chemical compound

Niobium(V) chloride, also known as niobium pentachloride, is a yellow crystalline solid. It hydrolyzes in air, and samples are often contaminated with small amounts of NbOCl3. It is often used as a precursor to other compounds of niobium. NbCl5 may be purified by sublimation.

Tantalum(V) chloride Chemical compound

Tantalum(V) chloride, also known as tantalum pentachloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula TaCl5. It takes the form of a white powder and is commonly used as a starting material in tantalum chemistry. It readily hydrolyzes to form tantalum(V) oxychloride (TaOCl3) and eventually tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5); this requires that it be synthesised and manipulated under anhydrous conditions, using air-free techniques.

Phosphoryl chloride Chemical compound

Phosphoryl chloride is a colourless liquid with the formula POCl3. It hydrolyses in moist air releasing phosphoric acid and fumes of hydrogen chloride. It is manufactured industrially on a large scale from phosphorus trichloride and oxygen or phosphorus pentoxide. It is mainly used to make phosphate esters such as tricresyl phosphate.

Arsenic pentoxide Chemical compound

Arsenic pentoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula As2O5. This glassy, white, deliquescent solid is relatively unstable, consistent with the rarity of the As(V) oxidation state. More common, and far more important commercially, is arsenic(III) oxide (As2O3). All inorganic arsenic compounds are highly toxic and thus find only limited commercial applications.

Antimony pentachloride Chemical compound

Antimony pentachloride is a chemical compound with the formula SbCl5. It is a colourless oil, but typical samples are yellowish due to dissolved chlorine. Owing to its tendency to hydrolyse to hydrochloric acid, SbCl5 is a highly corrosive substance and must be stored in glass or PTFE containers.

Molybdenum(V) chloride Chemical compound

Molybdenum(V) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula [MoCl5]2. This dark volatile solid is used in research to prepare other molybdenum compounds. It is moisture-sensitive and soluble in chlorinated solvents. Usually called molybdenum pentachloride, it is in fact a dimer with the formula Mo2Cl10.

Selenium tetrafluoride Chemical compound

Selenium tetrafluoride (SeF4) is an inorganic compound. It is a colourless liquid that reacts readily with water. It can be used as a fluorinating reagent in organic syntheses (fluorination of alcohols, carboxylic acids or carbonyl compounds) and has advantages over sulfur tetrafluoride in that milder conditions can be employed and it is a liquid rather than a gas.

Antimony trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF3. Sometimes called Swarts' reagent, is one of two principal fluorides of antimony, the other being SbF5. It appears as a white solid. As well as some industrial applications, it is used as a reagent in inorganic and organofluorine chemistry.

Rhenium pentachloride Chemical compound

Rhenium pentachloride is an inorganic compound of chlorine and rhenium. The compound has the formula Re2Cl10 but it is usually referred to as rhenium pentachloride. It is a red-brown solid.

Konrad Seppelt

Konrad Seppelt is a academic author, professor and former vice president of the Free University Berlin.

Molecular oxohalides (oxyhalides) are a group of chemical compounds in which both oxygen and halogen atoms are attached to another chemical element A in a single molecule. They have the general formula AOmXn, X = F, Cl, Br, I. The element A may be a main group element, a transition element or an actinide. The term oxohalide, or oxyhalide, may also refer to minerals and other crystalline substances with the same overall chemical formula, but having an ionic structure.

References

  1. 1 2 3 NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0038". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  2. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN   978-0-08-037941-8.
  3. K. Seppelt (1976). "Arsenic Pentachloride, AsCl5". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 15 (6): 377–378. doi:10.1002/anie.197603771.
  4. Haupt S, Seppelt K (2002). "Solid State Structures of AsCl5 and SbCl5". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie. 628 (4): 729–734. doi:10.1002/1521-3749(200205)628:4<729::AID-ZAAC729>3.0.CO;2-E.